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Results 601 - 650 of 2063
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West Jason A - - 2006
The demonstration of germ cell and haploid gamete development from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in vitro has engendered a unique set of possibilities for the study of germ cell development and the associated epigenetic phenomenon. The process of embryoid body (EB) differentiation, like teratoma formation, signifies a spontaneous differentiation of ...
Dearden Peter K - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Studies of specification of germ-cells in insect embryos has indicated that in many taxa the germ cells form early in development, and their formation is associated with pole plasm, germ plasm or an organelle called the oosome. None of these morphological features associated with germ cell formation have been ...
Kunwar Prabhat S - - 2006
The basic concepts of the molecular machinery that mediates cell migration have been gleaned from cell culture systems. However, the three-dimensional environment within an organism presents migrating cells with a much greater challenge. They must move between and among other cells while interpreting multiple attractive and repulsive cues to choose ...
Ohinata Y - - 2006
Germ cells provide an enduring link between generations and therefore must possess the fundamental ability of reprogramming their genome to generate a totipotent state. We wish to understand the molecular basis of the unique properties of the mammalian germ line. Recently we identified Blimp1, a potent transcriptional repressor of a ...
Schierenberg Einhard - - 2006
Early cell lineages and arrangement of blastomeres in C. elegans are similar to the pattern found in Ascaris and other studied nematodes leading to the assumption that embryonic development shows little variation within the phylum Nematoda. However, analysis of a larger variety of species from various branches of the phylogenetic ...
Fotovati Abbas - - 2006
The gonads are responsible for the production of germ cells through both mitosis and meiosis. Skp2 is the receptor subunit of an SCF-type ubiquitin ligase and is a major regulator of the progression of cells into S phase of the cell cycle, which it promotes by mediating the ubiquitin-dependent degradation ...
Do J T - - 2006
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), embryonic germ cells (EGCs), and embryonic carcinoma cells (ECCs) are three types of pluripotent cells derived from mammalian embryos. The three cell types are capable not only of self-renewal, but also of having the potential to give rise to cells of all tissue types in the ...
Geijsen Niels - - 2006
Primordial germ cells, which carry the responsibility for perpetuation of the species, are set aside from their somatic neighbors very early in mammalian embryonic development. The founder population of germ cells is rare and difficult to identify and isolate in quantities suitable for molecular and biochemical analysis, thereby highlighting the ...
Nagaoka Masato - - 2006
Embryonic stem (ES) cells cultured on gelatin-coated plates or feeder layers form tight aggregated colonies by the E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesions. Here we show that murine ES cells do not make cell-cell contacts or form colonies when cultured on the plate coated with a fusion protein of E-cadherin and IgG Fc ...
Yamada Takatsugu - - 2006
Embryonic stem (ES) cells have a pluripotent ability to differentiate into a variety of cell lineages of all three embryonic germ layers in vitro. The hanging drop culture of ES cell suspension in the absence of leukemia inhibitory factor induces aggregation and differentiation of the cells into simple or cystic ...
Oakley Justin - - 2006
The possibility of human reproductive cloning has led some bioethicists to suggest that potentiality-based arguments for fetal moral status become untenable, as such arguments would be committed to making the implausible claim that any adult somatic cell is itself a potential person. In this article I defend potentiality-based arguments for ...
Berruti Giovanna - - 2006
The intracellular transduction of exogenous and cell-autonomous stimuli triggers the transformation of a multipotent stem cell, the spermatogonion, into a highly differentiated, motile and fertile cell, the spermatozoon. This differentiation process is mediated by cell-cell contact and via key players including hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Female hormones, estrogens and ...
Kuzuya M - - 2006
Physiological races of powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) cause different symptoms in eight melon lines. Infection by races 1, 2, and 5 was examined in different melon lines. After a compatible reaction, conidia germination, haustorium initiation from the germ tube, germ tube branching, and sporulation occurred within 12, 24, 48, and ...
Sinden John D - - 2006
ReNeuron is a UK-based pioneer in stem cell research and development. The Company has leading edge, proprietary somatic stem cell technologies from which it is developing groundbreaking cell therapy products. ReNeuron's focus is on cell therapy treatments designed to reverse the effects of major diseases such as stroke, diabetes and ...
Chang Chun-Che - - 2006
The germarium, oocytes and embryos of the parthenogenetic viviparous pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum are contained within a single ovariole. This species provides an excellent model for studying how maternally-inherited germ plasm is specified and how it is transferred to primordial germ cells. Previous studies have shown that germ cells are ...
Shigenobu Shuji - - 2006
Primordial germ cells (PGC) are the earliest identifiable germ cells in the embryo. To understand the molecular basis of germline development, isolation of pure PGC is required. We report here the use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate pure populations of Drosophila pole cells, which are the presumptive primordial ...
Tang Fuchou - - 2006
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 17-25 nt non-coding RNAs that have been shown to have critical functions in a wide variety of biological processes during development. Recently developed miRNA microarray techniques have helped to accelerate research on miRNAs. However, in some instances there is only a limited amount of ...
