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Kosinski Cynthia C Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, - - 2010
Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are regulated by the mesenchymal environment via physical interaction and diffusible factors. We examined the role of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) in mesenchymal organization and the mechanisms by which perturbations in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions affect ISC fate. We generated mice with intestinal epithelial-specific disruption of Ihh. Gross and ...
Turner Jonathan - - 2011
The overproduction of mucus is a key pathology associated with respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These conditions are characterized by an increase in the number of mucus-producing goblet cells in the airways. We have studied the cellular origins of goblet cells using primary human bronchial ...
Kazanjian Avedis A Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, - - 2010
The atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) transcription factor is required for intestinal secretory (goblet, Paneth, enteroendocrine) cell differentiation. Notch/gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) block proliferation and induce secretory cell differentiation in the intestine. We used genetic analyses of mice to determine whether Atoh1 mediates the effects of GSIs in normal and cancerous intestinal ...
Estienne M M INRA, UMR1054, Neurogastroenterology and Nutrition Unit, Toulouse, - - 2010
Chronic psychological stress is associated with development of intestinal barrier dysfunction and impairs host defence mechanisms. The intestinal epithelium, consisting of enterocytes, endocrine cells, goblet cells and Paneth cells, is an important component of this barrier. In the present study, the impact of maternal deprivation (MD) on secretory lineages of ...
Bermudez Luiz E - - 2010
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the agent of Johne's disease, infects ruminant hosts by translocation through the intestinal mucosa. A number of studies have suggested that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis interacts with M cells in the Peyer's patches of the small intestine. The invasion of the intestinal mucosa by M. avium ...
Baek Jong-Suep - - 2011
This study examined a novel alendronate formulation that was developed to overcome the shortcomings of alendronate, such as its low bioavailability and gastric adverse effects. Alendronate microparticles were prepared using mucoadhesive polymers such as chitosan for improving the intestinal cellular absorption of alendronate and also using a gastric-resistant polymer such ...
Cherbuy Claire - - 2010
Previous studies have suggested that intestinal microbiota modulates colonic epithelium renewal. The objective of our work was to study the effects of microbiota on colonic epithelium structure and cell cycle-related proteins by using gnotobiotic rats. Colonic crypts and amount of cell cycle-related proteins were compared between germ-free (GF), conventional (CV), ...
Pogacar Maja Sikić - - 2010
Campylobacters are susceptible to environmental conditions such as starvation, temperature, and oxidative stress. Species such as Campylobacter jejuni have developed a number of mechanisms for responding to these conditions. We conducted a study to investigate whether survival of C. jejuni and pathogen-host cell interactions such as adherence, invasiveness, and intraepithelial ...
Fintl C - - 2010
Gastrointestinal motility disorders are a serious problem in both veterinary and human medicine and may represent a dysfunction of the neural, muscular or pacemaker components (interstitial cells of Cajal) of bowel control. The interstitial cells of Cajal are considered to be the pacemakers and mediators of certain forms of neurotransmission ...
O'Gorman Angela - - 2010
Intestinal epithelial cells play critical roles in regulating mucosal immunity. Since epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation and histone modifications are implicated in aging, carcinogenesis, and immunity, we set out to assess any role for epigenetic factors in the regulation of intestinal epithelial cell immune responses. Experiments were conducted using ...
Zanuzzi C N - - 2010
Vitamin D participates in mineral homeostasis, immunomodulation, cell growth and differentiation. The leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum contain high levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 as glycoside derivatives and their chronic ingestion generates a hypervitaminosis D-like state. We analyzed changes on carbohydrate expression as a cell differentiation indicator on samples of the small ...
De Conto C - - 2010
In this study, the hypothesis was tested that the size of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) mucosal components and rates of epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis change with increasing age. The aims were to quantitatively examine GIT histomorphology and to determine mucosal epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis rates in neonatal (<48 h ...
Richelle Myriam - - 2010
Lycopene in fruits and vegetables occurs mostly (80-97 %) in the all-E configuration, whereas a considerable proportion of lycopene in the human body is present as Z-isomers. The Z-isomers offer potentially better health benefits and show improved antioxidant activity in vitro when compared with the all-E-isomer. The absorption of dietary ...
