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Results 251 - 300 of 3067
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Weidele Kathrin - - 2010
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a posttranslational modification of proteins, which is mainly catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) by using NAD(+) as substrate and is directly triggered by DNA strand breaks. Under mild genotoxic stress poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) formation plays an important role in DNA repair whereas severe genotoxic stress and the ensuing overactivation ...
McPhee Christina K CK Department of Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, - - 2010
Autophagy degrades cytoplasmic components that are required for cell survival in response to starvation. Autophagy has also been associated with cell death, but it is unclear how this is distinguished from autophagy during cell survival. Drosophila salivary glands undergo programmed cell death that requires autophagy genes, and engulfment of salivary ...
Yoon Young Hee - - 2010
To characterize and investigate the mechanism of chloroquine (CQ) retinotoxicity in human retinal pigment epithelium-derived ARPE-19 cells. Cultured ARPE-19 cells were exposed to 10 to 250 μM CQ, and cell death was quantified using a lactate dehydrogenase release assay. Autophagy was studied in ARPE-19 cells transfected with GFP-LC3. Lysosomes in ...
Yefimova Marina G - - 2010
In neurodegenerative disorders caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion, polyQ toxicity is thought to trigger a linear cascade of successive degenerative events leading to neuronal death. To understand how neurons cope with polyQ toxicity, we studied a Spinocerebellar ataxia 7 (SCA7) mouse which expresses polyQ-expanded ATXN7 only in rod photoreceptors. We ...
Seznec Janina - - 2011
Mithramycin A (MitA) is a chemotherapeutic compound which has been used in the therapy of several types of cancer. For experimental cancer it has been shown that MitA mediates the expression of genes involved in tumor progression such as genes involved in immunosurveillance, cell motility or cell death. MitA works synergistically ...
Skommer Joanna J School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New - - 2010
Cell population can be viewed as a quantum system, which like Schrödinger's cat exists as a combination of survival- and death-allowing states. Tracking and understanding cell-to-cell variability in processes of high spatio-temporal complexity such as cell death is at the core of current systems biology approaches. As probabilistic modeling tools ...
Tai Kwok-Keung - - 2010
Results from epidemiological studies indicated that there exists an inverse correlation between consumption of green tea and neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease. We hypothesized that consumption of green tea would activate endogenous protective mechanisms against environmental toxin-induced cell injury, which is believed to play a causative role in the etiology ...
Tsuda H - - 2010
Butyrate is produced by some types of anaerobic periodontal bacteria. Millimolar concentrations of butyrate are found in mature dental plaque from periodontitis patients. Although butyrate reportedly has a variety of effects in many mammalian cells, its effect on gingival epithelial cells is not well known. In this study, we investigated ...
Liu Jia - - 2011
To improve regeneration of the injured myocardium, cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs) have been put forward as a potential cell source for transplantation therapy. Although cell transplantation therapy displayed promising results, many issues need to be addressed before fully appreciating their impact. One of the hurdles is poor graft-cell survival upon ...
Constantinescu Patrick - - 2010
Extracellular ATP induces cation fluxes in and impairs the growth of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells in a manner characteristic of the purinergic P2X7 receptor, however the presence of P2X7 in these cells is unknown. This study investigated whether MEL cells express functional P2X7. RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated the ...
Gao Ping - - 2010
Gossypol, a natural Bcl-2 homology domain 3 mimetic compound isolated from cottonseeds, is currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Here, we provide evidence that gossypol induces autophagy followed by apoptotic cell death in both the MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma and HeLa cell lines. We first show that knockdown of the ...
Castino Roberta - - 2010
Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is an extremely reactive oxidoradical that is normally produced as a by-product of the mitochondrial activity and also under several metabolic stress conditions. Autophagy, a lysosomal degradation pathway, is triggered by oxidative stress as a defensive response. How autophagy and death pathways are coordinated in cells subjected ...
Hwang Jung Jin - - 2010
Treatment of MCF-7 cells with tamoxifen induced vacuole formation and cell death. Levels of the autophagy marker, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II also increased, and GFP-LC3 accumulated in and around vacuoles in MCF-7 cells exposed to tamoxifen, indicating that autophagy is involved in tamoxifen-induced changes. Live-cell confocal microscopy with ...
