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Results 401 - 450 of 3061
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Shen Jie - - 2009
Increasing evidence suggests an important role for programmed cell death (PCD) pathways in aging phenotypes across species. PCD is critical to the homeostasis of tissues maintained by cell division, for example, the blood and the lining of the gut. During aging, accumulated cellular damage and non-optimal systemic signaling can cause ...
Chou Tzung-Han - - 2009
In this study, aloe-emodin (AE) was less cytotoxic to human noncancerous skin cells (premalignant keratinocytic HaCaT and fibroblast Hs68) than to nonmelanoma cancer cells (epidermoid carcinoma A431 and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma SCC25). Notably, AE induced apoptosis by up-regulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha and Fas ligand and their cognate ...
Sumithra Purushothaman - - 2010
Cell death is a scheduled event during animal development and tissue turnover. Here, we affirm the presence of two major pathways of programmed cell death (PCD), viz. apoptotic and autophagic cell death, in the disintegrated pupal perivisceral (PV) fat body during pupal-adult metamorphosis. The acridine orange (a vital stain for ...
Maurer Gabriele D - - 2009
Cilengitide is a cyclic peptide antagonist of integrins alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 that is currently being evaluated as a novel therapeutic agent for recurrent and newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Its mode of action is thought to be mainly antiangiogenic but may include direct effects on tumor cells, notably on attachment, migration, invasion, ...
Hu Yuhui - - 2010
The functional analysis of chromosome 21 (Chr21) proteins is of great medical relevance. This refers, in particular, to the trisomy of human Chr21, which results in Down's syndrome, a complex developmental and neurodegenerative disease. In a previous study we analyzed 89 human Chr21 genes for the subcellular localization of their ...
Chen Po-Chun - - 2010
Aquatic birnavirus induces necrotic cell death by an ill-understood process. Presently, we demonstrate that infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) induces post-apoptotic necrotic cell death through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) followed by caspase-3 activation in CHSE-214 cells. Progressive phosphatidylserine externalization was observed at 6 h post-infection (p.i.). This was ...
Separovic Duska - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to determine the sphingolipid (SL) profile in cells defective in autophagy protein ATG-7 and overall cell death after photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the photosensitizer Pc 4. MCF-7 human breast cancer cells with downregulated ATG-7 and their scrambled controls (Scr) were used. Exposure of ATG-7 ...
Braun Ralf J - - 2010
Neurodegeneration is characterized by the disease-specific loss of neuronal activity, culminating in the irreversible destruction of neurons. Neuronal cell death can proceed via distinct subroutines such as apoptosis and necrosis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established model for programmed cell death, characterized by ...
Stratmann Greg - - 2009
Anesthetic drugs cause brain cell death and long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in neonatal rats. Recently, human data also suggest that anesthesia early in life may cause cognitive impairment. The connection between cell death and neurocognitive decline is uncertain. It is conceivable that mechanisms other than brain cell death contribute to neurocognitive ...
Anderson Shannon M SM Departments of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, - - 2009
B lymphocytes producing high-affinity Abs are critical for protection from extracellular pathogens, such as bacteria and parasites. The process by which high-affinity B cells are selected during the immune response has never been elucidated. Although it has been shown that high-affinity cells directly outcompete low-affinity cells in the germinal center ...
Shiraishi Hiroshi - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Various forms of cell death, such as apoptotic, autophagic and non-lysosomal types, are implicated in normal physiological processes. Apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (Apaf1) is an important component of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Deficiency of Apaf1 results in an accumulation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the developing central ...
Shimazawa Masamitsu - - 2010
We examined whether ((1S)-1-((((1S)-1-benzyl-3-cyclopropylamino-2,3-di-oxopropyl)amino)carbonyl)-3-methylbutyl)carbamic acid 5-methoxy-3-oxapentyl ester (SNJ-1945), a new orally available calpain inhibitor, might reduce retinal cell death in vivo and/or in vitro. Retinal cell damage was induced in vivo in mice by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), and SNJ-1945 was intraperitoneally or orally administered twice. NMDA-induced calpain activity ...