Luu Ying Y Department of Medicine, VA San Diego Healthcare System and University of California San Diego, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161, United - - 2010
The membrane-bound mucins, MUC17 (human) and Muc3 (mouse), are highly expressed on the apical surface of intestinal epithelia and are thought to be cytoprotective. The extracellular regions of these mucins contain EGF-like Cys-rich segments (CRD1 and CRD2) connected by an intervening linker domain (L). The purpose of this study was ...
Drozd Mary - - 2010
Lawsonia intracellularis, a causative agent of porcine proliferative enteropathy, is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is difficult to culture, propagate, and quantify. The intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-18, derived from rat small intestine crypt cells) has been used to isolate and propagate this pathogen. However, the lack of rapid and ...
Rafa Louisa - - 2010
REG4, the latest member of the regenerating gene family, is overexpressed in inflammatory bowel diseases and gastrointestinal carcinomas. To date, its pathophysiologic role has not been well established. Using HT-29 models, we previously identified REG4 as being overexpressed in colorectal tumor cells displaying a drug-resistance phenotype; some also displayed invasive ...
Fuglem Bjørn - - 2010
Antigen uptake has been shown to occur in the teleost intestine, but so far, limited information is available on the distribution and nature of cells involved in the process, and M cells, known for their antigen-sampling abilities in mammals, have not been identified. Here, different intestinal segments from salmonid fish ...
Chen Yong-Chang - - 2010
Our previous studies have demonstrated that the expression and activity of protein kinase G (PKG) II are significantly lower in human gastric cancer cell lines than in normal cells. This study was designed to investigate the effect of PKG II activation on the proliferation of human cultured BGC-823 gastric cancer ...
Gracz Adam D - - 2010
The inability to identify, isolate, and culture intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) has been prohibitive to the study and therapeutic utilization of these cells. Using a Sox9(EGFP) mouse model, we demonstrate that Sox9(EGFP) fluorescence signatures can be used to differentiate between and enrich for progenitors (Sox9(EGFPsubLo)) and multipotent IESCs (Sox9(EGFPlo)). ...
Shinoda Misumi - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Goblet cells, which contribute to mucosal defense and repair in the intestinal epithelium, are depleted in human and rodent colitis. The Notch signal pathway regulates the differentiation of intestinal stem cells into epithelial cells and inhibits the differentiation of secretory lineages, including goblet cells. The aim of our study ...
Upreti Raj K - - 2010
Aspirin, a commonly used therapeutic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) is known to cause gastric mucosal damage. Intestinal bacteria having a regulatory effect on intestinal homeostasis play significant role in NSAID-induced intestinal injury. Bacteria and specific cell lines are considered to be suitable for toxicity screening and testing of chemicals. Therefore, ...
Choi Lillian J - - 2010
The intestinal epithelium is dynamic, with proliferation of undifferentiated crypt cells balanced by terminal differentiation and cell death at the colon surface or small intestinal villus tips. Cyclic AMP, induced by agonists such as prostaglandin E(2) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, promotes proliferation and ion secretion and suppresses apoptosis in intestinal ...
Takada Makiko M Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Japan. - - 2010
With the advancement of small intestinal (double balloon and capsule) endoscopy technology, incidence of small intestinal lesion caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been known to be high. However, therapy for small intestinal mucosal lesion has not yet been developed. Previous studies have shown that heat shock proteins (HSPs) ...
Leiv Leknes Ingvar - - 2011
Types of mucus cells and mucins in the epithelial cell layer throughout the digestive tract of the Buenos Aires tetra (Hyphessobrycon anisitsi) are described and compared. The mucin was produced in three different cell types: in sac-like cells in the esophagus, in surface epithelial cells in the stomach and in ...
Nakamuta Shoko - - 2010
In this study, we examined the olfactory epithelium (OE) of the barfin flounder by transmission electron microscopy. As in the case of the ordinary teleost, the OE of the barfin flounder had 3 types of olfactory receptor cells (ciliated olfactory receptor cell, microvillous olfactory receptor cell and crypt cell), 3 ...
