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Luo Cheng-Liang - - 2010
It has been reported that lysosomal proteases play important roles in ischemic and excitotoxic neuronal cell death. We have previously reported that cathepsin B expression increased remarkably after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study sought to investigate the effects of a selective cathepsin B inhibitor (CBI) [N-L-3-trans-prolcarbamoyloxirane-2-carbonyl)-L-isoleucyl-L-proline] on cell ...
Stork Christian J - - 2010
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is known to cause oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage and apoptotic cell death; however, many details of these malign mechanism have yet to be elucidated. In this study, the exposure of adult human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa) with UVB (>100 mJ/cm(2)) resulted in the significant increase of intracellular ...
Ruckenstuhl Christoph - - 2010
As time goes by, a postmitotic cell ages following a degeneration process ultimately ending in cell death. This phenomenon is evolutionary conserved and present in unicellular eukaryotes as well, making the yeast chronological aging system an appreciated model. Here, single cells die in a programmed fashion (both by apoptosis and ...
Bennett Martin R MR Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Box 110, Addenbrooke's Centre for Clinical Investigation, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB22QQ, UK. - - 2010
Changes in cell mass in atherosclerosis represent changes in cell division, cell death and migration/emigration, all of which may be occurring simultaneously in different cell types at different times and in different regions of the plaque. This makes measurement of these individual processes and measurement of overall cell kinetics in ...
Di Bartolomeo Sabrina S Dulbecco Telethon Institute, Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, - - 2010
Autophagy is a lysosome-mediated degradation pathway used by eukaryotes to recycle cytosolic components in both basal and stress conditions. Several genes have been described as regulators of autophagy, many of them being evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals. The study of autophagy-defective model systems has made it possible to highlight ...
Raffoul Fadi F Department of Cell Biology, Microbiology and Molecular Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, - - 2010
Effective treatment of cancer cells with chemotherapeutic drugs relies on their ability to induce cell death, making the discovery of their mechanisms of action crucial. Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)), used in the treatment of promyelocytic leukemia (PML), triggers cell death in several solid tumor cell lines including ovarian carcinomas. While As(2)O(3) ...
Oslowski C M CM Program in Gene Function and Expression, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, - - 2010
β-Cell death is an important pathogenic component of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Recent findings indicate that cell signalling pathways emanating from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) play an important role in the regulation of β-cell death during the progression of diabetes. Homeostasis within the ER must be maintained ...
Simon Felipe - - 2010
Necrosis is associated with an increase in plasma membrane permeability, cell swelling, and loss of membrane integrity with subsequent release of cytoplasmic constituents. Severe redox imbalance by overproduction of reactive oxygen species is one of the main causes of necrosis. Here we demonstrate that H(2)O(2) induces a sustained activity of ...
Peri Piritta - - 2011
We have studied cell death and its mechanisms in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-infected monocytic cells. The HSV-1 ICP4 and Us3 deletion mutant, d120 caused both apoptosis and necroptosis in d120-infected monocytic cells. At a late time point of infection the number of apoptotic cells was increased significantly in ...
Blenn C - - 2011
Oxidative DNA damage to cells activates poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and the poly(ADP-ribose) formed is rapidly degraded to ADP-ribose by poly(ADP-ribose)glycohydrolase (PARG). Here we show that PARP-1 and PARG control extracellular Ca(2+) fluxes through melastatin-like transient receptor potential 2 channels (TRPM2) in a cell death signaling pathway. TRPM2 activation accounts for essentially ...
Nagata Eiichiro E Department of Neurology, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimo-Kasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, - - 2010
We and other authors have previously reported that increasing cellular diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (InsP(7)) levels increases cell sensitivity to cell death. In the present study, we elucidated the relationship between inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (InsP(6)Ks), which form InsP(7), and autophagy using InsP(6)Ks overexpression and disruption systems. A large number of autophagosomes were ...
Schauwecker P E PE Department of Cell and Neurobiology, USC Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9112, USA. - - 2011
Inbred strains of mice differ in their susceptibility to excitotoxin-induced cell death, but the genetic basis of individual variation is unknown. Prior studies with crosses of the FVB/NJ (seizure-induced cell death susceptible) mouse and the seizure-induced cell death resistant mouse, C57BL/6J, showed the presence of three quantitative trait loci (QTLs), ...
