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Kobayashi Satoru - - 2005
Germ cells, represented by male sperm and female eggs, are specialized cells that transmit genetic material from one generation to the next during sexual reproduction. The mechanism by which multicellular organisms achieve the proper separation of germ cells and somatic cells is one of the longest standing issues in developmental ...
Wawersik Matthew - - 2005
Germ cell identity and development are controlled by autonomous cues in the germ plasm as well as by interactions between germ cells and somatic cells. Here, we investigate the formation of a germ cell-specific organelle, the spectrosome. We find that spectrosome formation is independent of germ cell-soma interactions and is ...
Lacham-Kaplan Orly - - 2006
Previous reports and the current study have found that germ cell precursor cells appear in embryoid bodies (EBs) formed from mouse embryonic stem cells as identified by positive expression of specific germ cell markers such as Oct-3/4, Mvh, c-kit, Stella, and DAZL. We hypothesized that if exposed to appropriate growth ...
Wu Ji - - 2005
Neonatal development of the rat testis involves a number of critical events including re-entry of gonocytes into the cell cycle and eventual loss of many of these cells and their progeny via apoptosis. Since surviving gonocytes give rise to subsequent generations of germ cells, regulation of their fate is critical ...
Smith Craig A - - 2005
Male-specific migration of cells from the mesonephric kidney into the embryonic gonad is required for testis formation in the mouse. It is unknown, however, whether this process is specific to the mouse embryo or whether it is a fundamental characteristic of testis formation in other vertebrates. The signalling molecule/s underlying ...
Kehler James - - 2005
Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derivatives of cells of early mammalian embryos, have turned out to be one of the most powerful tools in developmental and stem cell biology. When injected into embryos, ES cells can contribute to tissues derived from all three germ layers and to the germline. Amazingly, ES ...
Funk J - - 2005
In order to investigate the toxicity of oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) inhibitors, hamsters and dogs were treated up to 13 weeks with three different agents of this compound class. Subacute treatment (< or = 4 weeks) of hamsters and dogs with OSC inhibitors produced a similar spectrum of histopathologic lesions, which ...
Wang Duo - - 2005
Caenorhabditis elegans homologues of the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumour suppressor complex specify cell lineage during development. Here we show that mutations in Rb pathway components enhance RNA interference (RNAi) and cause somatic cells to express genes and elaborate perinuclear structures normally limited to germline-specific P granules. Furthermore, particular gene inactivations that ...
Wawersik Matthew - - 2005
Germ cells must develop along distinct male or female paths to produce the sperm or eggs required for sexual reproduction. In both mouse and Drosophila, the sexual identity of germ cells is influenced by the sex of the surrounding somatic tissue (for example, refs 1, 2, reviewed in refs 3, ...
Pontecorvo Giovanni - - 2006
The Drosophila melanogaster male germ cells are sensitive to the recombinogenic activity of chemical compounds. In our experiments, we have employed four recessive markers located on the 2nd chromosome: dumpy (dp, 13.0), black (b, 48.5), cinnabar (cn, 57.5), and brown (bw, 104.5); b and cn flank the centromere. Three-day-old larvae, ...
Matthiesson Kati L - - 2005
CONTEXT: Combination of a GnRH antagonist (acyline), types I and II, 5alpha-reductase inhibitor (dutasteride) or levonorgestrel (LNG) with testosterone (T) treatment may augment the suppression of spermatogenesis and intratesticular (iT) steroids. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effects of combined hormonal contraceptive regimens on germ cell ...
Migeon Barbara R - - 2005
X inactivation--the mammalian method of X chromosome dosage compensation--is extremely stable in human somatic cells; only fetal germ cells have a developmental program to reverse the process. The human placenta, at term, differs from other somatic tissues, since it has the ability to reverse the X-inactivation program. To determine whether ...
