Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1916
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Chen An-Chian - - 2004
Fifteen percent of all U.S. infants are fed soy formulas containing up to 47 mg/L of isoflavones (>65% as genistin + genistein); thus, these infants' intestines are exposed to a high dose of genistein, a phytoestrogen and tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Little attention has been focused on genistein's impact on the ...
Bittrich S - - 2004
Intestinal diseases in neonatal calves may be due to morphological and functional immaturity. We have studied histomorphology, crypt cell proliferation rates (based on incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine into DNA), presence of apoptotic cells (based on terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated X-dUTP nick end labeling), and brush border enzyme activities in preterm calves (277 ...
Matsuzaki Toshiyuki - - 2004
Fluid transfer such as secretion and absorption is one of the major functions of the digestive system. Aquaporins are water channel proteins providing water transfer across the cellular membrane. At least six aquaporin isoforms are expressed in the digestive system. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is widely distributed in endothelial cells of capillaries ...
Kozobolis Vassilios P - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Tear secretion and tear film stability seem to be influenced by pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX). Histopathological evaluation of conjunctival goblet cells in PEX patients might explain the influence on tear film stability. METHODS: In a prospective, cross-sectional study, 40 eyes of 40 patients with PEX (study group) had measurement of ...
Carr Norman J - - 2004
The vast majority of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the appendix are carcinoid tumors. Most are of enterochromaffin (EC) cell type, although rare examples are of L cell type. EC cell carcinoids of the appendix differ from those encountered elsewhere in the gastrointestinal system. For example, they are remarkably common given the ...
Kawano Naoko - - 2004
Although estrogen is implicated in the regulation of mammalian intestinal function, the presence and the distribution of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cells in the intestine are still controversial. The present study was designed to localize ERalpha- and ERbeta-expressing cells in female and male mouse intestines immunohistochemically under various estrogen conditions, especially ...
Shaoul Ron - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The quantity and quality of mucins are affected in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) both because of a reduction in the number of goblet cells and a decrease in the number of sugar residues per oligosaccharide side chain. Alteration in the types of mucins and aberrant location may contribute to ...
Deschênes Claude - - 2004
The specific mechanisms controlling the transition from proliferation to terminal differentiation in human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC) remain largely undefined. Herein, we analyzed the expression and localization of Rb and E2F proteins in well-established normal intestinal epithelial cell models which allow for the re-enactment of the crypt-villus axis in vitro ...
Omae Fumio - - 2004
The C-4 hydroxylation of sphinganine and dihydroceramide is a rate-limiting reaction in the biosynthesis of phytosphingolipids. Mouse DES1 (MDES1) cDNA homologous to the Drosophila melanogaster degenerative spermatocyte gene-1 (des-1) cDNA leads to sphingosine Delta4-desaturase activity, and another mouse homologue, MDES2, has bifunctional activity, producing C-4 hydroxysphinganine and Delta4-sphingenine in yeast ...
Sasaki Hideo - - 2004
The fibroblast growth factor-4 (HST-1/FGF-4) is a heparin-binding growth factor that influences on epithelial and many other cells through interaction with FGF receptors. It has been demonstrated that the HST-1/FGF-4 gene protects mice from lethal irradiation by preventing bone marrow damage and intestinal tract damage. However, the radioprotective mechanism is ...
Ouko Lillian - - 2004
Wnts are morphogens with well recognized functions during embryogenesis. Aberrant Wnt signaling has been demonstrated to be important in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, the role of Wnt in regulating normal intestinal epithelial cell proliferation is not well established. Here we determine that Wnt11 is expressed throughout the mouse intestinal tract including ...
Mizuma Takashi - - 2004
Presystemic intestinal metabolism reduces the intestinal absorption and bioavailability of orally administered drugs. The factors affecting glucuronidation activity in Caco-2 cells seeded in Transwell (4.7 cm(2)) require clarification to establish an in-vitro system to assess intestinal glucuronidation metabolism for novel drug development. alpha-Naphthol (alpha-NA), a substrate for UGT1A6 in Caco-2 ...
Laprise Patrick - - 2004
In vitro experiments have shown that the establishment of cell-cell contacts in intestinal epithelial cell cultures is a critical step in initiating ERK inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and induction of the differentiation process. Herein, we determined the mechanisms through which E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts modulate the ERK pathway in intestinal epithelial ...