Koroleva Olga A - - 2010
The plant secondary metabolites glucosinolates (GSL) have important functions in plant resistance to herbivores and pathogens. We identified all major GSL that accumulated in S-cells in Arabidopsis by MALDI-TOF MS, and estimated by LC-MS that the total GSL concentration in these cells is >130 mM. The precise locations of the ...
Chung Seong Pil - - 2010
D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a flavoenzyme that exists in the kidney, liver and brain of mammals. This enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of D-amino acids to the corresponding α-keto acid, hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. Recently D-serine, one of the substrates of DAO, has been found in the mammalian brain, and ...
Guo Yuming - - 2010
Granzyme K (GzmK) highly expressed in NK and NKT cells. We recently demonstrated that GzmK induces rapid caspase-independent cell death with ssDNA nicks. Little is known about its molecular mechanisms to mediate caspase-independent cell death. In this study, we found the valosin-containing protein (VCP) is a physiological substrate of GzmK. ...
Suh Jeehee - - 2010
A series of 3-substituted-benzofuran-2-carboxylic esters was synthesized and evaluated for biological activity as ischemic cell death inhibitors in H9c2 cells and rat primary cardiac myocytes under conditions of oxygen and glucose deprivation. The introduction of a sulfur atom at the three-position substituent of the benzofuran ring markedly improved ischemic cell ...
Nedelcu Aurora M - - 2011
Altruistic suicide is best known in the context of programmed cell death (PCD) in multicellular individuals, which is understood as an adaptive process that contributes to the development and functionality of the organism. After the realization that PCD-like processes can also be induced in single-celled lineages, the paradigm of altruistic ...
Alby Kevin K Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, - - 2010
Mating in hemiascomycete yeasts involves the secretion of pheromones that induce sexual differentiation in cells of the opposite mating type. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have revealed that a subpopulation of cells experiences cell death during exposure to pheromone. In this work, we tested whether the phenomenon of pheromone-induced death (PID) ...
Fulda S - - 2010
One of the hallmarks of human cancers is the deregulation of signal transduction pathways that regulate fundamental processes such as cell proliferation and cell death. This leads to the disturbance in the physiological control of tissue homeostasis and a concomitant net increase in cell number. Thus, deregulation of intracellular signaling ...
Muromoto Ryuta - - 2010
Death domain-associated protein (Daxx) is a multifunctional protein that modulates both cell death and transcription. Several recent studies have indicated that Daxx is a mediator of lymphocyte death and/or growth suppression, although the detailed mechanism is unclear. Previously, we reported that Daxx suppresses IL-6 family cytokine-induced gene expression by interacting ...
Koyama Yoshihisa - - 2010
Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Although up-regulation of caspase-12 has been reported in G93A SOD1 transgenic mice, it is controversial whether similar mechanisms operate in human FALS. We found that ER stress in cells stably expressing L84V SOD1 ...
Hasegawa Takafumi - - 2010
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder presenting variable combinations of parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia, corticospinal and autonomic dysfunction. Alpha-synuclein (α-SYN)-immunopositive glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) represent the neuropathological hallmark of MSA, and tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP)/p25 in oligodendroglia has been known as a potent stimulator of α-SYN aggregation. ...
Impens Francis - - 2010
The recent introduction of positional proteomics made it possible to screen for protease processing events on a proteome-wide scale. As a highly regulated and protease-dependent process, cell death has been particularly well-studied with these emerging technologies. This review provides an overview of the results obtained at the exciting interface between ...
Ryoo Hyung Don HD Department of Cell Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10016, USA. - - 2010
Apoptosis and autophagic cell death occur during Drosophila development, and recent advances in their mechanisms have been made. As in other organisms, apoptosis is executed by caspases. In living cells, caspases are kept in check through a combination of IAP-binding and proteolytic inhibition. Once a cell commits to apoptosis, phagocytes ...
Medford Andrew J - - 2010
Large solar panels were constructed from polymer solar cell modules prepared using full roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacture based on the previously published ProcessOne. The individual flexible polymer solar modules comprising multiple serially connected single cell stripes were joined electrically and laminated between a 4 mm tempered glass window and black Tetlar ...