Kato Kentaro - - 2010
O-glycosylation of mucin is initiated by the attachment of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) to serine or threonine residues in mucin core polypeptides by UDPGalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (ppGalNAc-Ts). It is not well understood how GalNAc attachment is regulated by multiple ppGalNAc-Ts in each cell. In the present study, the expression levels of murine ppGalNAc-Ts ...
Abreu Maria T - - 2010
A single layer of epithelial cells lines the small and large intestines and functions as a barrier between commensal bacteria and the rest of the body. Ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on intestinal epithelial cells by bacterial products promotes epithelial cell proliferation, secretion of IgA into the gut lumen and ...
Campbell Charles Frederick - - 2010
Complex cell signal transduction mechanisms regulate intestinal epithelial shape, polarity, motility, organelles, cell membrane components as well as physical and mechanical properties to influence alimentary digestion, absorption, secretion, detoxification and fluid balance. Interactions between the epithelial cells and adjacent mesenchyme are central to intestinal homeostasis although the key regulatory molecules ...
Wang Ping - - 2010
The digestive systems in mammals and Drosophila are quite different in terms of their complexity and organization, but their biological functions are similar. The Drosophila midgut is a functional equivalent of the mouse small intestine. Adult intestinal stem cells (ISCs) have been identified in both the mouse small intestine and ...
Kotake-Nara Eiichi - - 2010
The effects were evaluated of various glycerophospholipids on the uptake of beta-carotene solubilized in mixed micelles by human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Phosphatidylethanolamine markedly enhanced the transfer of beta-carotene from the micelles to the cells, whereas phosphatidylcholine suppressed it. All the lysoglycerophospholipids enhanced the transfer, irrespective of the polar head group. ...
Wolfs Tim G A M - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Microbiota in the intestinal lumen provide an abundant source of potentially detrimental antigens, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent immunostimulatory product of Gram-negative bacteria recognized by the host via TLR-4 and MD-2. An aberrant immune response to LPS or other bacterial antigens has been linked to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) ...
Kalischuk Lisa D - - 2010
Recent epidemiological analyses have implicated acute Campylobacter enteritis as a factor that may incite or exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in susceptible individuals. We have demonstrated previously that C. jejuni disrupts the intestinal barrier function by rapidly inducing epithelial translocation of non-invasive commensal bacteria via a transcellular lipid raft-mediated mechanism ...
Sivridis E - - 2010
There have been a number of reports on cervical carcinomas, both invasive and intraepithelial (CIN III), indicating the presence of intracellular mucins in the absence of glandular differentiation. Yet, the expression of such cells in the normal/original squamous epithelium of the cervix remains unexplored. We investigated the presence of mucin-distended ...
Menke Vivianda - - 2010
Barrett's esophagus (BE) affects approximately 2% of the Western population and progresses to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in 0.5% of these patients each year. In BE, the stratified epithelium is replaced by an intestinal-type epithelium owing to chronic gastroduodenal reflux. Since self-renewal of intestinal crypts is driven by Notch signaling, we ...
Cortes-Perez Naima G - - 2010
The delivery of bioactive molecules directly to damaged tissues represents a technological challenge. We propose here a new system based on virus-like particles (VLP) from rotavirus, with a marked tropism for the gut to deliver bio-active molecules to intestinal cells. For this, nonreplicative VLP nanoparticles were constructed using a baculovirus ...
Braga Neto Manuel B - - 2010
Protease inhibitors (PI's) and reverse transcriptase drugs are important components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for treating human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Long-term clinical therapeutic efficacy and treatment compliance of these agents have been limited by undesirable side-effects, such as diarrhea. This study aims to investigate the effects of ...
Lussier Carine R - - 2010
Although Hnf1alpha is crucial for pancreas and liver functions, it is believed to play a limited functional role for intestinal epithelial functions. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of abrogating Hnf1alpha on the maintenance of adult small intestinal epithelial functions. An Hnf1alpha knockout mouse model was ...
Busti Stefano - - 2010
Besides being the favorite carbon and energy source for the budding yeast Sacchromyces cerevisiae, glucose can act as a signaling molecule to regulate multiple aspects of yeast physiology. Yeast cells have evolved several mechanisms for monitoring the level of glucose in their habitat and respond quickly to frequent changes in ...
van Es Johan H - - 2010
Intestinal cells are constantly produced from a stem cell reservoir that gives rise to proliferating transient amplifying cells, which subsequently differentiate into one of the four principal cell types. Signalling pathways, including the Notch signalling pathway, coordinate these differentiation processes and their deregulation may cause cancer. Pharmacological inhibition through γ-secretase ...
Liao Yalin - - 2010
MicroRNAs play extensive roles in cellular development. Analysis of the microRNA expression pattern during intestinal cell proliferation in early life is likely to unravel molecular mechanisms behind intestinal development and have implications for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we isolated mouse intestinal crypt cells, examined the differences in microRNA expression ...
Chorny Alejo A Department of Medicine, The Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, - - 2010
The past 20 years have seen a growing interest over the control of adaptive immune responses by the innate immune system. In particular, considerable attention has been paid to the mechanisms by which antigen-primed dendritic cells orchestrate the differentiation of T cells. Additional studies have elucidated the pathways followed by ...
Blachier François - - 2010
Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is present in the lumen of the human large intestine at millimolar concentrations. However, the concentration of free (unbound) sulfide is in the micromolar range due to a large capacity of fecal components to bind the sulfide. H(2)S can be produced by the intestinal microbiota from alimentary ...
Zhao Fang - - 2010
Anterior Gradient 2 (AGR2) is a protein disulfide isomerase that plays important roles in diverse processes in multiple cell lineages as a developmental regulator, survival factor and susceptibility gene for inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we show using germline and inducible Agr2-/- mice that Agr2 plays important roles in intestinal homeostasis. ...
Bansal Tarun - - 2010
Interkingdom signaling is established in the gastrointestinal tract in that human hormones trigger responses in bacteria; here, we show that the corollary is true, that a specific bacterial signal, indole, is recognized as a beneficial signal in intestinal epithelial cells. Our prior work has shown that indole, secreted by commensal ...
Ohura Kayoko - - 2010
Both mRNA and protein levels of the carboxylesterase (CES) isozymes, hCE1 and hCE2, in Caco-2 cells increase in a time-dependent manner, but hCE1 levels are always higher than those of hCE2. In human small intestine, however, the picture is reversed, with hCE2 being the predominant isozyme. Drugs hydrolyzed by hCE1 ...
Arai N - - 2010
Airway occlusion by mucus in chronic obstructive disease (COPD) is associated with a poor prognosis. We hypothesised that tiotropium has the ability to inhibit neutrophil elastase (NE)-induced goblet cell metaplasia in mice and mucin production in vitro. On days 1, 4, and 7, tiotropium or vehicle was administered to C57BL/6 ...
Stappenbeck T S - - 2010
Paneth cells are a small intestinal epithelial cell lineage that is considered to have a role in innate immune function. Recent studies on mice with diminished and/or loss of autophagy have suggested that Paneth cells are a primary target in vivo. Interestingly, loss of autophagy affects the secretion of antimicrobial ...
Mochizuki Tetsunosuke - - 2009
The effect of interleukin-4 (IL-4), a cytokine associated with allergy and inflammation, on the permeability of the intestinal epithelium was investigated. IL-4 reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and increased permeation to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and Lucifer Yellow (LY) of human intestinal T84 cell monolayers. The increased permeation due to IL-4 ...
Uc Aliye - - 2010
The haem oxygenase-1-biliverdin reductase system degrades haem and generates biliverdin and bilirubin, both of which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Biliverdin and bilirubin are protective in intestinal injury models, but little is known about their generation and fate in the intestine. In the present work, an in vitro intestinal epithelial ...
Liu Dengqun - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) have the ability to differentiate into intestinal epithelial cells after transplantation and participate in the regeneration process of damaged epithelium. AIMS: To investigate whether BMDCs could differentiate into intestinal epithelium long term in chimeric mice after transplantation and without special treatment. METHODS: Forty irradiated C57BL/6 ...
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