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Hecht Elena - - 2011
Scanning probe techniques enable direct imaging of morphology changes associated with cellular processes at life specimen. Here, glutaraldehyde-fixed and living alveolar type II (ATII) cells were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the obtained topographical data were correlated with results obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy ...
Murre Cornelis - - 2010
Combinatorial control of lineage-specific gene expression is commonly mediated by suites of diverse transcriptional regulators. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Verzi et al. (2010) use an unbiased global and computational approach to identify distinct partners and functions of CDX2 in intestinal epithelial cell differentiation.
Tamura Kazushi - - 2010
Filamentous actin and myosin-II are major determinants of cell mechanics and are tightly regulated by a small guanosine triphosphatase, RhoA, and its downstream effectors. We examined the effects of constitutively active mutants of RhoA effectors, which have not been reported before, on cortical stiffness of living cells by using scanning ...
Crissey Mary Ann S MA Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. - - 2011
Caudal-related homeobox protein 2 (Cdx2) is an intestine-specific transcription factor that is important for intestinal development and intestine-specific gene expression. Cdx2 regulates intestinal cell-cell adhesion, proliferation, and the transcriptional activities of Wnt and β-catenin in cell culture systems. We generated transgenic mice that overexpress Cdx2 in the small intestinal and ...
Chen F - - 2011
It is well known that β-conglycinin, a soybean allergen, induces allergies and causes intestinal damage in fetuses and neonates. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the adverse effects of β-conglycinin remain elusive. In particular, it is unknown whether or not this dietary substance causes direct damage affecting the proliferation and ...
Zhang Tao - - 2010
APC mutations initiate most colorectal cancers (CRCs), but cellular mechanisms linking this to CRC pathology are unclear. We reported that wild-type APC in the colon down-regulates the anti-apoptotic protein survivin, and APC mutation up-regulates it, explaining why most CRCs display survivin overexpression and apoptosis inhibition. However, it does not explain ...
Sinnett-Smith James - - 2011
We examined whether protein kinase D1 (PKD1), the founding member of a new protein kinase family, plays a critical role in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate that PKD1 activation is sustained, whereas that of PKD2 is transient in intestinal epithelial IEC-18 stimulated with the G(q)-coupled receptor agonists angiotensin ...
Wang Fengchao - - 2011
Dying epithelial cells are thought to be squeezed out of the epithelium by the contraction of an actomyosin ring formed in live neighboring cells, which simultaneously closes any potential gap, thereby maintaining the integrity of the epithelial layer. The shrinkage and contraction of apoptotic cells contribute little to the extrusion ...
Marsilio S - - 2011
In this study, CD3(+) T lymphocytes and IgA(+) , IgG(+) and IgM(+) plasma cells were quantified in the tunica mucosa of the intestinal tract of 12 pet cats without gastrointestinal diseases. The study included full-thickness biopsies of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. The distribution and quantification of CD3(+) T ...
Greenspon Jose J Cell Biology Group, Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, - - 2011
The regulation of intestinal barrier permeability is important in the maintenance of normal intestinal physiology. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been shown to play a pivotal role in enhancing barrier function in several non-intestinal tissues. The current study determined whether S1P regulated function of the intestinal epithelial barrier by altering expression of ...
Okada Seiko F SF Cystic Fibrosis/Pulmonary Research and Treatment Center, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 27599, USA. - - 2011
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and its metabolite adenosine regulate airway mucociliary clearance via activation of purinoceptors. In this study, we investigated the contribution of goblet cells to airway epithelial ATP release. Primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cultures, typically dominated by ciliated cells, were induced to develop goblet cell metaplasia by infection ...
Cheesman Sarah E SE Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, - - 2011
Rates of cell proliferation in the vertebrate intestinal epithelium are modulated by intrinsic signaling pathways and extrinsic cues. Here, we report that epithelial cell proliferation in the developing zebrafish intestine is stimulated both by the presence of the resident microbiota and by activation of Wnt signaling. We find that the ...