Rivers David B - - 2010
The ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis produces a proteinaceous venom that induces death in fly hosts by non-paralytic mechanisms. Previous in vitro assays have suggested that the primary cause of cell and tissue death is oncosis, a non-programmed cell death (PCD) pathway characterized by cellular swelling and lysis. However, ultrastructural analyses ...
He Xu - - 2010
The megagametophyte of white spruce (Picea glauca) seeds undergoes programmed cell death following seed germination. This process is characterized by distinct morphological and biochemical features, such as DNA fragmentation and the induction of proteases. Biphasic production of hydrogen peroxide was detected in the megagametophyte following seed germination. ROS scavengers or ...
Orrenius Sten - - 2011
Necrotic cell death was long regarded as the ultimate consequence of chemical toxicity and was thought to result from simple cell failure because of toxic interference with vital cell functions. Introduction of the novel concept of programmed cell death (PCD), or apoptosis, has changed this view dramatically. This development has ...
Yuan Liya L Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8057, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2011
Glioblastomas display variable phenotypes that include increased drug-resistance associated with enhanced migratory and anti-apoptotic characteristics. These shared characteristics contribute to failure of clinical treatment regimens. Identification of novel compounds that promote cell death and impair cellular motility is a logical strategy to develop more effective clinical protocols. We recently described ...
Kwon Soon Il - - 2010
The tracheary elements (TEs) of the xylem serve as the water-conducting vessels of the plant vascular system. To achieve this, TEs undergo secondary cell wall thickening and cell death, during which the cell contents are completely removed. Cell death of TEs is a typical example of developmental programmed cell death ...
Kaplan Christopher W - - 2010
Bacterially induced cell death in human lymphocytes is an important virulence factor for pathogenic bacteria. Previously discovered mechanisms of bacterially induced cell death are predominantly based on the transfer of bacterial proteins to the target host cell, such as the toxins secreted through type I, II, and VI secretion systems ...
El Touny Lara H - - 2010
Following spinal cord injury (SCI) or peripheral neuropathy, increased levels of the p75(NTR) death receptor initiate the signal transduction cascade leading to cell death. Investigations of compounds that may ameliorate neuronal cell death have largely used rodent models, which are time consuming, expensive, and cumbersome to perform. Previous studies had ...
Leizer Aliza L AL Department of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, - - 2011
The NFκB pathway is a major source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may contribute to cancer chemoresistance. We showed that constitutive NFκB activity is characteristic of the ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs). The aim of this study is to determine whether the inhibition of NFκB by Eriocalyxin B (EriB) in the ...
Huang Xiaohua - - 2010
We conduct a comparative study on the efficiency and cell death pathways of continuous wave (cw) and nanosecond pulsed laser photothermal cancer therapy using gold nanospheres delivered to either the cytoplasm or nucleus of cancer cells. Cytoplasm localization is achieved using arginine-glycine-aspartate peptide modified gold nanospheres, which target integrin receptors ...
Ronchi Alice - - 2010
Lithium is the main therapeutic agent for the treatment of bipolar disorders but nerve cells are not the sole target of this drug. Indeed, lithium has been reported to target numerous cell types and to affect cell proliferation, differentiation and death. Lithium targets a variety of enzymes among which there ...
Crow Yanick J - - 2010
DNase II is an endonuclease which plays a fundamental role in the degradation of DNA from both apoptotic cells, and nuclei extruded from red blood cells during erythropoiesis: important tasks, considering that everyday 10(8)-10(9) cells undergo apoptosis, and 10(11) red blood cells are produced in the adult human. The DNase ...
Roat Thaisa Cristina - - 2010
Colonies of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, consist of males and two female castes: workers and queens. The castes and males from A. mellifera have a distinct morphology, physiology and behaviour that correlate with their roles in the society and are characterized by some brain polymorphisms. Compound eyes are one ...
Wang Keri - - 2010
SGT1 (suppressor of G2 allele of Skp1), an interactor of SCF (Skp1-Cullin-F-box) ubiquitin ligase complexes that mediate protein degradation, plays an important role at both G1-S and G2-M cell cycle transitions in yeast, and is highly conserved throughout eukaryotes. Plant SGT1 is required for both resistance (R) gene-mediated disease resistance ...
Vlad Roxana M - - 2010
This study aims to explain the contribution of changes in cellular size variance (CSV) to increases in ultrasound-integrated backscatter (UIB) measured from cell samples undergoing cell death. A Monte Carlo algorithm was used to compare simulations of 2D distributions of cells, uniform (CSV = 0) versus heterogeneous (CSV > 0) ...
Kijimoto Teiya - - 2010
Holometabolous insects provide an excellent opportunity to study both the properties of development as well as their evolution and diversification across taxa. Here we investigate the developmental basis and evolutionary diversification of secondary trait loss during development in the expression of beetle horns, a novel and highly diverse class of ...
Vasudevan Srivathsan - - 2010
Red blood cells (RBCs) have been found to undergo "programmed cell death," or eryptosis, and understanding this process can provide more information about apoptosis of nucleated cells. Photothermal (PT) response, a label-free photothermal noninvasive technique, is proposed as a tool to monitor the cell death process of living human RBCs ...
Puissant Alexandre - - 2010
Macroautophagy, referred hereafter to as autophagy is an evolutionary conserved catabolic process for the degradation and recycling of macromolecules, bulk cytoplasm and dammaged organelles. Autophagy is activated under stress conditions induced by nutrient deprivation, hypoxia and drug treatments. Morphologically, autophagic cells are characterized by the accumulation of double membrane cytoplasmic ...
Schutters Kristof - - 2010
Cells are able to execute apoptosis by activating series of specific biochemical reactions. One of the most prominent characteristics of cell death is the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS), which in healthy cells resides predominantly in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. These features have made PS-externalization a well-explored phenomenon ...
Altieri Dario C DC Prostate Cancer Discovery and Development Program, Department of Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, U.S.A. - - 2010
From the realization that cell number homoeostasis is fundamental to the biology of all metazoans, and that deregulation of this process leads to human diseases, enormous interest has been devoted over the last two decades to map the requirements of cell death and cell survival. This effort has led to ...
Kang Kui Dong - - 2010
Sulbutiamine is a highly lipid soluble synthetic analogue of vitamin B(1) and is used clinically for the treatment of asthenia. The aim of our study was to demonstrate whether sulbutiamine is able to attenuate trophic factor deprivation induced cell death to transformed retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5). Cells were subjected to ...
Takadera Tsuneo - - 2011
Iron accumulation in brain is associated with a number of common neurodegenerative disorders. N-β-alanyl-5-S-glutathionyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (5-S-GAD), a novel catechol derivative, was isolated from adult flesh fly as a defense substance. We examined the effect of 5-S-GAD on Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and cell death in PC12 cells. Treatment of PC12 cells with ...
Bora Namrata - - 2010
Abrin is a type II ribosome-inactivating protein comprising of two subunits, A and B. Of the two, the A-subunit harbours the RNA-N-glycosidase activity and the B subunit is a galactose specific lectin that enables the entry of the protein inside the cell. Abrin inhibits protein synthesis and has been reported ...
Kwon Yun Kyung YK Department of Chemistry and Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544, - - 2010
Despite the therapeutic importance of antifolates, the links between their direct antimetabolite activity and downstream consequences remain incompletely understood. Here we employ metabolomics to examine the complete metabolic effects of the antibiotic trimethoprim in E. coli. In rich media, trimethoprim treatment causes thymineless death. In minimal media, in contrast, trimethoprim ...
Hirose Takashi - - 2010
The decision of a cell to undergo programmed cell death is tightly regulated during animal development and tissue homeostasis. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans Six family homeodomain protein C. elegans homeobox (CEH-34) and the Eyes absent ortholog EYA-1 promote the programmed cell death of a specific pharyngeal neuron, ...
Mora Rodrigo - - 2010
The search for cancer cell-specific targets suffers from a lack of integrative approaches that take into account the relative contributions of several mechanisms or pathways involved in cell death. A systematic experimental and computational comparison of murine glioma cells with astrocytes, their nontransformed counterparts, identified differences in the sphingolipid (SL) ...
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