Leverrier S - - 2011
The extrinsic, or death receptor, pathway integrates apoptotic signals through the protease caspase-8 (casp8). Beyond cell death regulation, non-apoptotic functions of casp8 include its essential requirement for hematopoiesis and lymphocyte clonal expansion, and tempering of autophagy in T cells. However, the mechanistic basis for the control of these disparate cellular ...
Ho Chin-Yee - - 2010
Mitotic catastrophe is a phenomenon displayed by cells undergoing aberrant mitosis to eliminate cells that fail to repair the errors. Why and how mitotic catastrophe would lead to cell death remains to be resolved and the answer will prove valuable in design of better therapeutic agents that specifically target such ...
Huang Hsiao-Chun - - 2010
Comment on: Huang HC, et al. Cancer Cell 2009; 16:347-58.
Klettner Alexa - - 2010
Deferoxamine mesylate is clinically used as a chelating agent but might induce retinopathy. To evaluate its effect on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), porcine RPE cells were stimulated with deferoxamine. Cell death was assessed with trypan blue exclusion assay. To investigate the pathway of cell death, the mitogen-activated protein kinases ...
Lena Annalisa - - 2010
Adenine nucleotide translocases (ANTs) are multitask proteins involved in several aspects of cell metabolism, as well as in the regulation of cell death/survival processes. We investigated the role played by ANT isoforms 1 and 2 in the growth of a human glioblastoma cell line (ADF cells). The silencing of ANT2 ...
Krampe Britta - - 2010
Cell death is a fundamentally important problem in cell lines used by the biopharmaceutical industry. Environmental stress, which can result from nutrient depletion, by-product accumulation and chemical agents, activates through signalling cascades regulators that promote death. The best known key regulators of death process are the Bcl-2 family proteins which ...
Cloonan Suzanne M - - 2011
Resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle for the success of cancer therapy and is most commonly attributed to the inability of cancer cells to die by apoptosis, the archetypal programed cell death (PCD) response. The development of anticancer drugs that can overcome this resistance to apoptosis and induce other ...
Huang Huang-Chiao - - 2010
Plasmonic nanoparticles have shown promise in hyperthermic cancer therapy, both in vitro and in vivo. Previous reports have described hyperthermic ablation using targeted and nontargeted nanoparticles internalized by cancer cells, but most reports do not describe a theoretical analysis for determining optimal parameters. The focus of the current research was ...
Leon Rebecca - - 2010
Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded polyglutamine repeat within the N-terminus of the huntingtin protein. It is characterized by a selective loss of medium spiny neurons in the striatum. It has been suggested that impaired proteasome function and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress play important ...
Zhang X-Q XQ Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2010
We have previously shown that adenoviral-mediated interferon alpha (Ad-IFNalpha) treatment is highly cytotoxic to tumor cells which are resistant to the IFNalpha protein. We now report that autophagy is produced after Ad-IFNalpha treatment of either IFN resistant bladder cancer cells (UC9 and KU7) or the normal urothelial cell line (TERT-NHUC). ...
Alam Israt S - - 2010
The induction of apoptosis is frequently accompanied by the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the cell surface, which has been detected using radionuclide and fluorescently labeled derivatives of the PS-binding protein, Annexin V. The fluorescently labeled protein has been used extensively in vitro as a diagnostic reagent for detecting cell ...
Xu Kedi - - 2010
Smooth muscle cells (SMC) make up most of the vascular system. In advanced atherosclerotic plaques, dying SMCs undergo a complex death mode. In the present study, we examined the activation of autophagy in SMCs overloaded with excess free cholesterol (FC) and investigated the possible role which autophagy plays during the ...
Guha Prasun - - 2010
Stomach ulceration is a major side effect of most chemopreventive drugs. We have established that although resveratrol is a promising chemopreventive compound, it delays the ulcer healing process. However, its analog hydroxystilbene-1 (HST-1) was devoid of such an ulcerogenic side effect. Consequently, here we tried to explore the chemopreventive efficacy ...