Rubio Carlos A - - 2010
In humans and in baboons, protracted gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) transforms the squamous-lined esophagus into columnar-lined (that is Barrett's mucosa, BM). Alcian blue stain (AB) is used to evidence sialomucin-producing goblet cells in human BM. To assess the frequency and distribution of sialomucin-producing cells in BM in baboons. Sections from 137 ...
Huang Shenglin S State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200032, - - 2010
Cell migration or movement is a highly dynamic cellular process, requiring precise regulation that is essential for a variety of biological processes. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of tiny non-coding RNA molecules that function as critical post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Emerging evidence demonstrates that miRNAs play important roles in ...
Pinchuk I V IV Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0764, USA. - - 2010
The non-white blood cell mesenchymal elements of the intestinal lamina propria are the myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, pericytes, stromal stem cells, muscularis mucosae, and the smooth muscle of the villus core associated with the lymphatic lacteal. We review the functional anatomy of these mesenchymal cells, what is known about their origin in ...
Sawa Shinichiro - - 2010
Lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells initiate the development of lymphoid tissues through the activation of local stromal cells in a process similar to inflammation. LTi cells express the nuclear hormone receptor RORγt, which also directs the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 in T cells. We show here that LTi cells ...
Miyazawa Kohtaro - - 2010
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in humans and animals. BSE appears to have spread to cattle through the consumption of feed contaminated with BSE/scrapie agents. In the case of an oral infection, the agents have to cross the gut-epithelial barrier. We recently ...
Mochida Seiya - - 2010
Matriptase is a type-II transmembrane serine protease that is expressed strongly in the epithelial elements of various organs. In the small intestine, it is expressed prominently at the villus tip where aged epithelial cells undergo shedding and/or apoptosis. This observation, together with the ability of matriptase to cleave laminin (a ...
Silver Kristopher K Department of Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, - - 2010
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used frequently worldwide for the alleviation of pain despite their capacity to cause adverse gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. GI toxicity, once thought to be the result of non-specific inhibition of cyclooxegenase (COX) enzymes, is now hypothesized to have multiple other causes that are COX independent. ...
Nakano Emi - - 2011
Riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) is an essential dietary component with a known function in oxidative metabolism. Our previous data using a rat model of riboflavin deficiency suggested that riboflavin also functions as a luminal signaling molecule regulating crypt development and cell turnover. Riboflavin deficiency is prevalent in both high- and low-income countries ...
Lee Seung Ho SH Glycobiology Unit, Cancer Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, - - 2010
Alterations in glycosylation play an important role during intestinal cell differentiation. Here, we compared expression of mucin-type O-glycan synthases from proliferating and differentiated HT-29 and Caco-2 cells. Mucin-type O-glycan structures were analyzed at both stages by mass spectrometry. Core2 β1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-2 (C2GnT-2) was markedly increased in differentiated HT-29 and Caco-2 cells, ...
Rezza Amelie - - 2010
The RNA-binding protein Musashi-1 (Msi1) has been proposed as a marker of intestinal epithelial stem cells. These cells are responsible for the continuous renewal of the intestinal epithelium. Although the function of Msi1 has been studied in several organs from different species and in mammalian cell lines, its function and ...
Puthenedam Manjula M Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, - - 2011
Galectin-3 is an animal lectin that has been implicated in wound healing and is decreased in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7), also known as matrilysin-1, a protease shown to cleave extracellular matrix proteins, is highly expressed in IBD tissues, especially at the leading edge of gastrointestinal ulcers. The ...
Ahern Philip P - - 2010
Mutations in the IL23R gene are linked to inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility. Experimental models have shown that interleukin-23 (IL-23) orchestrates innate and T cell-dependent colitis; however, the cell populations it acts on to induce intestinal immune pathology are unknown. Here, using Il23r(-/-) T cells, we demonstrated that T cell reactivity ...
Iannuccelli Valentina - - 2011
Polysaccharide microparticles for the oral administration of gentamicin were designed in order to obtain an increased drug absorption by means of microparticle transport across the intestinal epithelia. Alginate/chitosan microparticles with a size of ~2 μm were developed by spray-drying a water solution containing the drug complexed with the polyanionic alginate ...
