Search Results
Results 151 - 200 of 1918
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Chen Gang - - 2009
Various acute and chronic inflammatory stimuli increase the number and activity of pulmonary mucus-producing goblet cells, and goblet cell hyperplasia and excess mucus production are central to the pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary diseases. However, little is known about the transcriptional programs that regulate goblet cell differentiation. Here, we show that ...
Suzuki K - - 2009
Immunoglobulin (Ig) A is the most abundant antibody isotype in mucosal secretions. In this study we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the compartments and mechanisms of intestinal IgA synthesis. We discuss the pathways leading to the generation of IgA(+) B cells in follicular and extra-follicular structures, by T-cell-dependent ...
Bertrand Paul P - - 2010
The afferent innervation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract consists of intrinsic and extrinsic sensory neurons that respond to nutrients, chemicals or mechanical stimuli within the gut lumen. Most stimuli do not interact directly with the afferent nerves but instead activate specialised cells in the epithelium in a process of sensory ...
Khambualai O - - 2009
1. The effect of a low dietary chitosan content (06 g/kg) on growth performance, carcase quality, visceral organs and intestinal morphology was studied. 2. A total of 24 male Marshall Chunky broiler chicks were fed on a commercial basal diet with 0 (control) and 06 g/kg chitosan until 7 weeks ...
Yan H Y - - 2009
Histological sections of the tentacles of Ancistrus triradiatus revealed that they contain many goblet cells with granule-like sections distributed along the edge of the tentacles (mean 302 cells mm(-1)). Various histochemical methods were used to characterize the contents of the goblet cells. The results indicated that the contents were periodic ...
Chatterjee Madhurima M Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, - - 2009
Stem cell-mediated tissue repair is a promising approach for many diseases. Mammalian intestine is an actively regenerating tissue such that epithelial cells are constantly shedding and underlying precursor cells are constantly replenishing the loss of cells. An imbalance of these processes will lead to intestinal diseases including inflammation and cancer. ...
Hira Tohru - - 2009
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is released from enteroendocrine cells (L cells) in response to food ingestion. The mechanism by which dietary peptides stimulate GLP-1 secretion in the gut is unknown. In the present study, we found that a hydrolysate prepared from zein, a major corn protein [zein hydrolysate (ZeinH)], strongly stimulates ...
Turner Jonathan - - 2009
Respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are characterized by increased numbers of goblet cells and excessive mucus production, which contribute to the underlying disease pathology. Mucins form a major component of the mucus contributing to its viscoelastic properties, and in the airways the mucins MUC5AC ...
Riddell Robert H - - 2009
The definition of Barrett's esophagus (BE) varies worldwide, particularly with regard to the need to identify goblet cells in esophageal biopsies in order to diagnose this condition. Problems related to the need to identify goblet cells to diagnose BE include the facts that goblet cells are uncommon in pediatric patients ...
Alsaad Khaled O KO Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, - - 2009
Goblet cell carcinoid is an uncommon primary tumor of the vermiform appendix, characterized by dual endocrine and glandular differentiation. Whether goblet cell carcinoid represents a morphological variant of appendiceal classical carcinoid or a mucin-producing adenocarcinoma is a matter of conjecture. Rare cases of goblet cell carcinoid with other concomitant appendiceal ...
Visco Vincenzo - - 2009
The effects exerted by the keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) on intestinal epithelial cells cultured in vitro are influenced by cell confluence and differentiation through the modulation of keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR) expression. In order to better define the contribution of KGF on the intestinal epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation, ...
Schaart Maaike W - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Information on epithelial functions of the residual small or colonic bowel after resection for necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in human infants is scarce. Our aim is to evaluate epithelial functions in the intestinal resection margins of tissue obtained at bowel resection for acute NEC and consecutive stoma closure. MATERIALS AND ...
Hahn Hejin P - - 2009
Barrett esophagus (BE) is defined by the presence of metaplastic esophageal columnar epithelium with goblet cells within endoscopically recognizable areas of the esophagus. However, some carcinomas in BE, or from the gastroesophageal junction region, develop within mucosa devoid of goblet cells. However, the biologic properties, pathogenesis, and risk of malignancy ...