Xu Hongyan - - 2005
The RNA helicase Vasa is a germ cell marker in animals, and its homolog in vertebrates to date has been limited to bisexual reproduction. We cloned and characterized CagVasa, a Vasa homolog from the gibel carp, a fish that reproduces bisexually or gynogenetically. CagVasa possesses 14 RGG repeats and eight ...
Beall Stephanie A - - 2005
Spermatogenesis requires Sertoli cell-germ cell adhesion for germ cell survival and maturation. Cadherins are a diverse superfamily of adhesion proteins; structurally unique members of this superfamily (celsr cadherins) are hybrid molecules containing extracellular cadherin repeats connected to a G protein-coupled receptor transmembrane motif. Here we demonstrate postnatal testicular mRNA expression ...
Matalova E - - 2005
Recent research indicates that control of cusp morphology involves a signalling center at the heart of the developing tooth germ, known as the enamel knot. The primary enamel knot forms in both incisors and molar tooth germs at the cap stage of tooth development. Secondary and tertiary enamel knots only ...
Govorunova E G - - 2005
Behavior of the green flagellate alga Chlamydomonas changes in response to a number of chemical stimuli. Specific sensitivity of the cells to different substances might appear only at certain stages of the life cycle. The heterogamous species C. allensworthii demonstrates chemotaxis of male gametes towards pheromones excreted by female gametes. ...
Ghanayem B I - - 2005
Acrylamide, an animal carcinogen and germ cell mutagen present at low (ppm) levels in heated carbohydrate-containing foodstuffs, is oxidized by cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) to the epoxide glycidamide, which is believed to be responsible for the mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of acrylamide. We recently reported a comparison of the effects of ...
Pauls Katharina - - 2005
Gonadoblastomas are neoplasms of dysgenetic gonads which may undergo regression or become overgrown by malignant germ cell tumors (mGCTs). Since little is known about their relationship to normal gonadal development and mGCTs, we studied the phenotype and antigenic profile of gonadoblastomas in comparison with adjacent dysgerminomas and fetal gonads. Three ...
Choi Yun-Jung - - 2006
Busulfan kills spermatogonia with the exception of a few that are attached to the basal membrane of the seminiferous epithelium. In mice, these remaining spermatogonia reacted strongly to a goat anti-mouse IgG antibody. Spermatogonia in untreated testes rarely showed the same reactivity. Testicular IgG levels are normally minimal but increase ...
Ohinata Yasuhide - - 2005
Germ cell fate in mice is induced in pluripotent epiblast cells in response to signals from extraembryonic tissues. The specification of approximately 40 founder primordial germ cells and their segregation from somatic neighbours are important events in early development. We have proposed that a critical event during this specification includes ...
Worawittayawong P - - 2005
In the greater bandicoot rat, Bandicota indica, of south-east Asia, nine cell associations were documented in the testicular seminiferous epithelium. In about 10% of the tubule cross sections two or more cell associations occurred and, furthermore, some of the generations of germ cells within the cell associations were sometimes either ...
Cauffman G - - 2005
In humans, the Deleted in Azoospermia Like (DAZL) gene is believed to function in the development of primordial germ cells and in germ cell differentiation and maturation because the expression of DAZL is only found in the germ and non-germ lineage of the reproductive system and in embryonic stem (ES) ...
Sano M - - 2005
AIMS: To determine the expression of Mcl-1 in testicular germ cell tumours in order to clarify the role of this anti-apoptotic factor in these tumours. Various members of the Bcl-2 family have been implicated in the apoptotic mechanisms regulating germ cell apoptosis. Mcl-1 is an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member and ...
Cruz-Landim C - - 2005
An investigation of the histological and ultrastructural changes of Sertoli cells during the male reproductive cycle in Piaractus mesopotamicus was made. The results showed that the Sertoli cell development is closely related with germ cell maturation. Therefore, these cells may have some role in germ cell maturation during the reproductive ...
