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Results 301 - 350 of 3061
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Benedikt Michaela B - - 2010
Osteosarcoma is a bone tumor that frequently develops during adolescence. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME), a naturally occurring metabolite of 17beta-estradiol, induces cell cycle arrest and cell death in human osteosarcoma cells. To investigate whether the osteoprotegrin (OPG) protein plays a role in 2-ME actions, we studied the effect of 2-ME treatment on ...
Tamajusuku Alessandra S K - - 2010
Gliomas have one of the worst prognosis among cancers. Their resistance to cell death induced by endogenous neurotoxic agents, such as extracellular ATP, seems to play an important role in their pathobiology since alterations in the degradation rate of extracellular ATP drastically affects glioma growth in rats. In the present ...
Muraguchi Takashi - - 2010
We recently demonstrated that short time exposure to hypoxia (15 min) in H9c2 cardiomyocytes protected cells against cell death, and longer exposure to hypoxia induced cell death. To understand the molecular mechanism concerning cell death and survival, it is intriguing to identify survival factors against cell death. Using proteomics analysis, ...
Linder Stig - - 2010
Cytokeratin (CK)18 is a useful serum biomarker for the determination of cell death of epithelial-derived tumors (carcinomas). ELISAs are available for caspase-cleaved CK18 (M30) released from apoptotic cells, or total CK18 (M65) released by cells undergoing cell death by any cause. These assays have been demonstrated to have prognostic or ...
Opsahl Jill A - - 2010
DJ-1 was originally identified to be an oncogenic product, but has later been shown to be highly multifunctional. DJ-1 plays a role in oxidative stress response and transcriptional regulation, and loss of its function leads to an early onset of Parkinsonism. To further understand the mechanisms behind DJ-1's role in ...
Colella Rita - - 2010
A specific irreversible inhibitor of both cathepsins B and L, Fmoc-Tyr-Ala-CHN(2) (FYAD) induced apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells but not other tumor cells. Cysteine protease inhibitors that were not efficient inhibitors of both proteases did not cause death of any cell line tested. Apoptosis was preceded by accumulation of large electron ...
Hamed Hossein A - - 2010
The present studies focused on determining whether the autophagy-inducing drug OSU-03012 (AR-12) could enhance the toxicity of recombinant adenoviral delivery of melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells. The toxicity of a recombinant adenovirus to express MDA-7/IL-24 (Ad.mda-7) was enhanced by OSU-03012 in a diverse panel of ...
Tsuruma Kazuhiro - - 2010
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show a significantly increased incidence of glaucoma. AD is also associated with the occurrence of the neurotoxic peptide amyloid beta (Abeta). Therefore, we investigated whether Abeta is associated with retinal cell death in a retinal ganglion cell line (RGC-5). Treatment with Abeta(25-35), a neurotoxic fragment ...
Serrano Irene - - 2010
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a process that occurs both in animals and in plants and is an essential element in developmental processes. Pollination is a key factor in fruit production and self-incompatibility is one of the main limiting factors of this process. PCD has recently been put forward as ...
Viscomi M T - - 2010
Functional impairment after development of focal CNS lesions depends highly on damage that occurs in regions that are remote but functionally connected to the primary lesion site. These remote effects include cell death and structural changes, and they are important predictors of outcome in several pathologies, such as stroke, multiple ...
Templeton Douglas M - - 2010
Cadmium is a toxic metal with no known biological function. It is increasingly important as an environmental hazard to both humans and wildlife, and it exemplifies the double edged nature of many toxic substances. Thus, on the one hand cadmium can act as a mitogen, stimulate cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis, ...
Nishinaka Yoko - - 2010
Protective effects of edaravone, an approved medicine for acute brain infarction in Japan, on cell death induced by singlet oxygen (1O2) were examined. The 1O2 scavenging activity was examined by direct analysis of near-infrared luminescence in a cell-free system and by fluorospectrometry in the presence of cells. The protective effects ...
Mahmud Hasan - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, suicidal death of erythrocytes is paralleled by cell shrinkage and cell membrane disorganization with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of suicidal erythrocyte death include cell shrinkage, energy depletion, and oxidative stress, challenges at least partially effective by increasing the cytosolic Ca(2+) ...