Tian J Y - - 2009
The ontogeny of IgM-producing cells was studied in juvenile mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi, an important fish in China's aquaculture sector. The IgM-producing cells were localised through in situ hybridisation with a probe complementary to the Ig mu-chain in lymphoid-related tissues, including head kidney, spleen, thymus, intestine and gills. In head ...
Wang Jing - - 2009
M cells assist mucosal immune surveillance by transcytosis of particles to underlying lymphoid tissue, but the mechanisms of M cell differentiation are poorly understood. To develop a better defined cell culture model of M cell differentiation, we treated human (Caco-2BBe) and rat (IEC-6) intestinal epithelial cell lines with lymphotoxin beta ...
Dullens Stefan P J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Increasing HDL cholesterol concentrations by stimulating de-novo apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) production in the liver and/or in the small intestine is a potential strategy to reduce coronary heart disease risk. Although there is quite some knowledge concerning regulatory effects in the liver, less is known concerning potential agents that could ...
Qi Wang-Mei - - 2009
The aim of this study was to clarify the regulatory effects of epithelial kinetics on indigenous bacterial proliferation in the large intestine. The lifespan, migration speed and proliferation rate of crypt epithelial cells in the initial 20% of the colon (proximal colon) and the 50% of the colon (middle colon) ...
Mayer Kristina - - 2009
IEC6 cells were used as an in vitro model system to study the effects of cell damage caused by mechanical manipulation of intestine epithelial cells. We constructed an apparatus that allowed analyzing the consequences of mechanical compression in a standardized and reproducible manner. Manipulation of IEC6 cells induced necrosis rather ...
Chen Yi-Hua - - 2009
Both antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-mediated knockdown and overexpression experiments were performed to analyze zebrafish cdx1b's function in intestinal cell differentiation. Substantial reductions in goblet cell numbers were detected in intestines of 102- and 120-hours post-fertilization (hpf) cdx1b MO-injected embryos (morphants) compared to cdx1b-4-base mismatched (4mm)-MO-injected and wild type embryos. A ...
Watson Alastair J M AJ School of Clinical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, England. - - 2009
The intestinal epithelium forms a barrier between the gut lumen and the body. The barrier is potentially challenged by the high turnover of epithelial cells being shed. Our laboratories have shown that the epithelium is punctuated by discontinuities called "gaps" that have the diameter of an epithelial cell and are ...
Yuan Haodan - - 2009
Generating a phosphate prodrug is one of the common approaches for circumventing poor solubility issues of a parent drug. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level was determined in rat intestine mucosa scraps, human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells, and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to characterize in vitro models for ALP-mediated phosphate prodrug ...
Walsh R - - 2009
Infection of mice with the parasite Trichinella spiralis leads to small intestinal inflammation, characterized by changes in mucosal architecture and subpopulations of epithelial cells. This model has been used to explore changes in the epithelial proliferative cell population and expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Histochemical and immunohistochemical studies were ...
Cantarelli João Carlos JC - - 2009
CONTEXT: Barrett's esophagus is characterized by the presence of goblet cells. However, when alcian-blue is utilized, another type of cells, called columnar blue cells, is frequently present in the distal esophagus of patients with endoscopic evidence of Barrett's esophagus. Cytokeratin 7 and 20 immunoreactivity has been previously studied in areas ...
Qi Wang-Mei - - 2009
The relationship between the kinetics of villous columnar epithelial cells and the expansion of colonies of indigenous bacteria from the narrow apical portions of intestinal villi was immunohistochemically and histoplanimetrically investigated in the small intestine of bromodeoxyuridine administred Wistar rats. As a result, the lifespan of villous columnar epithelial cells ...
Milla Peter J - - 2009
The colon is an organ of conservation that salvages water, electrolytes, and energy. The organization of colonic function is determined by the roles played by the luminal flora, the function of the different mucosal epithelial cell types, immunocompetent cells, and the neuromusculature. These different components of the colon interact with ...