Ohtomo Tadashi - - 2010
Treatment with imatinib mesylate (IM) results in an increased viable cell number of non-BCR-ABL-expressing cell lines by inhibiting spontaneous apoptosis. Electron microscopy revealed an increase of autophagosomes in response to IM. IM attenuated the cytotoxic effect of cytosine arabinoside, as well as inhibiting cell death with serum-deprived culture. Cytoprotection with ...
Medic Nevenka - - 2010
In this paper we show that rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) adhere to rat oligodendrocytes (ODC) in culture and switch on a bi-directional signal affecting both adhering cell and its target. Following heterotypic interaction, RPMC release granule content and ODC show morphological changes and enter the apoptotic programme. Altogether, these ...
Berg Daniela - - 2009
The oligomerization status of soluble tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) trimers has an overwhelming impact on cell death induction in a cell-type dependent fashion. Thus, we evaluated the ability of single and oligomerized TRAIL trimers to induce cell death in human myeloma cells. In all myeloma cell lines ...
Cusick John K - - 2010
RELT is a recently identified Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor that possess two homologues in humans named RELL1 and RELL2. We investigated whether RELT and its homologues could induce cellular death when transiently transfected into HEK 293 epithelial cells. Transfection of RELT family members into HEK 293 epithelial cells induced cell ...
Kim So-Young - - 2010
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are endogenous inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and the aberrant expressions of MMPs are strongly associated with neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death. In the present study, we found that two well-known dopaminergic neurotoxins, MPP(+) and 6-OHDA, reduced TIMP-2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels ...
Kassab Kawser - - 2009
The combined anticancer modality comprising porphyrins as photodynamic sensitizers and anticancer drugs has been an interesting subject for many researchers. In this study, the photochemotherapeutic effect mediated by simultaneous photoactivation of tetracationic meso-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetratosylate (TMPyP) and adriamycin (ADM) were explored using human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HePG2). The efficiency ...
Grand?r Dan - - 2009
Glucocorticoids are fundamental drugs used in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies with apoptotic cell death as the hitherto proposed mechanism of action. We have recently shown that dexamethasone induces autophagy in lymphoid leukemia cells and in this particular setting this cell death modality is a prerequisite for the efficient killing ...
Song Jianrui - - 2009
Hypoxia commonly exists in solid tumors. Under such adverse conditions, adaptive responses including autophagy are usually provoked to promote cell survival. In our study, autophagy, a lysosomal-mediated degradation pathway, is demonstrated as a protective way to make hepatocellular carcinoma cells resistant to chemotherapy under hypoxia. Compared with normoxia, chemotherapeutic agent-induced ...
Jia Yan-Li - - 2009
Curcumin (1), a natural polyphenolic compound, has shown strong antioxidant and anticancer activities. Several molecular mechanisms have been attributed to its inhibitory effects on a wide range of tumor cells. In this study, the response of the chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K562 cells to 1 is investigated. Curcumin inhibited ...
Wlodkowic Donald - - 2009
Tumor cell demise is an important event in the elimination of abnormal malignant cells and provides an important mechanism of natural tumor suppression. Abnormalities incapacitating these finely tuned processes provide a strong advantage for cancer clones to succeed in evading both the physiological control systems and therapeutic intervention. Expanding our ...
Bovellan Miia - - 2010
Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) regulates many distinct signalling events, including apoptosis, autophagy and membrane blebbing. The role of DAPK in the blebbing process is only beginning to be understood and, in this review, we will first summarize what is known about the cytoskeletal proteins and signalling cascades that participate in ...
Borjihan Hasibagan - - 2009
In this study, the vacuole disruptive activity was evaluated as a cause of amphotericin B (AmB) lethality against the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans in terms of its enhancement by allicin, an allyl-sulfur compound from garlic. Vacuole disruption was observed in parallel to AmB-induced cell death when the antibiotic was used ...
Nakajima Hidemitsu - - 2009
Glycerladehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a classic glycolytic enzyme, also has a role in mediating cell death under oxidative stress. Our previous reports suggest that oxidative stress-induced GAPDH aggregate formation is, at least in part, a mechanism to account for the death signaling. Here we show that substitution of cysteine for serine-284 ...
González-Rubio Sandra - - 2010
The intracellular oxidative stress has been involved in bile acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes. Nitric oxide (NO) exerts cytoprotective properties in glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)-treated hepatocytes. The study evaluated the involvement of Ca2+ on the regulation of NO synthase (NOS)-3 expression during N-acetylcysteine (NAC) cytoprotection against GCDCA-induced cell death in hepatocytes. ...
Li Wei W Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, - - 2009
The imaginal disc epithelia that give rise to the adult ectoderm of Drosophila can compensate to produce normal adult organs after damage. We looked at the local response to cell death by using two genetic methods to elevate cell death rates. During cell competition, sporadic cell death occurs predictably along ...
Martin Patrick - - 2010
Extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) is a key player in cell signaling. After 25 years of investigation, ERK has been associated with every major aspect of cell physiology. Cell proliferation, cell transformation, protection against apoptosis, among others, are influenced by ERK function. Surprisingly, ERK has also been associated with two apparently ...
Scott Colin J - - 2010
The vast majority of optic neuropathies result from retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axonal injury. This induces cell death and is associated with a burst of mitochondria-generated superoxide within the soma. It is unclear whether there is a clear causal relationship between superoxide generation and cell death. To determine whether mitochondrial-generated ...
Zelig Udi - - 2009
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been established as a fast spectroscopic method for biochemical analysis of cells and tissues. In this research we aimed to investigate FTIR's utility for identifying and characterizing different modes of cell death, using leukemic cell lines as a model system. CCRF-CEM and U937 leukemia ...
Mell??n Mar??a A - - 2009
Apoptosis and autophagy are physiological processes implicated in the maintenance of cell and tissue homeostasis. We took advantage of the existence of multiple phases of developmental cell death in the embryonic chick retina and of the availability of short-term organotypic retinal cultures to explore the possible relationship between apoptosis and ...
Qian Haoran - - 2009
Adriamycin (ADM) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanisms involved in ADM-induced cell death and the molecular basis of ADM resistance are still unclear. To observe the early events that occurred in hepatoma cells in response to ADM, we investigated the alterations ...
Chahomchuen Thippayarat - - 2009
Tributyltin chloride (TBT), an environmental pollutant, is toxic to a variety of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Although it has been reported that TBT induces apoptotic cell death in mammalian, the action of TBT on eukaryotic microorganisms has not yet been fully investigated. In this study we examined the mechanism involved ...
Chiacchiera Fulvio - - 2009
Autophagy is an essential process for the maintenance of cellular and metabolic homeostasis. Indeed, it is required for the recovery of ATP-generating substrates in cells subjected to different types of stress insults. Thus, the activity of the autophagic machinery strongly depends on the metabolic status of the cell.(1) It has ...
Antunes Ricardo F - - 2009
Red blood cells (RBC) have emerged as a novel regulatory cell type endowed with bioactivities toward activated human T cells. Herein we show that the RBC bioactivities act on intracellular pathways initiated by T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent and -independent stimuli,including IL-2, IL-15, and the mixture of phorbol dibutyrate and ionomycin. ...
Baig Saeeda S Department of Biochemistry, Ziauddin University, Karachi. - - 2009
To compare the combined and isolated growth inhibitory effects of Morarah and Khaltita (herbs) on hepatoma cell lines (Huh-7), through induction of apoptosis or necrosis. Comparative controlled in-vitro study. The Molecular Biology Laboratory, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, from June to December 2006. The growth of hepatoma cell lines (Huh-7) ...
Wong W Wei-Lynn - - 2009
Ubiquitylation of caspase-8 by the Cullin3 E3 ligase allows its translocation to cytosolic aggregates in the cell by p62/sequestosome-1, increasing caspase-8 activation and thus leading to TRAIL-induced cell death.
Lafont E - - 2010
Ceramide can be converted into sphingomyelin by sphingomyelin synthases (SMS) 1 and 2. In this study, we show that in human leukemia Jurkat cells, which express mainly SMS1, Fas ligand (FasL) treatment inhibited SMS activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner before nuclear fragmentation. The SMS inhibition elicited by FasL ...
