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Geng Ying Y Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294-0017, - - 2010
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a high-grade central nervous system malignancy and despite aggressive treatment strategies, GBM patients have a median survival time of just 1 year. Chloroquine (CQ), an antimalarial lysosomotropic agent, has been identified as a potential adjuvant in the treatment regimen of GBMs. However, the mechanism of CQ-induced tumor ...
Puissant Alexandre - - 2010
Autophagy that is induced by starvation or cellular stress can enable cancer cell survival by sustaining energy homeostasis and eliminating damaged organelles and proteins. In response to stress, cancer cells have been reported to accumulate the protein p62/SQSTM1 (p62), but its role in the regulation of autophagy is controversial. Here, ...
Hiraga Asahi - - 2010
Evans Blue staining indicated that actively growing tobacco BY-2 cells in the exponential phase died more rapidly than quiescent cells in the stationary phase when the cells cultured under agitation were placed under still conditions. Fifty percent cell death was induced at about 18, 26, 80 and 140 h for ...
Roat Thaisa Cristina - - 2010
Apis mellifera is an interesting model to neurobiological studies. It has a relatively small brain that commands the complex learning and memory tasks demanded by the social organization. An A. mellifera colony is made up of a queen, thousands of workers and a varying number of drones. The latter are ...
SzczepaƄski Mariusz Andrzej - - 2010
The cytoskeleton is a ubiquitous cellular structure that plays a crucial role in most processes of living cells. There are reports suggesting that this system not only reflects, but also contributes to many different processes, including cell death. In this study, we examined alterations of both MT and MF cytoskeletal ...
No Haja - - 2010
The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Nur77 is known to regulate survival and death in response to extracellular stimuli, but it is unclear whether Nur77 is regulated by oxidative stress and contributes to the cytotoxicity in neurodegenerative diseases. Here we showed that (1) ...
Jelezcova Elena E Department of Pharmacology & Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine & University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, - - 2010
Alkylating agents induce cell death in wild-type (WT) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by multiple mechanisms, including apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis. DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) knockout (KO) MEFs are hypersensitive to the cytotoxic effect of alkylating agents, as compared to WT MEFs. To test the hypothesis that Parp1 is preferentially ...
Britschgi Adrian - - 2010
Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) patients are successfully treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). However, concurrent chemotherapy is still necessary and less toxic therapeutic approaches are needed. Earlier studies suggested that in haematopoietic neoplasms, the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) induces cell death without adversely affecting healthy cells. We aimed at ...
Cacas Jean-Luc - - 2010
Eukaryotic cells have to constantly cope with environmental cues and integrate developmental signals. Cell survival or death is the only possible outcome. In the field of animal biology, tremendous efforts have been put into the understanding of mechanisms underlying cell fate decision. Distinct organelles have been proven to sense a ...
Xu G Wei - - 2010
The proteasomal pathway of protein degradation involves 2 discrete steps: ubiquitination and degradation. Here, we evaluated the effects of inhibiting the ubiquitination pathway at the level of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA1 (E1). By immunoblotting, leukemia cell lines and primary patient samples had increased protein ubiquitination. Therefore, we examined the effects ...
Hwang Jaegyu - - 2010
Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, abundant in brain, are involved in neuronal function and disease, but the precise molecular mechanisms underlying their physiological or pathological activities are poorly understood. In this study, the pathological role of gangliosides in the extracellular milieu with respect to glial cell death and lipid raft/membrane disruption ...
Niikura Y Y Department of Molecular Pharmacology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, - - 2010
The cell death mechanism that prevents aneuploidy caused by a failure of the spindle checkpoint has recently emerged as an important regulatory paradigm. We previously identified a new type of mitotic cell death, termed caspase-independent mitotic death (CIMD), which is induced during early mitosis by partial BUB1 (a spindle checkpoint ...
Guaragnella Nicoletta - - 2010
To investigate the role of cytochrome c (cyt c) release in yeast acetic acid-induced programmed cell death (AA-PCD), wild type (wt) and cells lacking metacaspase (Deltayca1), cytochrome c (Deltacyc1,7) and both (Deltacyc1,7Deltayca1) were compared for AA-PCD occurrence, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production and caspase activity. AA-PCD occurs in Deltacyc1,7 and Deltacyc1,7Deltayca1 ...