Chen Jie - - 2009
Multiple elements are known to participate in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-mediated tissue injury. Amongst them, B cells have been shown to contribute by the production of antibodies that bind to ischemic cells and fix complement. It is currently unknown whether B cells participate through antibody-independent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of I/R. In ...
Huang Emina H - - 2009
Although the concept that cancers originate from stem cells (SC) is becoming scientifically accepted, mechanisms by which SC contribute to tumor initiation and progression are largely unknown. For colorectal cancer (CRC), investigation of this problem has been hindered by a paucity of specific markers for identification and isolation of SC ...
Koo Bon-Kyoung - - 2009
The intestinal epithelium consists of EphB2-positive proliferative basal cryptic cells and EphrinB1-positive, postmitotic differentiated cells. We investigated the effects of Notch signaling on formation of the EphB2-EphrinB1 boundary using mouse and tissue culture models. We created mice in which Mind bomb-1 (Mib1), an essential E3 ubiquitin ligase that activates Notch ...
Ochola, Beldinah Rachel
Although Giardia duodenalis is one of the most common intestinal protozoan parasites world-wide, the pathogenesis of giardiasis is not understood. An attempt to correlate parasite excretory-secretory products with changes in the intestinal mucosa using an in vitro cell model was carried out to better understand this aspect of the pathogenesis. ...
Vieth M - - 2009
The identification of patients with "bad Barrett's" who are at risk of neoplastic progression is a vital and pressing task. The view that specialized intestinal metaplasia with goblet cells is the predominant preneoplastic phenotype has had wide, but by no means universal, acceptance. An important caveat is presented in the ...
Liu Weitian - - 2009
The mucosa of patients with columnar-lined esophagus recognized on endoscopy usually shows epithelium with and without goblet cells. Columnar epithelium with goblet cells ("Barrett's esophagus") is generally believed to represent a premalignant lesion and has been shown to contain DNA abnormalities. However, the biological properties of non-goblet columnar epithelium remain ...
Lee Gwanghee - - 2009
The CDC25 protein phosphatases (CDC25A, B, and C) drive cell cycle transitions by activating key components of the cell cycle engine. CDC25A and CDC25B are frequently overproduced in human cancers. Disruption of Cdc25B or Cdc25C individually or in combination has no effect on mouse viability. Here we report that CDC25A ...
Kokrashvili Zaza - - 2009
Enteroendocrine cells, the largest and most diverse population of mammalian endocrine cells, comprise a number of different cell types in the gut mucosa that produce, store, and secrete small molecules, peptides, and/or larger proteins that regulate many aspects of gut physiology. Little is known about less typical endocrine cells in ...
Lyu Su-Yun - - 2009
A galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin (Viscum album L. var. coloratum agglutinin, VCA), which is known for its anti-cancer activity, was isolated from Korean mistletoe. In this study, IEC-6 rat intestinal epithelial cells and IM-9 human B-cells were cultured to determine the effect of VCA on cytokine and immunoglobulin (Ig) secretion. ...
Calabrese Graciela C - - 2009
We have demonstrated an inflammatory process triggered by a dietary antigen accompanied with an increase of TNF-alpha in an experimental model of secondary immunodeficiency. TNF-alpha regulates the increase of gammadelta T subpopulation both in lamina propria and in the intestinal intraepithelium, where IL-7 influences gammadelta T cells development. TECK (CCL25) ...
Walsh Michael J - - 2009
Markers of gastrointestinal (GI) stem cells remain elusive. We employed synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to derive mid-infrared (IR) spectra along the length of human GI crypts. Tissue sections (10-μm thick) were floated onto BaF(2) windows and image maps were acquired of small intestine and large bowel crypts in transmission ...
Hansen Gert H - - 2009
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) is an acute-phase protein involved in the host's response to endotoxin and mainly synthesized and secreted to the blood by the liver. But in addition, LBP is also made by extrahepatic cells, including the enterocyte-like cell line Caco-2. To study in closer detail the synthesis and ...