Extavour Cassandra G - - 2005
Most bilaterians specify primordial germ cells (PGCs) during early embryogenesis using either inherited cytoplasmic germ line determinants (preformation) or induction of germ cell fate through signaling pathways (epigenesis). However, data from nonbilaterian animals suggest that ancestral metazoans may have specified germ cells very differently from most extant bilaterians. Cnidarians and ...
Yamada Yukiko - - 2005
The detection of DNA damage is necessary to protect against proliferation of potentially harmful cells and often results in cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death. Key components of DNA damage signaling networks include ATM, CHK2, p53, and Bax. Mutations in these damage signaling systems are linked to tumorigenesis and ...
Liu Hongyun - - 2005
The effect of androgen on germ cell proliferation was evaluated by a chicken ovarian germ-somatic cell co-culture model and the mechanisms were explored. Ovarian cells were dispersed from 18-day-old embryos, cultured in serum-free McCoy's 5A medium and challenged with testosterone (T) alone or in combinations with androgen receptor antagonist Flutamide, ...
Aragón M A - - 2005
Vanadium is a transition metal that is emitted to the atmosphere during combustion of fossil fuels. In the environment, vanadium occurs in the (V) oxidized form, but in the body it is found exclusively in the (IV) oxidized form. Vanadium tetraoxide is an inorganic chemical species in the (IV) oxidized ...
Borgdorff Viola - - 2005
We have developed a simple procedure that enables the efficient selection of cells that are deficient for DNA mismatch repair (MMR). This selection procedure was used to investigate the frequency of fortuitous MMR-deficient cells in a mouse embryonic stem cell line, heterozygous for the MMR gene Msh2. We found a ...
Wolfe Cory A - - 2005
The preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus (POA/AH) is sexually dimorphic in many vertebrates. We have defined specific cell populations within the POA/AH using immunocytochemical markers for estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) and the R1 subunit of the GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R1). Our previous finding of sex differences in cell migration in this region in ...
Mozdziak P E - - 2005
Presently, it is difficult to undertake germ line modification of the chicken with primordial germ cells (PGC) because it has been difficult to efficiently fractionate the PGC from the total somatic cell population. The objective of this study was to develop a method that allows isolation of an enriched population ...
Misiewicz Irena - - 2005
The important aspect of sulforaphane (SFN) chemopreventive activity is its ability to induce cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. In this study, the effect of SFN on lymphoblastoid cells derived from people carrying four different germ-line mutations in BRCA1 gene was tested and compared to the effect of SFN on wild-type ...
Kimmins Sarah - - 2005
Germ cells have the unique capacity to start a new life upon fertilization. They are generated during a sex-specific differentiation programme called gametogenesis. Maturation of germ cells is characterized by an impressive degree of cellular restructuring and gene regulation that involves remarkable genomic reorganization. These events are finely tuned, but ...
Xu Guogang - - 2005
Germ cells perform a unique and critical biological function: they propagate the DNA that will be used to direct development of the next generation. Genetic integrity of germ cell DNA is essential for producing healthy and reproductively fit offspring, and yet germ cell DNA is damaged by endogenous and exogenous ...
Oosterhuis J Wolter - - 2005
The germ-cell tumours are a fascinating group of neoplasms because of their unusual biology and the spectacular therapeutic results that have been obtained in these tumours. Traditionally, this group of neoplasms is presented in an organ-oriented approach. However, recent clinical and experimental data convincingly demonstrate that these neoplasms are one ...
Méndez Carmen - - 2005
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypophysectomy on cell proliferation in the left ovary and the left testis of 8- to 14-day-old chick embryos. Hypophysectomy was performed by the partial decapitation technique. At 44-46 h of incubation, chick embryo heads were sectioned at the ...
Chaki S P - - 2005
In order to determine that apoptosis is responsible for large-scale germ cell elimination, we analyzed cells from cryptorchid testes both in histological sections and among those isolated in vitro. Apoptotic testicular cells during 3 to 7 days were only 8 to 30%, reaching a maximum of 80% by the end ...