VanDussen Kelli L KL Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2010
The Notch-regulated transcription factor mouse atonal homolog 1 (Math1) is required for the development of intestinal secretory cells, as demonstrated by the loss of goblet, endocrine and Paneth cell types in null mice. However, it was unknown whether Math1 is sufficient to induce the program of secretory cell differentiation. To ...
Thubagere Anupama - - 2010
The ability to assess the risks of human exposure to engineered nanomaterials requires fundamental understanding of the fate and potential cytotoxicity of nonbiodegradable nanoparticles, for instance, after oral uptake. In this study, we quantify the impact of nanoparticles with low chemical toxicity on the intestinal membrane in a human intestinal ...
Dalmasso Guillaume G Department of Medicine, Division of Digestive Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, 615 Michael Street, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. - - 2010
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Evidence has shown that miRNAs play important roles in various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation and survival. The intestinal epithelium is regenerated throughout life, and enterocytes undergo differentiation during migration along the crypt/villus axis. Our study aimed at ...
Chan Fangxiao - - 2010
It was reported that a signaling pathway of platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and their receptors (PDGFRs) played a critical role in the developing gut of mice. Overexpression of the PDGFR-alpha gene in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) indicated that parts of tumor cells originated from PDGFR-alpha-positive cells, but a more detailed ...
Hamada Mika - - 2010
Galangin, a dietary flavonoid, inhibited cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expression induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). This inhibitory activity remained after permeating human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers, but was reduced when galangin permeated TCDD-pretreated Caco-2 cells. The present study tested whether TCDD affected the intestinal metabolism of flavonoids. LC-MS/MS analyses showed ...
Van De Walle Jacqueline - - 2010
The intake of deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin contaminating cereal food items, causes gastro-intestinal illness in human and animal. This study investigated whether intracellular inflammatory cascades (MAPKs and NF-κB), cell maturity (proliferating vs. differentiated), cell state (control vs. inflamed) and exposure duration (chronic vs. acute) affect IL-8 secretion and PGE-2 synthesis ...
Balakrishnan Anita - - 2010
The intestine exhibits profound diurnal rhythms in function and morphology, in part due to changes in enterocyte proliferation. The regulatory mechanisms behind these rhythms remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that microRNAs are involved in mediating these rhythms, and studied the role of microRNAs specifically in modulating intestinal proliferation. Diurnal rhythmicity ...
Nielsen Sanne Mie - - 2010
Lactoferrin (Lf) belongs to the transferrin family of non-heme iron-binding proteins and is found in milk and mucosal secretions. Consequently, it is now considered a multifunctional protein mainly involved in both the innate and adaptive immune defenses of the organism against various pathogens, and Lf receptors have been identified at ...
Beyaz Feyzullah - - 2010
The presence, distribution, and localization of M cells in isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) and in follicle-associated epithelia (FAE) covering Peyer's patches (PP) in Angora rabbits were investigated by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Although PP could macroscopically be identified along the length of the mucosal and serosal surfaces of jejunum and ...
le Roux Carel W - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine changes in crypt cell proliferation and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in rodents and man after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass results in sustained weight loss and reduced appetite with only mild gastrointestinal side effects. Glucagon-like peptide-2 released from intestinal l-cells ...
Malago J J - - 2010
Oral administration of Lactobacillus spp. as probiotics is gaining importance in the treatment of intestinal inflammations. However, their mechanism of action is unknown. We investigated whether nonspecific binding Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) and mannose-specific Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp) and their spent culture supernatant (SCS) affect Salmonella enteritidis 857 (Se) growth, ...
Mantha Marc - - 2010
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal that enters the food chain. Following oral ingestion, the intestinal epithelium may in part protect against Cd toxicity but is also a target tissue. Using human enterocytic-like Caco-2 cells, we have previously shown differences in sensitivity to Cd according to the differentiation status. The ...
Pruitt Steven C SC Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, USA. - - 2010
Stem cell quiescence has been hypothesized to suppress the rate at which genetic mutations accumulate within tissues by reducing the number of divisions a cell undergoes. However, recent studies have suggested that stem cells in the small intestine are rapidly dividing. This observation raises the issue of whether replication related ...