Ortiz-Ortiz Miguel A - - 2010
Paraquat (PQ) is a well-known herbicide that exerts its effects by elevating intracellular levels of superoxide. It has been previously demonstrated that oxidative and nitrosative stress participate to PQ-induced cell death. Here, we document that PQ increases the levels of nitric oxide (NO) in rat mesencephalic cells and causes nuclear ...
Bijnsdorp Irene V - - 2010
Trifluorothymidine (TFT) is part of the oral drug formulation TAS-102. Both 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and TFT can inhibit thymidylate synthase and be incorporated into DNA. TFT shows only moderate cross-resistance to 5-FU. Therefore, we examined whether mechanistic differences in cell death could underlie their different modes of action in colorectal cancer ...
Chen Siquan - - 2010
Multiple pathways have been proposed to explain how proteasome inhibition induces cell death, but mechanisms remain unclear. To approach this issue, we performed a genome-wide siRNA screen to evaluate the genetic determinants that confer sensitivity to bortezomib (Velcade (R); PS-341). This screen identified 100 genes whose knockdown affected lethality to ...
Zuppini Anna - - 2010
Eukaryotic microalgae are highly suitable biological indicators of environmental changes because they are exposed to extreme seasonal fluctuations. The biochemical and molecular targets and regulators of key proteins involved in the stress response in microalgae have yet to be elucidated. This study presents morphological and biochemical evidence of programmed cell ...
Han Yong Hwan - - 2010
The proteasome inhibitor MG132 has been shown to induce apoptotic cell death through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of MG132 in As4.1 juxtaglomerular cell death in relation to apoptosis and levels of ROS and glutathione (GSH). MG132 inhibited the growth of As4.1 ...
Lombardi Lara - - 2010
The nucellus is a maternal tissue that feeds the developing embryo and the secondary endosperm. During seed development the cells of the nucellus suffer a degenerative process early after fertilization as the cellular endosperm expands and accumulates reserves. Nucellar cell degeneration has been characterized as a form of developmentally programmed ...
Leaver H Anne - - 2010
The prognosis for patients with malignant gliomas is poor, but improvements may emerge from a better understanding of the pathophysiology of glioma signalling. Recent therapeutic developments have implicated lipid signalling in glioma cell death. Stress signalling in glioma cell death involves mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Lipid mediators also signal via ...
Kim Yeon Hyang - - 2010
In this study, the function of nitric oxide (NO) in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related cell death in human glioma cells was investigated. Treatment of human CRT-MG cells with the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine (SNAP) and thapsigargin, an ER stress inducer, increased cytosolic Ca(2+) and caused apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of ...
Nagy Gabor - - 2010
Time-lapse video microscopy was designed to follow the movement of single cells for an unlimited period of time under physiological conditions. The system is based on two inverted microscopes located in a CO(2) incubator and equipped with charge-coupled device cameras connected to the computer. Frames were recorded every minute and ...
Gilloteaux Jacques - - 2010
A human bladder carcinoma cell line RT4 was sham-treated with buffer or treated with ascorbate (VC) alone, menadione alone (VK(3)), or a combination of ascorbate:menadione (VC+VK(3)) for 1, 2, and 4 h. Cytotoxic damage was found to be treatment-dependent in this sequence: VC+VK(3)>VC>VK(3)>sham. The combined treatment induced the greatest oxidative ...
Nishiyama Jun - - 2010
The role of autophagy in excitotoxic cell death caused by excessive activation of glutamate receptors has been a contentious issue. Lurcher (Lc) mutant mice, in which a mutant glutamate receptor causes continuous ion flow and kills cerebellar Purkinje cells, have been cited as a model of cell death resulting from ...
Choi Hye-Ryung - - 2010
Dopamine (DA) is a well known oxidative neurotoxin. In addition, Akt has been reported to deliver a survival signal that inhibits apoptosis. However, it has also been reported that chronic Akt activation leads to apoptosis in response to oxidative stress. The objective of the present study was to investigate the ...