Colell A - - 2009
Growing evidence points to the fact that glucose metabolism has a central role in carcinogenesis. Among the enzymes controlling this energy production pathway, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is of particular interest. Initially identified as a glycolytic enzyme and considered as a housekeeping gene, this enzyme is actually tightly regulated and is ...
Matte Isabelle - - 2009
It has been well established that Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) induces cell death in human epithelial cells. However, the mechanism of TcdA-induced cell death remains to be fully characterized. Here, we show that TcdA induces dose-dependent cell death in ovarian carcinoma and colonic carcinoma cell lines. TcdA-mediated cell death, ...
Suzuki Dai - - 2009
Developing vertebrate limbs are often utilized as a model for studying pattern formation and morphogenetic cell death. Herein, we report that conditional deletion of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of proteins, in mouse limb bud mesenchyme led to skeletal deformities in the autopod and soft tissue syndactyly, with ...
Sun Guoming - - 2009
Agents inducing O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)MeG) in DNA such as N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) are cytotoxic and a deficiency in mismatch repair (MMR) results in lack of sensitivity to this genotoxin (termed alkylation tolerance). Here, we show that ING2, a member of the inhibitor of growth family, is required for cell death induced by ...
Guo Wen-jie - - 2010
In this study, we investigated autophagy induced in HeLa cells by copper(II) complex of ethyl 2-[bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino] propionate ligand (ETDPA) (formula: [(ETDPA)Cu(phen)](ClO4)2 (abbreviated as LCu),a novel synthetic copper(II) complex whose DNA binding activity has been proved. Cell viability, autophagic levels and generation of ROS were evaluated following the exposure to LCu. ...
Varmark Hanne - - 2009
Progression through the G(2)/M transition following DNA damage is linked to cytokinesis failure and mitotic death. In four different transformed cell lines and two human embryonic stem cell lines, we find that DNA damage triggers mitotic chromatin decondensation and global phosphorylation of histone H2AX, which has been associated with apoptosis. ...
Zismanov V - - 2009
Multiple myeloma (MM) therapy is hindered by the interaction of the heterogeneous malignant plasma cells with their microenvironment and evolving drug resistance. We have previously shown that the membranal tetraspanins, CD81 and CD82, are under-expressed in MM cells and that their reintroduction causes massive non-apoptotic death. In this study, we ...
Tattersall Daniel - - 2009
The epidermis expresses a number of connexin (Cx) proteins that are implicated in gap junction-mediated cell communication. Distinct dominantly inherited mutations in Cx31 cause the skin disease erythrokeratoderma variabilis (EKV) and hearing loss with or without neuropathy. Functional studies reveal tissue-specific effects of these Cx31 disease-associated mutations. The Cx31 mutants ...
Huser C A - - 2010
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-stimulated clone-22 domain family member 1 (TSC-22D1) has previously been associated with enhanced apoptosis in several cell systems. In an attempt to identify novel factors that are involved in the control of cell death during mammary gland involution, we found that the mRNA for isoform 2 ...
Chakraborty Papia - - 2009
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infects and kills a wide range of cell types; however, the mechanisms involved in VSV-mediated cell death are not fully understood. Here we show that VSV infection interferes with mitotic progression, resulting in cell death. This effect requires the interaction of VSV matrix (M) protein with ...
Pogány Miklós - - 2009
Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) NADPH oxidases have been reported to suppress the spread of pathogen- and salicylic acid-induced cell death. Here, we present dual roles of RBOHD (for respiratory burst oxidase homolog D) in an Arabidopsis-Alternaria pathosystem, suggesting either initiation or prevention of cell death dependent on the distance from pathogen ...
Fujitani Yoshio - - 2009
Autophagy is a membrane-trafficking mechanism that delivers cytoplasmic components into the lysosome to form autophagic vacuoles for bulk protein degradation. While previous studies have reported enhanced autophagosome formation in pancreatic β-cells under some pathophysiological conditions, the role of autophagy remains largely unknown. We have reported that low-level constitutive basal autophagy ...
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