Chandra Rashmi - - 2010
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is secreted by neuroendocrine cells comprising 0.1%-0.5% of the mucosal cells in the upper small intestine. Using CCK promoter-driven green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in transgenic mice, we have applied immunofluorescence techniques to analyze the morphology of CCK cells. GFP and CCK colocalize in neuroendocrine cells with little ...
Baker N T - - 2010
Campylobacter fetus is a recognized pathogen of cattle and sheep, though human infection has also been reported. Ingestion of contaminated food or water is a proposed route of transmission for both humans and animals. The subsequent detection of the organism from extra-intestinal and systemic locations implies an ability to translocate ...
Kosinski Cynthia C Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, - - 2010
Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are regulated by the mesenchymal environment via physical interaction and diffusible factors. We examined the role of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) in mesenchymal organization and the mechanisms by which perturbations in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions affect ISC fate. We generated mice with intestinal epithelial-specific disruption of Ihh. Gross and ...
Turner Jonathan - - 2011
The overproduction of mucus is a key pathology associated with respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These conditions are characterized by an increase in the number of mucus-producing goblet cells in the airways. We have studied the cellular origins of goblet cells using primary human bronchial ...
Kazanjian Avedis A Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, - - 2010
The atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) transcription factor is required for intestinal secretory (goblet, Paneth, enteroendocrine) cell differentiation. Notch/gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) block proliferation and induce secretory cell differentiation in the intestine. We used genetic analyses of mice to determine whether Atoh1 mediates the effects of GSIs in normal and cancerous intestinal ...
Estienne M M INRA, UMR1054, Neurogastroenterology and Nutrition Unit, Toulouse, - - 2010
Chronic psychological stress is associated with development of intestinal barrier dysfunction and impairs host defence mechanisms. The intestinal epithelium, consisting of enterocytes, endocrine cells, goblet cells and Paneth cells, is an important component of this barrier. In the present study, the impact of maternal deprivation (MD) on secretory lineages of ...
Bermudez Luiz E - - 2010
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the agent of Johne's disease, infects ruminant hosts by translocation through the intestinal mucosa. A number of studies have suggested that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis interacts with M cells in the Peyer's patches of the small intestine. The invasion of the intestinal mucosa by M. avium ...
Baek Jong-Suep - - 2011
This study examined a novel alendronate formulation that was developed to overcome the shortcomings of alendronate, such as its low bioavailability and gastric adverse effects. Alendronate microparticles were prepared using mucoadhesive polymers such as chitosan for improving the intestinal cellular absorption of alendronate and also using a gastric-resistant polymer such ...
Cherbuy Claire - - 2010
Previous studies have suggested that intestinal microbiota modulates colonic epithelium renewal. The objective of our work was to study the effects of microbiota on colonic epithelium structure and cell cycle-related proteins by using gnotobiotic rats. Colonic crypts and amount of cell cycle-related proteins were compared between germ-free (GF), conventional (CV), ...
Pogacar Maja Sikić - - 2010
Campylobacters are susceptible to environmental conditions such as starvation, temperature, and oxidative stress. Species such as Campylobacter jejuni have developed a number of mechanisms for responding to these conditions. We conducted a study to investigate whether survival of C. jejuni and pathogen-host cell interactions such as adherence, invasiveness, and intraepithelial ...
Fintl C - - 2010
Gastrointestinal motility disorders are a serious problem in both veterinary and human medicine and may represent a dysfunction of the neural, muscular or pacemaker components (interstitial cells of Cajal) of bowel control. The interstitial cells of Cajal are considered to be the pacemakers and mediators of certain forms of neurotransmission ...
O'Gorman Angela - - 2010
Intestinal epithelial cells play critical roles in regulating mucosal immunity. Since epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation and histone modifications are implicated in aging, carcinogenesis, and immunity, we set out to assess any role for epigenetic factors in the regulation of intestinal epithelial cell immune responses. Experiments were conducted using ...
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