Khan M Tariq - - 2010
Previous studies have shown that small interfering RNA knockdown and pharmacological inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) stimulate autophagy. We have investigated autophagy in chicken DT40 cell lines containing targeted deletions of all three IP(3)R isoforms (triple knock-out (TKO) cells). Using gel shifts of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 ...
Takadera Tsuneo - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to examine whether glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is involved in colchicine-induced cell death in PC12 cells by using GSK inhibitors. Colchicine increased apoptotic cell death with morphological changes characterized by cell shrinkage and nuclear condensation or fragmentation. GSK-3 inhibitors such as alsterpaullone, SB216763, and ...
Chiacchiera Fulvio - - 2010
FoxO proteins are an evolutionarily conserved subfamily of transcription factors involved in tumor suppression, regulation of energy metabolism and development in several tissues, and are mainly regulated by phosphorylation-dependent nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling. The transcriptional activity of FoxO3A, one of the four members of the family, is further modulated by AMPK, one ...
Kumar Yatender - - 2010
Activation of initiator caspases is dependent on interacting proteins, and Ipaf [ICE (interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme)-protease activating factor] {NLRC4 [NLR (Nod-like receptor) family CARD (caspase activation and recruitment domain)-containing 4]} an inflammasome component, is involved in caspase 1 activation and apoptosis. Investigating the mechanisms of Ipaf activation, we found that the C-terminal ...
Woo Im Sun - - 2010
Increased expression of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) by stable transfection appeared to attenuate paclitaxel-induced apoptotic cell death in human glioblastoma U87MG cells. The present results suggest that the apoptotic functions of p53 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) are affected by FPPS. Farnesyl diphosphate, a catalytic product of FPPS, also attenuated ...
O'Donnell Marie Anne MA Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. - - 2010
The kinase RIP1 wears a coat of many colors during TNF receptor signaling and can regulate both activation of pro-survival NFkB and programmed cell death pathways. In this review, we outline how coating RIP1 with K63-linked ubiquitin chains forms a protective layer that prevents RIP1 from binding apoptotic regulators and ...
Nones Jader - - 2010
ESCs (embryonic stem cells) are potentially able to replace damaged cells in animal models of neural pathologies such as Parkinson's disease, stroke and spinal cord lesions. Nevertheless, many issues remain unsolved regarding optimal culturing procedures for these cells. For instance, on their path to differentiation in vitro, which usually involves ...
Zhivotovsky Boris - - 2010
Multiple cell death mechanisms operate in both uni- and multicellular organisms. Hence, research during the past forty years has revealed that apoptosis is not the only cell death program involved in the regulation of tissue homeostasis and the removal of unwanted cells in biological organisms. While the molecular pathways of ...
Mitchell Clint - - 2010
The use of smokeless tobacco products is often associated with an oral injury at the site of repeated use. To further our understanding of this injury process, the effect of reference moist smokeless tobacco extract (STE) on cell death, oxidative stress, and MAPK signaling in a human oral keratinocyte cell ...
Cloonan Suzanne M - - 2010
The discovery that some selective serotonin transporter- (SSRI) and norepinephrine transporter- (NSRI) targeting antidepressants have the potential to act as anticancer agents adds greatly to their diverse pharmacological application. We report that the SSRI fluoxetine and the NSRI maprotiline are potent antiproliferative agents against human Burkitt lymphoma (BL), having little ...
Montero Juan A - - 2010
Physiological cell death is a key mechanism that ensures appropriate development and maintenance of tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. Most structures in the vertebrate embryo exhibit defined areas of cell death at precise stages of development. In this regard the areas of interdigital cell death during limb development provide ...
Kim K A - - 2010
Host cell death induced by Entamoeba histolytica is an important mechanism for both host defence and microbial immune evasion during human amoebiasis. However, the signalling pathways underlying cell death induced by E. histolytica are not fully understood. This study investigated the involvement of the protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) SHP-1 and ...