Vongsa Rebecca A RA Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, - - 2009
Intestinal inflammation is exacerbated by defects in the epithelial barrier and subsequent infiltration of microbes and toxins into the underlying mucosa. Production of chemokines and antimicrobial peptides by an intact epithelium provide the first line of defense against invading organisms. In addition to its antimicrobial actions, human beta defensin-2 (HBD2) ...
Zheng Liduan - - 2010
The formation of goblet cells characterizes the intestinal metaplasia of Barrett's esophagus (BE). Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining may fail to show intestinal metaplasia in BE, and PAS-Alcian Blue may present difficulties of interpretation due to its more heterogeneous staining. Recent evidence indicates that expression of resistin-like molecule beta (RELMbeta), a goblet ...
Tsao Tang-Yi - - 2009
The secretion of colorectal epithelium is important for maintaining the physiological function of colorectal organ. Herein, we report that cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS) (or CSE1L) protein regulates the secretion of HT-29 human colorectal cells. Polarity is essential for directed secretion of substances produced by epithelial cells to the external (luminal) ...
Wang J X - - 2009
Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), has been found in the gastrointestinal tract of many vertebrates, but little is known about its distribution in the gastrointestinal tract of African ostrich chicks. In the present study, the distribution, morphological characteristics, and developmental changes of ghrelin-producing cells ...
Rubio Carlos A - - 2009
BACKGROUND: In the normal duodenal mucosa, differentiated cells (enterocytes, goblet cells and endocrine cells) migrate from stem cells to the tip of the villi, but the lysozyme-producing Paneth cells migrate to the bottom of the crypts. The position of the Paneth cells within duodenal adenomas was investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ...
Cadwell Ken - - 2009
Recently identified genetic determinants for enhanced susceptibility to Crohn disease (CD) included polymorphisms in the ATG16L1 and IRGM1 loci suggesting that the autophagy pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. We have generated and analyzed three mouse models with diminished expression of autophagy proteins and show how ...
Greenow K R KR Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, - - 2009
Chk1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is activated by a wide range of DNA-damaging agents to slow the cell cycle during S phase and G2/M. Abrogation of these cell-cycle checkpoints using Chk1 inhibitors results in hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents in vitro and may provide a potential therapeutic tool to ...
Langlois Marie-Josée - - 2009
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway, is one of the most frequently mutated/deleted tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the role played by PTEN in intestinal homeostasis and epithelial cell function. Using the ...
Goeij, Jasper Merijn de
A main question in coral reef ecology, also referred to as ‘Darwin’s Paradox’, is: How can one of the most biodiverse and productive ecosystems as the coral reef thrive in the tropical oceans, the marine equivalent of a desert? Coral cavities belong to the largest and least known part of ...
Van Landeghem Laurianne - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidences suggest that enteric glial cells (EGC), a major constituent of the enteric nervous system (ENS), are key regulators of intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) functions. Indeed EGC inhibit intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) proliferation and increase IEB paracellular permeability. However, the role of EGC on other important barrier functions ...
Konuma Noriyoshi - - 2009
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have been proposed as candidates for cell replacement therapy in patients with intestinal failure because these cells can be expanded indefinitely without losing their pluripotent phenotype. We investigated the differentiation capacity of mouse ES cells into gut-like structures, including intestinal stem cells, and defined culture conditions ...
van der Flier Laurens G - - 2009
The mammalian intestine is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells that is renewed every 4-5 days. This high cell turnover makes it a very attractive and comprehensive adult organ system for the study of cell proliferation and differentiation. The intestine is composed of proliferative crypts, which contain intestinal ...
Naresh Ram - - 2009
Brachyspira pilosicoli is an anaerobic spirochete that has received relatively little study, partly due to its specialized culture requirements and slow growth. This bacterium colonizes the large intestine of various species, including humans; typically, a dense layer of spirochete cells may be found intimately attached by one cell end to ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >