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Results 201 - 250 of 1919
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Naresh Ram - - 2009
Brachyspira pilosicoli is an anaerobic spirochete that has received relatively little study, partly due to its specialized culture requirements and slow growth. This bacterium colonizes the large intestine of various species, including humans; typically, a dense layer of spirochete cells may be found intimately attached by one cell end to ...
Shorning Boris Y - - 2009
The Lkb1 tumour suppressor is a multitasking kinase participating in a range of physiological processes. We have determined the impact of Lkb1 deficiency on intestinal homeostasis, particularly focussing on secretory cell differentiation and development since we observe strong expression of Lkb1 in normal small intestine Paneth and goblet cells. We ...
Beltinger Johannes - - 2008
AIM: To study the mechanisms by which Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) causes inflammation and diarrhea. In particular, direct interactions with intestinal epithelial cells and effects on barrier function are poorly under-stood. METHODS: To model the initial pathogenic effects of C. jejuni on intestinal epithelium, polarized human colonic HCA-7 monolayers were ...
Whitehead Robert H - - 2009
It has proved to be impossible to culture epithelial cells from the gastrointestinal tract of adult animals. Researchers have had to use either cell lines derived from newborn rat small intestine or colon carcinoma cell lines that have retained some of the properties of the gastrointestinal mucosa. We have described ...
Dydensborg Anders Bondo - - 2009
The integrin alpha6 subunit exists as two different variants, termed alpha6A and alpha6B. These two variants have been shown to harbor potentially distinct biochemical properties but little is known about their cellular function. The aim of this work was to characterize the expression of the integrin alpha6A and B variants ...
Freeman Hugh-James - - 2008
The intestinal epithelial lining plays a central role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, but exists in a harsh luminal environment that necessitates continual renewal. This renewal process involves epithelial cell proliferation in the crypt base and later cell migration from the crypt base to the luminal surface. This ...
Yagiz Kader - - 2008
tNOX (ENOX2), a cancer-specific and growth-related cell surface protein with protein disulfide-thiol interchange and hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase activities was overexpressed in a transgenic mouse model. Female transgenic mice grew faster than wild type as did embryonic fibroblast cells prepared from the transgenic mice. The tissue expression of tNOX mRNA was ...
Vaishnava Shipra S The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, - - 2008
The intestinal epithelium is in direct contact with a vast microbiota, yet little is known about how epithelial cells defend the host against the heavy bacterial load. To address this question we studied Paneth cells, a key small intestinal epithelial lineage. We found that Paneth cells directly sense enteric bacteria ...
Samuel S S Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, C Floor, West Block, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG72UH, United - - 2009
Colonic epithelial stem cells are believed to be located at the crypt base where they have previously been shown to express musashi-1. The colonic stem cell niche, which includes extracellular matrix and myofibroblasts (together with other cell types), is likely to be important in maintaining the function of the progenitor ...
Chae Boah - - 2009
The crypt-villi axis of intestinal mucosa maintains homeostasis by renewal of epithelia, and also exhibits different properties from undifferentiated to terminally differentiated cells. We investigated differential susceptibility to genotoxin-induced cell death, based on the degree of differentiation of epithelial cells, and its mechanism. Differentiation was induced by post-confluence culture in ...
Mac Donal Oscar - - 2008
The isolation of viable enterocytes, villi and crypts from the small intestine of a feral bird (Columba livia) is important for performing physiological experiments in ecologically relevant processes of membrane transport. The effectiveness of mechanical disruption, enzymatic digestion and chelating agents were compared. The objectives were to isolate enterocytes, villi ...
Enslin Gill M - - 2008
Although many absorption enhancers have been investigated, very few are used clinically. A need exists therefore for more effective absorption enhancers. The drug-absorption-enhancing effects of combinations of N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) with degrees of quaternization of 48 and 64%, dicarboxymethyl chitosan oligosaccharide, and chitosan lactate oligomer with monocaprin and melittin ...
Okamoto Ryuichi - - 2009
Notch signaling regulates cell differentiation and proliferation, contributing to the maintenance of diverse tissues including the intestinal epithelia. However, its role in tissue regeneration is less understood. Here, we show that Notch signaling is activated in a greater number of intestinal epithelial cells in the inflamed mucosa of colitis. Inhibition ...
Stringer Andrea M - - 2009
PURPOSE: Mucositis is a major oncological problem, caused by the cytotoxic effects of cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Irinotecan is used to treat a variety of solid tumours, through the inhibition of DNA topoisomerase I and is linked with severe mucositis and diarrhoea. Mucus production appears to be increased, which may ...
Agace William W - - 2008
The intestinal epithelium and underlying lamina propria contains large numbers of T cells that play an important role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and defense against intestinal pathogens. Recent years have seen several significant advances in our understanding of the mechanisms regulating T-cell localization to the intestinal mucosa. For instance, we ...
Siddiqui K R R - - 2008
There is evidence that Foxp3(+) regulatory T (T(R)) cells contribute to intestinal homeostasis and that deficiencies in this population can lead to chronic intestinal inflammation. Here, we review recent studies that demonstrate that the gut is a site of peripheral generation of T(R) cells. Functionally specialized gut dendritic cell populations ...
Couesnon Aurélie - - 2009
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are often acquired from the digestive tract and specifically target neuromuscular junctions where they cause an inhibition of acetylcholine release. A transcytotic mechanism has been evidenced in epithelial intestinal cells, which delivers whole BoNTs across the intestinal barrier, whereas BoNTs enter motoneurons through a pathway that permits ...
Sugawara Tatsuya - - 2009
We recently found that peridinin, which is uniquely present in dinoflagellates, reduced cell viability by inducing apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. Peridinin is also found in edible clams and oysters because the major food sources of those shellfish are phytoplanktons such as dinoflagellates. Little is known, however, about the ...
Lee Byung Cheol - - 2008
During Vibrio vulnificus infection, V. vulnificus reaches the intestine and then invades the bloodstream by crossing the intestinal mucosal barrier of the host, which results in systemic septicemia. Previously, we reported that the RtxA toxin secreted through the RtxE transporter contributes to the cytotoxicity of V. vulnificus against intestinal epithelial ...
Suzuki Yasushi A - - 2008
Human lactoferrin (hLf) has been shown to interact with cells from the Caco-2 human small intestinal cell line. There currently is little information about the molecular details of its interaction. As a first step toward detailed characterization of this interaction, we used a series of Lf chimeras to analyze which ...
Stamm Ivonne - - 2008
Bovine colonic crypt cells express CD77 molecules that potentially act as receptors for Shiga toxins (Stx). The implication of this finding for the intestinal colonization of cattle by human pathogenic Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remains undefined. We used flow cytometric and real-time PCR analyses of primary cultures of colonic crypt ...
Micale V - - 2008
The ontogeny of the digestive tract was studied histologically and histochemically in sharpsnout sea bream Diplodus puntazzo from hatching (0 DAH, Days After Hatching) until day 57 (57 DAH). At hatching, the digestive tract appeared as a histologically undifferentiated straight tube lying dorsally to the yolk sac. When the mouth ...
Rhoads J Marc - - 2008
In intestinal cells, arginine (Arg) is 1 of the 2 most potent amino acid activators of p70(s6k), a key regulator of 5'- terminal oligopyrimidine mRNA translation, a necessary condition for increased cell migration. To investigate the mechanism of response to Arg, we used the rat crypt cell line cdx2-transformed IEC-6 ...
Hirotani Yoshihiko - - 2008
Indirect evidence suggests that lactoferrin (Lf), a major iron-binding protein in human milk, induces enterocyte growth and proliferation, depending on its concentration and affects the function and permeability of the intestinal mucosa. The bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) is known to cause mucosal hyperpermeability in vivo. However, protective effects of Lf ...
Miyata Tohru - - 2008
Functional maturation of the small intestine occurs during the weaning period in rats. It is known that this development is facilitated by glucocorticoid. However, the effect of glucocorticoid on morphological development of small intestine has yet to be clarified. The present study evaluated the morphological development and cell proliferation of ...