Jetti Suresh Kumar - - 2010
Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed in central and peripheral nervous system. They are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes: synaptic transmission, learning and memory, pain perception, ischemia, etc. During ischemia, metabolic acidosis causes the drop of extracellular pH (pHe) which in turn activates ASICs. ...
Ooi Kheng Leong - - 2010
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The decoction of the whole plant of Physalis minima L. is traditionally consumed to treat cancer. Its anticancer property has been previously verified (using in vitro cytotoxicity assays) against NCI-H23 lung, CORL23 lung and MCF7 breast cancer cell lines but the mechanism underlying the anticancer potency towards ovarian ...
Kafa Ilker M - - 2010
Sepsis occurs in 14-37 percent of patients admitted to intensive care units and sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) is its severe complication. In an attempt to provide insight into the question how sepsis and SAE contributes cerebral dysfunction, apoptotic cell death was investigated in hippocampal formation, centers of adult neurogenesis and ...
Barbugli Paula A - - 2010
In this study, the photodynamic action of liposomes (LP) and nanocapsules (NC) containing Chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (CIAIPc), on the human melanoma cell (WM 1552C), was assessed. The light source was setup at 672 nm, which corresponds to the maximum absorption wavelength of the CIAIPc. Both colloidal carriers presented size in nanometric ...
Eberhard Matthias - - 2010
FTY720 is a potent anti-inflammatory drug known to trigger suicidal death or apoptosis of a variety of nucleated cells. Erythrocytes may similarly undergo suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis. Hallmarks of eryptosis include cell membrane scrambling and cell shrinkage, which are triggered by increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and ceramide. The ...
Chromik Ansgar M - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Taurolidine (TRD) represents an anti-infective substance with anti-neoplastic activity in many malignant cell lines. So far, the knowledge about the cell death inducing mechanisms and pathways activated by TRD is limited. The aim of this study was therefore, to perform a comparative analysis of cell death induction by TRD ...
Rammer Paul - - 2010
A complex of human alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid (HAMLET) was originally isolated from human milk as a potent anticancer agent. It kills a wide range of transformed cells of various origins while leaving nontransformed healthy cells largely unaffected both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, purified alpha-lactalbumins from other mammals ...
Wang Hongmei - - 2010
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder initiated by the aggregation of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta). Macroautophagy, which is essential for cell survival as well as the promotion of cell death, has been observed extensively in AD brains or transgenic mice overexpressing Abeta protein precursor. However, the role of macroautophagy in ...
Eng Christina H - - 2010
Autophagy is a tightly regulated catabolic process that plays key roles in normal cellular homeostasis and survival during periods of extracellular nutrient limitation and stress. The environmental signals that regulate autophagic activity are only partially understood. Here, we report a direct link between glutamine (Gln) metabolism and autophagic activity in ...
Guo Wen-Jing - - 2010
Taxol (Paclitaxel) is an important natural product for the treatment of solid tumors such as ovarian, breast, non-small-cell lung tumors, and some head and neck carcinomas. Different concentrations of taxol trigger distinct effects on cell death forms. In present study, cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay, confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging, flow ...
Weinberg Andrew D - - 2010
Memory T-cell generation is limited by activation-induced cell death during the effector T-cell stage. Cell surface proteins are known to transmit signals that either accentuate or limit T-cell death after activation. This chapter will focus on the TNF-receptor family member OX40, which is expressed on effector T cells and when ...
Yuk Jae-Min - - 2010
The cell wall skeleton of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG/CWS) is an effective antitumor immunotherapy agent. Here, we demonstrate that BCG/CWS has a radiosensitizing effect on colon cancer cells through the induction of autophagic cell death. Exposure of HCT116 colon cancer cells to BCG/CWS before ionizing radiation (IR) resulted in ...