Chen Yongqiang - - 2010
Autophagy is an intracellular lysosomal degradation process, which in the case of macroautophagy, is characterized by the formation of double-membraned autophagosomes. Enhanced under stress conditions, autophagy can function to promote cell survival or cell death depending on the type of cellular stress. Interest in autophagy has increased substantially in the ...
Law Betty Y K - - 2010
Emerging evidence suggests that autophagic modulators have therapeutic potential. This study aims to identify novel autophagic inducers from traditional Chinese medicinal herbs as potential antitumor agents. Using an image-based screen and bioactivity-guided purification, we identified alisol B 23-acetate, alisol A 24-acetate, and alisol B from the rhizome of Alisma orientale ...
Thorenoor Nithyananda - - 2010
The death effector domain (DED) of the mammalian apoptosis mediator, Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD), induces Escherichia coli cell death under aerobic culture conditions, yet the mechanisms by which FADD-DED induces cell death are not fully understood. Oxidative stress has been implicated as one of the mechanisms. Using a proteomic ...
Yordanova Zhenya P - - 2010
This work demonstrates a contribution of ethylene and NO (nitric oxide) in MP (mastoparan)-induced cell death in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Following MP treatment, C. reinhardtii showed massive cell death, expressing morphological features of PCD (programmed cell death). A pharmacological approach involving combined treatments with MP and ethylene- and ...
Choi In-Kwon - - 2010
Autophagy is an apoptosis-independent mechanism of cell death that protects the cell from environmental imbalances and infection by pathogens. We identified a novel small molecule, 2-(3-Benzyl-4-oxo-3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-benzo[4,5]thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylsulfanylmethyl)-oxazole-4-carboxylic acid (2-pyrrolidin-1-yl-ethyl)-amide (referred as autophagonizer), using high-content cell-based screening and the autophagosome marker EGFP-LC3. Autophagonizer inhibited growth and induced cell death in the human ...
Yang Jun - - 2010
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3beta) is constantly active in cells and its activity increases after serum deprivation, indicating that GSK-3beta might play a major role in cell survival under serum starvation. In this study, we attempted to determine how GSK-3beta promotes cell survival after serum depletion. Under full culture ...
Pfaffenbach Kyle T - - 2010
Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been linked to apoptosis via several mechanisms, including increased expression of C/EBP homologous protein (Chop). Increased long-chain fatty acids, in particular saturated fatty acids, induce ER stress, Chop expression, and apoptosis in liver cells. The first ...
Nishiyama Jun - - 2010
The lurcher (Lc) mice have served as a valuable model for neurodegeneration for decades. Although the responsible mutation was identified in genes encoding delta2 glutamate receptors (GluD2s), which are predominantly expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells, how the mutant receptor (GluD2(Lc)) triggers cell death has remained elusive. Here, taking advantage of ...
Chandrika Bhavya Balan - - 2010
Tumors often acquire drug resistance due to functional loss of pro apoptotic gene Bax, a critical and essential component of cell death rendering them insensitive to most anti-tumor agents. Compounds that can induce Bax independent apoptotic cell death are expected to overcome such drug resistance. We have employed a live ...
Ito Shu S Developmental & Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, - - 2010
Programmed cell death (or apoptosis) is an evolutionarily conserved, genetically controlled suicide mechanism for cells that, when deregulated, can lead to developmental defects, cancers, and degenerative diseases. In C. elegans, DNA damage induces germ cell death by signaling through cep-1/p53, ultimately leading to the activation of CED-3/caspase. It has been ...
Lebrun-Julien Frédéric - - 2010
Neurotrophin binding to the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) activates neuronal apoptosis following adult central nervous system injury, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain poorly defined. In this study, we show that the proform of nerve growth factor (proNGF) induces death of retinal ganglion cells in adult rodents via a p75(NTR)-dependent ...
Grdović Nevena - - 2010
Although cryosurgery is attaining increasing clinical acceptance, our understanding of the mechanisms of cryogenic cell destruction remains incomplete. While it is generally accepted that cryoinjured cells die by necrosis, the involvement of apoptosis was recently shown. Our studies of liver cell death by cryogenic temperature revealed the activation of endonuclease ...