Atanasov Atanas G - - 2008
Glucocorticoids are anti-inflammatory steroids with important applications in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Endogenous glucocorticoids are mainly produced by the adrenal glands, although there is increasing evidence for extra-adrenal sources. Recent findings show that intestinal crypt cells produce glucocorticoids, which contribute to the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis. Intestinal glucocorticoid ...
Wan Bingbing - - 2008
We describe a novel secreted protein, named hOLFML1 (human olfactomedin-like protein 1), with an olfectamine domain in its C-terminus, mainly expressed in the small intestine, liver, lung and heart. Immunohistochemical staining on human small intestine indicated that the protein localizes preferentially in the intestinal villi. Interestingly, ectopic hOLFML1 promoted proliferation ...
Bezençon C - - 2008
To determine the role in chemosensation of intestinal solitary cells that express taste receptors and Trpm5, we carried out a microarray study of the transcriptome of FACS-sorted transgenic mouse intestinal cells expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of the Trpm5 promoter and compared it with that of ...
Kirkeby Svend - - 2008
Allergic asthmatic inflammation in mice was induced by sensitization with ovalbumin and lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli and visualized in the airways of asthmatic mice by spatial and temporal changes of carbohydrates containing sialic acid residues. Immunohistochemistry was used to demonstrate binding of lectins and antibodies that detect alpha2-3- and alpha2-6-linked ...
Song Juquan - - 2008
Secondary infections after burn are common and are a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. We previously showed that burn disrupted proximal gut mucosal homeostasis through increased epithelial cell apoptosis. In the present study, we sought to determine whether proximal gut mucosal disruption is additively affected by secondary endotoxemia after ...
Fischer Jared M - - 2008
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in somatic cells can contribute to the genesis of cancer, but little is known about the frequency with which LOH occurs in normal cells of the body. To detect LOH in situ, we studied mouse shYFP embryonic stem (ES) cells and cells of the intestinal epithelia ...
Gagnon Jeffrey - - 2009
The family of serine proteases known as the proprotein convertases subtilisin/kexin type (PCSK) is responsible for the cleavage and maturation of many precursor hormones. Over its three successive regions, the duodenum, the jejunum and the ileum, the small intestine (SI) expresses over 40 peptide hormones necessary for normal intestinal physiology. ...
Rubio Carlos A - - 2009
Eighty-three duodenal adenomas were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and with anti-lysozyme immunostain. Mature Paneth cells were those showing coarse brightly red cytoplasmic granules in H&E stain and Paneth cell precursors were those lysozyme-expressing cells that had remained undetected in H&E stain. In the adenomas, the number of mature Paneth cells/high ...
Upreti Raj K - - 2008
The intestinal bacteria are known to play a significant role in intestinal homoeostasis and the mucosal immune system. In vitro interactions of Ampicillin (0.5-2.0 microg mL(-1)), Amphotericin-B (25-200 microg mL(-1)) and Ciprofloxacin (50-500 ng mL(-1)) with Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. (Gram-negative), Lactobacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp. (Gram-positive), total mixed population of ...
Kim Younghoon - - 2008
The intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) layer of the intestinal tract makes direct contact with a number of microbiota communities, including bacteria known to have deleterious health effects. IECs possess innate protective strategies against pathogenic challenge, which primarily involve the formation of a physicochemical barrier. Intestinal tract mucins are principal components ...
Palomba Annarita - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The association between intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma and the occupational exposure to leather dusts has been widely documented, but the identification of precursor lesions in exposed workers has remained controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the histological changes and modifications in the phenotype of epithelial cells in ...
Di Sabatino Antonio - - 2008
Paneth cells, granulated epithelial cells located at the base of small bowel crypts, have a crucial role in innate immunity. Because controversies remain concerning Paneth cell numbers and function in celiac disease (CD), we quantified Paneth cells and human alpha-defensin (HD)-5 and HD-6 in 28 patients with uncomplicated CD, 8 ...