Jeong Ji Cheon - - 2010
Mulberry has been reported to contain wide range of polyphenols and have chemopreventive activity. However, little has been known regarding the effect of mulberry fruit extracts on cell viability in vitro in human glioma cells and the anticancer efficacy in vivo. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of ...
Dhesi Pavittarpaul - - 2010
Autophagy plays a critical and seemingly dual-purposed role in cardiomyocytes, being implicated as a mechanism of both cellular survival, for example, during ischemia/reperfusion injury and a mechanism of cell death at stages in which progressive myocyte alterations are beyond repair. This review aims to highlight the current literature as it ...
Fulda Simone - - 2010
Cells can respond to stress in various ways ranging from the activation of survival pathways to the initiation of cell death that eventually eliminates damaged cells. Whether cells mount a protective or destructive stress response depends to a large extent on the nature and duration of the stress as well ...
Mariño Guillermo - - 2010
During autophagy, portions of the cytoplasm are sequestered into autophagosomes and digested by lysosomal hydrolases. Massive autophagy can be induced in mammalian tissues in a coordinated fashion through nutrient deprivation, which has prompted the search of soluble metabolites that can stimulate autophagy. Ammonia, which is generated as a by-product of ...
Hamada Nobuyuki - - 2010
Superb biological effectiveness and dose conformity represent a rationale for heavy-ion therapy, which has thus far achieved good cancer controllability while sparing critical normal organs. Immediately after irradiation, heavy ions produce dense ionization along their trajectories, cause irreparable clustered DNA damage, and alter cellular ultrastructure. These ions, as a consequence, ...
Yamaguchi Hideaki - - 2010
We analyzed the effects of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), a licorice compound, on the induction of anoikis-like death and cytoskeletal disruption in the central nervous system (CNS) tumorigenic cells. GA was cytotoxic in time- and dose-dependent manners, and the tumorigenic cells shed floating cells upon the GA treatment and even some ...
Morselli Eugenia - - 2010
The life span of various model organisms can be extended by caloric restriction as well as by autophagy-inducing pharmacological agents. Life span-prolonging effects have also been observed in yeast cells, nematodes and flies upon the overexpression of the deacetylase Sirtuin-1. Intrigued by these observations and by the established link between ...
Duan Wenjun - - 2010
Hepatoprotectant silibinin has anticancer and chemo-preventive effects. In this study, silibinin showed significant inhibitory effect on human fibroblast HT 1080 cell growth cultured in media containing 10% fetal bovine serum or in serum free media, and in the latter case, silibinin exerted a more significant effect. Silibinin induced autophagy at ...
Gullo Charles - - 2010
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of terminally-differentiated plasma cells, and the second most prevalent blood cancer. At present there is no cure for MM, and the average prognosis is only three to five years. Current treatments such as chemotherapy are able to prolong a patient's life but rarely prevent ...
Restall Ian J - - 2010
The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is a promising new target in cancer therapy and selective Hsp90 inhibitors are currently in clinical trials. Previously these inhibitors have been reported to induce either cell cycle arrest or cell death in cancer cells. Whether the cell cycle arrest is reversible or irreversible has not ...
Li Dan-Dan - - 2010
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved protein degradation pathway. A defect in autophagy may contribute to tumorigenesis. Autophagy inducers could have a potential function in tumor prevention and treatment. Our results showed that Rhabdastrellic acid-A, an isomalabaricane triterpenoid isolated from the sponge Rhabdastrella globostellata, inhibited proliferation of human cancer cell lines ...
Shi Mei - - 2010
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world which is highly chemoresistant to currently available chemotherapeutic agents. Thus, novel therapeutic targets are needed to be sought for the successful treatment of HCC. Peptaibols, a family of peptides synthesized non-ribosomally by the Trichoderma species and other ...
Lee Sook-Jeong - - 2010
Zinc dyshomeostasis has been recognized as an important mechanism for cell death in acute brain injury. An increase in the level of free or histochemically reactive zinc in astrocytes and neurons is considered one of the major causes of death of these cells in ischemia and trauma. Although zinc dyshomeostasis ...