Cebrat Malgorzata - - 2004
Using cDNA-Representational Difference Analysis it was found that expression of Opg, Ctse, Krt2-4, Fut-2, 24p3 and Wif-1 genes was elevated in intestinal adenomas as compared to normal epithelial cells of Apc(Min/+) mutant mice. Expression of Wif-1, which encodes Wnt inhibitory factor-1 was also detected in a number of tumor cell ...
Wu Jun - - 2004
Sphingomyelin (SM) metabolism in the gut has been implicated in colonic tumorigenesis. Intestinal alkaline sphingomyelinase (alk-SMase) hydrolyses SM in the intestinal content and at the brush border. The enzyme activity is decreased in the tissues of human colorectal tumours. This study examines whether site or chain-mutation of alk-SMase occurs in ...
Jepson Mark A - - 2004
Bioadhesins are a recognised method of enhancing the absorption of drugs and vaccines at mucosal surfaces. Additionally, bioadhesins allow for cell specific targeting. Lectin-mediated targeting and delivery exploits unique surface carbohydrates on mucosal epithelial cells. The antigen-sampling M cells offer a portal for absorption of colloidal and particulate delivery vehicles, ...
Popovich David G - - 2004
Ginsenosides derived from 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PT) and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PD) groups had similar characteristic cytotoxic effects on the growth of two intestinal cells lines, Int-407 and Caco-2. Pure Rh2, a ginsenoside structurally related to PD, inhibited intestinal cell growth at greater than twice the concentration of PD, while Rh1, a ginsenoside structurally ...
Demuynck Sylvain - - 2004
Isolated guts of Nereis diversicolor revealed the existence of a cadmium-binding protein, the MPII, belonging to the group of hemerythrins and myohemerythrins. The presence of MPII in the cells of the intestine was demonstrated by immunocytochemistry, using anti-MPII, a monoclonal antibody. In addition, using in situ hybridization and northern blotting, ...
Walters Julian R F - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper will discuss recent research that has provided new insights into the molecular and cell biology of the small intestine. RECENT FINDINGS: Differentiation of the epithelial cell lineages, including the enterocytes, enteroendocrine, Goblet and Paneth cells, from the stem cells is better understood. Important interactions have ...
Letsch Anne - - 2004
In general, metastases to the small intestine are rare, and mostly occur in melanoma. CCR9 has been shown to be the principal chemokine receptor for the thymus expressed chemokine (TECK), a chemokine selectively expressed in the small intestine and thymus. Here we show that CCR9 is highly expressed on melanoma ...
van't Land Belinda - - 2004
A strategy protecting the small intestine against deleterious side effects associated with anti-cancer therapy is arresting epithelial cell cycling temporally. Since endogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a trophic factor specific for intestinal epithelia, the possibility of inhibiting GLP-2-mediated cell proliferation by lactoferrin, thereby protecting the small intestine against deleterious side ...
Kulaksiz Hasan - - 2004
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The biliary epithelium of bile ducts and gallbladder modifies the composition of primary hepatic bile by absorption and secretion of an electrolyte-rich fluid. The underlying transport mechanisms, however, are still incompletely understood. We investigated the expression, the cellular localization, and the functional role of guanylin, a bioactive ...
Ghartey-Tagoe Esi B - - 2004
This study was conducted to determine if electroporation can deliver membrane-impermeant molecules intracellularly to intact, physiologically competent monolayers that mimic the intestinal epithelium. In addition, the long-term effects of electroporation on these monolayers were studied to determine the kinetics with which monolayers recover barrier function. Caco-2 and T84 cells were ...
Baas Annette F - - 2004
The LKB1 gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase that is mutated in the Peutz-Jeghers cancer syndrome. LKB1 is homologous to the Par-4 polarity genes in C. elegans and D. melanogaster. We have previously reported the identification and characterization of an LKB1-specific adaptor protein, STRAD, which activates LKB1 and translocates it from ...
Yamaguchi Jon - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Bile salts have been shown to modulate gastrointestinal epithelial restitution, differentiation, and other functions. Prior studies have shown that the bile salt taurodeoxycholate increases cell migration after injury. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect that taurodeoxycholate has on intestinal epithelial cell growth, c-myc expression and ...
Sheehan John K - - 2004
MUC5AC mucins secreted by HT-29 cells in culture are oligomeric glycoproteins with characteristics similar to the MUC5AC mucins isolated from human airway sputum (Sheehan, J. K., Brazeau, C., Kutay, S., Pigeon, H., Kirkham, S., Howard, M., and Thornton, D. J. (2000) Biochem. J. 347, 37-44). Therefore we have used this ...
Tyrer, Peter Charles
An in vitro model of the follicle-associated epithelia that overlie the Peyer's patches of the&#13;small intestine was developed and validated to examine the mechanisms of mucosal antigen&#13;sampling. This model displays many phenotypic and physiological characteristics of M cells&#13;including apical expression of [alpha]5[beta]l integrin and enhanced energy dependent participate&#13;transport. CD4+ T-cells ...
Lee Hyeung Sik - - 2004
Distribution patterns and the relative frequency of different types of endocrine cells were demonstrated in the alimentary tract of the grass lizard, Takydromus wolteri, using nine specific antibodies raised against mammalian regulatory peptides. The alimentary tract of the lizard was divided into six portions from the esophagus to the rectum. ...
Watanabe Fumiko - - 2004
Immune cells located in the intestinal epithelium interact with intestinal epithelial cells via soluble factors. In this study, a new in vitro model using a coculture system was constructed to analyze the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and macrophage-like cells. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were differentiated on semipermeable membranes. ...
Biswas Debabrata - - 2004
The mechanisms used by Campylobacter jejuni to induce internalization into host intestinal epithelial cells have not been defined. In this study, we obtained evidence that exposure of INT-407 cells to protein kinase inhibitors results in decreased invasion of these cells by C. jejuni in a dose dependent manner. Preincubation of ...
Son Dong Ok - - 2004
Carnosine (beta-Ala-L-His) is known to have the physiological functions of an antioxidant. Although dietary carnosine is thought to be absorbed across intestinal epithelial cells, the mechanism for this absorption is not yet well understood and its function in the intestinal tract is also obscure. The intestinal transport of carnosine was ...
Wang Songyan - - 2004
Enteroendocrine cells are a complex population of intestinal epithelial cells whose hormones play critical roles in regulating gastrointestinal and whole-animal physiology. There are many subpopulations of enteroendocrine cells based on the major hormone(s) produced by individual cells. Intracellular calcium plays a critical role in regulating hormone release. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphophate (IP3) ...
Girón-Calle Julio - - 2004
Pulses should be part of a healthy diet, and it is also becoming clear that they have health-promoting effects. Nevertheless, most studies on the bioactive or health-promoting properties of pulses have been carried out using soybeans. We have studied cell growth-regulating properties, which may be responsible for anti-cancer properties, in ...
Boucher Marie-Josée - - 2004
The mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade operates downstream of Ras to convey cell-surface signals to the nucleus via nuclear translocation of ERK1 and ERK2. We and others have recently demonstrated that activation of ERK1/2 by growth factors is required for proliferation of intestinal epithelial crypt cells. However, it remained to be ...
Gui Xianyong - - 2004
Neurotensin (NT), a hormone released from intestine by ingested fat, facilitates lipid digestion by stimulating pancreatic secretion and slowing the movement of chyme. In addition, NT can contract the gall bladder and enhance the enterohepatic circulation (EHC) of bile acids to promote micelle formation. Our recent finding that NT enhanced ...
Dwinell Michael B - - 2004
Human colonic epithelial cells express CXCR4, the sole cognate receptor for the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1/CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12. The aim of this study was to define the mechanism and functional consequences of signaling intestinal epithelial cells through the CXCR4 chemokine receptor. CXCR4, but not SDF-1/CXCL12, was constitutively ...
Mouillé Béatrice - - 2003
Ammonia, produced by bacterial degradation of unabsorbed and endogenous nitrogenous compounds, is found to be present at millimolar concentrations in the colon lumen. From in vivo animal experiments, this metabolite has been shown to alter colonic epithelial cell morphology and to increase compensatory cell proliferation when present in excess. In ...