Essick Eric E EE Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, - - 2010
Autophagy is a catalytic process of the bulk degradation of long-lived cellular components, ultimately resulting in lysosomal digestion within mature cytoplasmic compartments known as autophagolysosomes. Autophagy serves many functions in the cell, including maintaining cellular homeostasis, a means of cell survival during stress (e.g., nutrient deprivation or starvation) or conversely ...
Kutuk O O Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2010
Taxanes exert their antitumor effect through stabilizing microtubule dynamics and initiating G2/M arrest in cancer cells followed by apoptotic cell death. However, the signaling pathways that connect paclitaxel-induced microtubule perturbation to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and cytochrome c release are not well characterized. Here, we show that in breast cancer ...
Mujumdar Nameeta - - 2010
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, among the most lethal human malignancies, is resistant to current chemotherapies. We previously showed that triptolide inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and prevents tumor growth in vivo. This study investigates the mechanism by which triptolide kills pancreatic cancer cells. Cells were treated with triptolide ...
Wang Jin - - 2010
Thellungiella halophila (T. halophila) suspension-cultured cells were used to gain knowledge of the pathway of programmed cell death (PCD) in halophytes under salt stress. Several apoptotic-like features occurred in T. halophila cells after exposure to 300 mM NaCl, including the retraction of the plasma membrane from the cell wall, nuclear ...
Choi Cheol-Hee - - 2010
We reported that dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) induces autophagy in a catalase-regulated manner. In this study, we further examined the role of DHC-induced autophagy in lung cell lines. DHC-induced cytotoxicity was higher in WI38 and H1299 cells than in H460 and A549 cells, and was related to the loss of cell membrane ...
Endo Kingo - - 2010
We investigated the fate of budding yeast treated with nocodazole, a microtubule-depolymerizing drug. Cells died after mitotic arrest while staying in mitosis, suggesting that mitotic cell death, but not mitotic slippage, mainly occurs in nocodazole-treated cells. Nocodazole-treated cells showed features of apoptotic-like cell death, but not those of cell lysis ...
Feng Rentian - - 2010
The present study was performed to determine whether anthocyanins could trigger different modes of cell death in different cancers. It was found that whereas cyanidin-3-rutinoside and delphinidin could induce apoptosis in leukemia cells, they caused growth retardation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC), which was accompanied with a significant cellular vacuolization. ...
Noutsopoulos Dimitrios - - 2010
The impact of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposition on cell fate is unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of VL30 retrotransposition on cell death in SV40-transformed mouse SVTT1 cells. Transfection of a VL30 retrotransposon decreased the clonogenicity of SVTT1 by 17-fold, as compared to parental NIH3T3 cells. Correlated levels of ...
Walsh Craig M CM The Institute for Immunology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3900, USA. - - 2010
Autophagy, an ancient cellular response where autophagic vacuoles are formed within the cytosol, is induced in response to a variety of cellular insults, including growth factor or nutrient withdrawal, organelle damage, and misfolded proteins. Autophagy is rapidly induced in T lymphocytes following antigenic stimulation and blockade of autophagic signaling greatly ...
Martinez-Vicente Marta M Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Institute for Aging Studies, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, - - 2010
Continuous turnover of intracellular components by autophagy is necessary to preserve cellular homeostasis in all tissues. Alterations in macroautophagy, the main process responsible for bulk autophagic degradation, have been proposed to contribute to pathogenesis in Huntington's disease (HD), a genetic neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded polyglutamine tract in the ...
Krumschnabel Gerhard - - 2010
Cadmium is an important environmental toxicant that can kill cells. A number of studies have implicated apoptosis as well as necrosis and, most recently, a form of programmed necrosis termed necroptosis in the process of cadmium-mediated toxicity, but the exact mechanism remains ill-defined and may depend on the affected cell ...
Lauff Diana Beatríz - - 2010
Cell culture in low potassium (K(+)) media has been associated to programmed cell death (PCD) in metazoans. In this study, deprivation of K(+) led Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to a death process that involved phosphatidylserine externalization, changes in chromatin condensation, DNA and vacuole fragmentation as well as enhanced accumulation of reactive ...
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