Oatley J M - - 2005
Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation is a technique that has potential in livestock to enhance genetic gain and generate transgenic offspring through the male germ line. A means for depletion of endogenous germ cells in a recipient's seminiferous tubules is necessary for this technology to be applied. The objectives of this ...
Stoop H - - 2005
BACKGROUND: In the development of the human ovary, the second trimester includes the transition from oogonial replication to primordial follicle formation. The present study was carried out to assess differentiation and proliferation of germ cells in a series of female gonads from 19 fetuses from the second and third trimester, ...
Slanchev Krasimir - - 2005
The progenitors of the gametes, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) are typically specified early in the development in positions, which are distinct from the gonad. These cells then migrate toward the gonad where they differentiate into sperms and eggs. Here, we study the role of the germ cells in somatic ...
Hejnol Andreas - - 2005
We present a detailed analysis of the cell lineage of the tardigrade Thulinia stephaniae with a 4D-microscopy system (3D time-lapse recording). The recording, of the entire development from embryogenesis until hatching, allowed us to analyze the fate of single descendants from early blastomeres up to germ layer formation and tissue ...
Mi Yuling - - 2005
The toxic and hormonal effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on testicular germ cell development were revealed with a germ-Sertoli cell co-culture model from embryonic chickens. Testicular cells were dispersed from 18-day-old embryo and exposed to Aroclor 1254 (A1254) alone and combined with alpha-tocopherol, flutamide and tamoxifen for discretion of the ...
Seki Yoshiyuki - - 2005
Induction of mouse germ cells occurs from the proximal epiblast at around embryonic day (E) 7.0. These germ cells then migrate to, and enter the gonads at about E10.5 after which they undergo epigenetic reprogramming including erasure of parental imprints. However, the epigenetic properties acquired by nascent germ cells and ...
White K L KL - - 2005
Methoxychlor, a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide, is a persistent environmental contaminant that has been identified in human reproductive tissues. Methoxychlor has been shown to be estrogenic in both in vivo and in vitro studies. As an endocrine disrupter, it may have the potential to adversely affect endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems ...
Pan Yuqiong - - 2005
Human embryonic germ (hEG) cells, which have been advanced as one of the most important sources of pluripotent stem cells [the other one being human embryonic stem cells], can be propagated in vitro indefinitely in the primitive undifferentiated state while being capable of developing into all three germ layer derivatives, ...
Rotman Nicolas - - 2005
In contrast to animals, the plant male germline is established after meiosis in distinctive haploid structures, termed pollen grains. The germline arises by a distinct asymmetric division of the meiotic products . The fates of the resulting vegetative and generative cells are distinct. In contrast to the larger vegetative cell, ...
Takayama Takeshi - - 2005
Prospermatogonia, or gonocytes, are the cells that differentiate from primordial germ cells to the first mature type of spermatogonia in the developing testis. Although prospermatogonia play a central role in this stage (i.e., prespermatogenesis), the details regarding their characterization have not been fully elucidated. Recently, we identified a novel mouse ...
Gutleb Arno C - - 2005
The T-Screen represents an in vitro bioassay based on thyroid hormone dependent cell proliferation of a rat pituitary tumour cell line (GH3) in serum-free medium. It can be used to study interference of compounds with thyroid hormone at the cellular level, thus bridging the gap between limitations of assays using ...
Batlouni Sergio Ricardo - - 2005
We identified adhesive junctions and gap junctions between Sertoli cells, between Sertoli and germ cells and between germ cells in the testis of P. fasciatum, a catfish of commercial relevance. To investigate the role of these junctions in spermatogenesis, as well as the molecular composition of the junctions, we performed ...
Matsui Yasuhisa - - 2005
The mode and timing of germ-cell specification has been studied in diverse organisms, however, the molecular mechanism regulating germ-cell-fate determination remains to be elucidated. In some model organisms, maternal germ-cell determinants play a key role. In mouse embryos, some germ-line-specific gene products exist as maternal molecules and play critical roles ...
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