Büttner Sabrina - - 2010
Parkinson's disease is characterized by the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions, known as Lewy bodies, containing both aggregated α-synuclein and its interaction partner, synphilin-1. While synphilin-1 is known to accelerate inclusion formation by α-synuclein in mammalian cells, its effect on cytotoxicity remains elusive. We expressed wild-type synphilin-1 or its R621C mutant ...
Deng L - - 2010
We previously identified a novel estrogen-induced gene, EIG121, as being differentially regulated in endometrioid and nonendometrioid endometrial carcinoma. The function of EIG121 was unknown. Using a tetracycline-inducible system, we found that overexpression of EIG121, but not of LacZ, caused a profound suppression of cell growth. Subcellular fractionation and immunofluroscent labeling ...
Vilar Jose M G - - 2010
Cellular responses to death-promoting stimuli typically proceed through a differentiated multistage process, involving a lag phase, extensive death, and potential adaptation. Deregulation of this chain of events is at the root of many diseases. Improper adaptation is particularly important because it allows cell sub-populations to survive even in the continuous ...
Lafont Elodie - - 2010
Upon CD95/Fas ligation, the initiator caspase-8 is known to activate effector caspases leading to apoptosis. In the presence of zVAD-fmk, a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, Fas engagement can also trigger an alternative, non-apoptotic caspase-independent form of cell death, which is initiated by RIP1. Controversy exists as to the ability of caspase-10 ...
Kadono Takashi - - 2010
Ozone is a major secondary air pollutant often reaching high concentrations in urban areas under strong daylight, high temperature and stagnant high-pressure systems. Ozone in the troposphere is a pollutant that is harmful to the plant. By exposing cells to a strong pulse of ozonized air, an acute cell death ...
Shahaf Gitit G The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, - - 2010
B lymphocytes are subject to elimination following strong BCR ligation in the absence of appropriate second signals, and this mechanism mediates substantial cell losses during late differentiation steps in the bone marrow and periphery. Mature B cells may also be eliminated through this mechanism as well as through normal turnover, ...
Stoica Bogdan A BA Shock, Trauma and Anesthesiology Research Center, National Study Center for Trauma and EMS, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA. - - 2010
Cell death after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of neurological deficits and mortality. Understanding the mechanisms of delayed post-traumatic cell loss may lead to new therapies that improve outcome. Although TBI induces changes in multiple cell types, mechanisms of neuronal cell death have been the predominant focus. ...
Wu Jin-yi JY Graduate Institute of Biomedical and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan, - - 2010
To examine the antitumor effect of 4'-chloro-3,5-dihydroxystilbene, a resveratrol derivative, on lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The cytotoxic IC(50) was determined by direct cell counting. Flow cytometry, monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, transfection, Western blot and a proteasome activity assay were used to study the cellular mechanism of 4'-chloro-3,5-dihydroxystilbene. A xenograft nude mouse ...
Suwanjang Wilasinee - - 2010
Methamphetamine (METH) is a potent psychostimulant drug that may cause neuronal cell degeneration. The underlying mechanisms of METH-induced neuronal toxicity remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated an important role of calpain-dependent cascades in methamphetamine-induced toxicity in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cultured cell lines. In addition, the protective effect ...
Choi Yun-Hyung - - 2010
Presenilins are the catalytic subunit of the large gamma-secretase complex, that promotes intramembranous proteolysis of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP), resulting in the production of beta-amyloid (A beta). Mutant presenilin causes early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), is related to abnormal Ca(2+) signaling, and render cells vulnerable to cell death. In ...
Lachaud Christophe - - 2010
Studies performed in animals have highlighted the major role of sphingolipids in regulating the balance between cell proliferation and cell death. Sphingolipids have also been shown to induce cell death in plants via calcium-based signalling pathways but the contribution of free cytosolic and/or nuclear calcium in the overall process has ...
Batlevi Yakup Y Department of Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, - - 2010
Autophagy is a catabolic pathway that is important for turnover of long-lived proteins and organelles, and has been implicated in cell survival, tumor progression, protection from infection, neurodegeneration, and cell death. Autophagy and caspases are required for type II autophagic cell death of Drosophila larval salivary glands during development, but ...
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