Tsukahara Takamitsu - - 2003
Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) reach the large intestine and are fermented into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), lactate, and carbon dioxide. As the major energy source for the epithelial cells of the large intestine, n-butyrate stimulates the proliferation of cells as well as mineral and water absorption from the lumen. We examined the ...
Coon Steven - - 2003
In the rabbit small intestine, there are three functionally different brush-border membrane (BBM) anion/HCO3- exchangers: 1) Cl/HCO3- exchange on the BBM of villus cells responsible for coupled NaCl absorption; 2) Cl/HCO3- exchange on the BBM of crypt cells possibly involved in HCO3- secretion; and 3) short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)/HCO3- exchange ...
Hernandes Luzmarina - - 2003
The enteric nervous system plays a role on the stimulation of secretory cells of intestinal epithelia. We have demonstrated that ablation of ENS stimulates epithelial cell proliferation. As goblet cells are important constituents of the epithelial sheet, it is mandatory to investigate separately this cell type. The myenteric plexus of ...
Mooney Adele - - 2003
Few data exist on the interaction of Campylobacter upsaliensis with host cells, and the potential for this emerging enteropathogen to invade epithelial cells has not been explored. We have characterized the ability of C. upsaliensis to invade both cultured epithelial cell lines and primary human small intestinal cells. Epithelial cell ...
Cunliffe R N - - 2003
The human intestinal tract is constantly exposed to an enormous indigenous bacterial flora. It has recently been recognised that antimicrobial peptides of the defensin family likely play a role in protection against microbial invasion at a variety of mucosal epithelial surfaces, including that of the intestinal tract. To date, six ...
Estall Jennifer L - - 2003
Peptide hormones regulate cell viability and tissue integrity, directly or indirectly, through activation of G-protein-coupled receptors via diverse mechanisms including stimulation of cell proliferation and inhibition of cell death. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a 33 amino acid peptide hormone released from intestinal endocrine cells following nutrient ingestion. GLP-2 stimulates intestinal ...
Mori Akira - - 2003
A novel cell culture system was constructed to analyze the direct interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were monolayer-cultured on the under side of a permeable membrane (12 mum pore size) in a Millicell insert. Integrated monolayers of Caco-2 cells had formed after ...
Mukaisho Ken-Ichi - - 2003
To elucidate the histogenesis of gastric stump cancer, we performed an operation in rats to make all duodenal contents flow back into the glandular stomach. The subjects were 41 rats, and sequential morphological changes of the duodenogastric stoma and the incidence of stump cancers were studied. Serial sections around the ...
Ramirez Carolina C Institute of Anatomy, University of Lübeck, 23538 Lübeck, - - 2003
Membranous (M)-cells are specialized epithelial cells of the Peyer's patch domes that transport antigens from the intestinal lumen to the lymphoid tissue. Vimentin is a reliable marker for M-cells in rabbits. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), a subpopulation of epithelial cells has recently been identified in ordinary rabbit ileal villi, which are ...
Kuniyasu Hiroki - - 2003
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify a mediator produced by human colon cancer cells that is responsible for the induction of hyperplasia in the adjacent mucosa. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Seventy human colon cancer surgical specimens were immunostained to determine the presence of cytokines that can induce hyperplasia in ...
Willemsen L E M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The mucus layer protects the gastrointestinal mucosa from mechanical, chemical, and microbial challenge. Mucin 2 (MUC-2) is the most prominent mucin secreted by intestinal epithelial cells. There is accumulating evidence that subepithelial myofibroblasts regulate intestinal epithelial cell function and are an important source of prostaglandins (PG). PG enhance mucin ...
Masuda Kenji - - 2003
Repair of superficial damage to gastrointestinal mucosa occurs by a process called restitution, with epithelial integrity and continuity reestablished before cell proliferation occurs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the diversity of restitution in rat jejunum exposed to different concentrations of deoxycholic acid (DOC; 1.5-100 mmol/liter). Following ...
Sasahara Takeshi - - 2003
Using a neonatal mouse model of Cryptosporidium parvum infection, we investigated whether apoptosis of epithelial cells was induced in the small intestine. At the time when the number of C. parvum oocysts in the ileum was maximal, columnar goblet cells and absorptive cells showed a decrease in the ileal epithelium ...
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