Dadakhujaev Shorafidinkhuja - - 2010
Loss of dopaminergic cells induced by alpha-synuclein accumulation in substantia nigra causes the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, although autophagy has been implicated in the pathology of PD, the molecular mechanism is still unclear. To study the role of autophagy in PD pathogenesis, we established stable SH-SY5Y cell ...
Iwata Yusuke - - 2010
Aprotinin has been used in pediatric cardiac surgery for its antiinflammatory and hemostatic benefits. We have reported that aprotinin has a direct cellular neuroprotective effect through reduction of excitotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether aprotinin is neuroprotective against apoptotic cell death. Near-pure neuronal cultures containing <5% ...
do Amaral Jônatas Bussador - - 2010
3D (three-dimensional) cell culture permits a more integrated analysis of the relationship between cells, inserting them into a structure more closely resembling the cellular microenvironment in vivo. The development of in vitro parameters to approximate in vivo 3D cellular environments makes a less reductionist interpretation of cell biology possible. For ...
Xue Liang-Yan - - 2010
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses a photosensitizer, light and oxygen to produce extensive oxidative damage to organelles housing the photosensitizer. Although PDT is an efficient trigger of apoptosis, it also induces autophagy in many kinds of cells. Autophagy can serve as both a cell survival and a cell death mechanism. Our ...
Balakumaran Bala S - - 2010
Cancer cells have evolved exquisitely to ignore both intrinsic and extrinsic cell death signals, and resistance to cell death is a critical challenge facing clinical oncology. Autophagy, the catabolic recycling process that involves the fusion of autophagosomes containing sequestered cargo with lysosomes, has an enigmatic role in tumorigenesis. In times ...
Ren Yali - - 2011
Autophagy is a survival pathway required for cellular viability during starvation through catabolic self-digestion of damaged proteins and organelles; however, autophagy may result in cell death if it proceeds to completion. Although the exact mechanism of this process is not clear, it seems that proper regulation of autophagy can potentially ...
Geng Ying - - 2010
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a high-grade central nervous system malignancy and despite aggressive treatment strategies, GBM patients have a median survival time of just 1 year. Chloroquine (CQ), an antimalarial lysosomotropic agent, has been identified as a potential adjuvant in the treatment regimen of GBMs. However, the mechanism of CQ-induced tumor ...
Puissant Alexandre - - 2010
Autophagy that is induced by starvation or cellular stress can enable cancer cell survival by sustaining energy homeostasis and eliminating damaged organelles and proteins. In response to stress, cancer cells have been reported to accumulate the protein p62/SQSTM1 (p62), but its role in the regulation of autophagy is controversial. Here, ...
Hiraga Asahi - - 2010
Evans Blue staining indicated that actively growing tobacco BY-2 cells in the exponential phase died more rapidly than quiescent cells in the stationary phase when the cells cultured under agitation were placed under still conditions. Fifty percent cell death was induced at about 18, 26, 80 and 140 h for ...
Roat Thaisa Cristina - - 2010
Apis mellifera is an interesting model to neurobiological studies. It has a relatively small brain that commands the complex learning and memory tasks demanded by the social organization. An A. mellifera colony is made up of a queen, thousands of workers and a varying number of drones. The latter are ...
Szczepański Mariusz Andrzej - - 2010
The cytoskeleton is a ubiquitous cellular structure that plays a crucial role in most processes of living cells. There are reports suggesting that this system not only reflects, but also contributes to many different processes, including cell death. In this study, we examined alterations of both MT and MF cytoskeletal ...
No Haja - - 2010
The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Nur77 is known to regulate survival and death in response to extracellular stimuli, but it is unclear whether Nur77 is regulated by oxidative stress and contributes to the cytotoxicity in neurodegenerative diseases. Here we showed that (1) ...
Jelezcova Elena - - 2010
Alkylating agents induce cell death in wild-type (WT) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by multiple mechanisms, including apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis. DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) knockout (KO) MEFs are hypersensitive to the cytotoxic effect of alkylating agents, as compared to WT MEFs. To test the hypothesis that Parp1 is preferentially ...
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