Terahara Kazutaka - - 2008
Separate populations of M cells have been detected in the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patches (PPs) and the villous epithelium of the small intestine, but the traits shared by or distinguishing the two populations have not been characterized. Our separate study has demonstrated that a potent mucosal modulator cholera toxin ...
Kanaya Takashi - - 2008
M cells are a kind of intestinal epithelial cell in the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patches. These cells can transport antigens and microorganisms into underlying lymphoid tissues. Despite the important role of M cells in mucosal immune responses, the origin and mechanisms of differentiation as well as cell death of ...
Lagapa J T - - 2008
Rats infected with the larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis harbour the intermediate stage of the parasite Strobilocercus fasciolaris within the liver. Affected animals also develop gastric and intestinal hyperplasia. The pathogenesis of the gastric hyperplasia has been extensively investigated, but few studies have addressed the nature of the intestinal changes. This ...
Grosche A - - 2008
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The cytosolic protein complex, calprotectin, is abundant in neutrophils and could be used to improve the ability to localise and assess neutrophil infiltration in the equine intestine during ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R), but further study is required. OBJECTIVES: To assess the number of calprotectin-containing cells by ...
Yasuda Kazuto - - 2008
We have investigated several in silico and in vitro methods to improve our ability to predict potential drug interactions of antibiotics. Our focus was to identify those antibiotics that activate pregnane X receptor (PXR) and induce CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes and intestinal cells. Human PXR activation was screened using reporter ...
de Luna Maria das Graças Md Division of Immunity and Infection, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, - - 2008
Abstract Escherichia coli is a versatile organism capable of causing a variety of intestinal and extraintestinal diseases, as well as existing as part of the commensal flora. A variety of factors permit specific attachment to host receptors including fimbrial adhesins and outer membrane proteins such as autotransporters. One of the ...
Mathew Sijo - - 2008
The ubiquitously expressed Src tyrosine kinases (c-Src, c-Yes, and c-Fyn) regulate intestinal cell growth and differentiation. Src activity is also elevated in the majority of malignant and premalignant tumors of the colon. The development of fibroblasts with the three ubiquitously expressed kinases deleted (SYF cells) has identified the role of ...
George, Michael D
Abstract Background The small intestinal epithelium mediates vital functions of nutrient absorption and host defense. The spatial organization of the epithelial cells along the crypt-villus axis segregates them into regions of specialized function. However, the differences in transcriptional programming and the molecular machinery that governs the migration, adhesion, and differentiation ...
Ardesjö Brita - - 2008
BACKGROUND: A number of autoantibodies have been reported in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent sera from patients with IBD contain autoantibodies directed against normal human gastrointestinal mucosa. METHODS: Samples of sera from 50 patients with IBD and 50 healthy subjects ...
D'Errico I - - 2008
The intestinal epithelium is structured in crypt-villus units which are responsible for its continuous renewal. These units are organized in a dynamic scenario in which proliferating progenitor cells are generated from stem cells in the crypts and migrate along the villus axis until their extrusion as differentiated cells at the ...
Rubio Carlos A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In the normal duodenum, Paneth cells migrate from the stem cells downwards, towards the bottom of the crypts of Lieberkuhn. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The spatial position of Paneth cells within the profile of histological sections was investigated with hematoxilin and eosin (H&E) in 6 duodenal adenomas; 2 of them ...
Talukder Jamilur R - - 2008
Glutamine, the primary metabolic fuel for the mammalian small intestinal enterocytes, is primarily assimilated by Na-amino acid cotransporters. Although Na-solute cotransport has been shown to exist in the brush border membrane (BBM) of the absorptive villus cells, the identity of Na-glutamine cotransport in rabbit small intestinal villus cells was unknown. ...
Lindfors K - - 2008
Wheat gliadin induces severe intestinal symptoms and small-bowel mucosal damage in coeliac disease patients. At present, the only effective treatment for the disease is a strict life-long gluten-free diet. In this study we investigated whether probiotics Lactobacillus fermentum or Bifidobacterium lactis can inhibit the toxic effects of gliadin in intestinal ...
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