McMahon K Wyatt KW Department of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 79430-6540 USA. - - 2006
We have previously noted that there were differences in somatic and male germ cell polyadenylation site choices. First, male germ cells showed a lower incidence of the sequence AAUAAA (an important element for somatic polyadenylation site choice) near the polyadenylation site choice. Second, the polyadenylation sites chosen in male germ ...
Salemi Michele - - 2006
We investigated the expression of the SpanX protein family in cells of normal testes and in testicular germ cell tumours, mainly seminomas and embryonal carcinomas, using an immunohistochemical approach. Most of the normal germ cells, belonging to spermatogonial and primary spermatocytic classes, showed a strong nuclear positivity. In contrast, post-meiotic ...
Guigon Celine J - - 2006
In mammals, the role played by germ cells in ovarian differentiation and folliculogenesis has been the focus of an increasing number of studies over the last decades. From these studies, it has emerged that bidirectional communication between germ cells and surrounding companion cells is required as soon as the initial ...
Alberti Gerd - - 2005
Sperm dimorphism is a rare phenomenon in Chelicerata. Until now, it was known only from three species of the opilionid genus Siro (Sironidae, Cyphophthalmi). Fertilizing (eusperm) and nonfertilizing spermatozoa (parasperm) develop in the same cyst and are thus sister cells. The fine structure of the spermatozoa of two species has ...
Baughman Joshua M - - 2005
Primordial germ cells comprise a privileged cellular class within the embryo charged with the elite task of maintaining species longevity. While in lower organisms germ-cell fate is determined by the allocation of germ plasm, mammalian germ-line differentiation requires extracellular signals that converge upon the proximal epiblast. Studies using mutant mice ...
Saitou Mitinori - - 2005
To elucidate the mechanism for the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in mice, we have developed and exploited the methods of single cell analysis. Based on these studies, we proposed a molecular program associated with this process, a key event of which is the repression of homeobox genes that ...
Rathi Rahul - - 2005
Spermatogenesis can occur in testis tissue from immature bulls ectopically grafted into mouse hosts; however, efficiency of sperm production is lower than in other donor species. To elucidate a possible mechanism for the impaired spermatogenesis in bovine testis xenografts, germ cell fate and xenograft development were investigated at different time ...
Tanaka Satomi S - - 2005
The family of interferon-induced transmembrane protein (Ifitm/mil/fragilis) genes encodes cell surface proteins that may modulate cell adhesion and influence cell differentiation. Mouse Ifitm1 and -3, which are expressed in primordial germ cells (PGCs), are implicated to have roles in germ cell development, but the specific functions have been unclear. Our ...
Liu Hongyun - - 2006
The estrogenic and antioxidant effects of the phytoestrogen daidzein (DAI) on germ cell proliferation were evaluated by a chicken ovarian germ-somatic cell coculture model. Ovarian cells were dispersed from 18-day-old embryos, cultured in serum-free McCoy's 5A medium and challenged with DAI alone or in combinations with estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen ...
Wylie Christopher - - 2005
In this issue of Developmental Cell, a novel mechanism for the initiation of germ cell migration in the mouse has been identified, based upon differential expression of interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins in the gastrula (Tanaka et al., 2005). Germ cells are displaced by a repulsion mechanism from the posterior mesoderm into ...
Lüers Georg H - - 2006
Peroxisomes are organelles that are almost ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells. They have, however, never been described in germ cells within the testis. Since some peroxisomal diseases like Adrenoleukodystrophy are associated with reduced fertility, we have re-investigated the peroxisomal compartment of the germinal epithelium of mice using in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, ...
Lin Yanfeng - - 2005
Genes of the DAZ family play critical roles in germ cell development in mammals and other animals. In mice, Dazl mRNA is first observed at embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5), but previous studies using Dazl-deficient mice of mixed genetic background have largely emphasized postnatal spermatogenic defects. Using an inbred C57BL/6 background, ...
Kim Yeunhee - - 2006
The loss of genetic diversity poses a serious threat to the conservation of endangered species, including wild felids. We are attempting to develop spermatogonial stem cell transplantation in the cat as a tool to preserve and propagate male germ-plasm from genetically valuable animals, be they threatened wild species or lines ...
Takeuchi Yutaka - - 2005
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is thought to play a role in germ cell behavior. FGF2 has been reported to be a mitogen for primordial germ cells in vitro, whilst combinations of FGF2, steel factor and LIF cause cultured germ cells to transform into permanent lines of pluripotent cells resembling ...
Deshpande Girish - - 2005
Drosophila HMGCoA reductase (hmgcr) catalyzes the biosynthesis of a mevalonate precursor for isoprenoids and has been implicated in the production of a signal by the somatic gonadal precursor cells (SGPs) that attracts migrating germ cells. Here, we show that hmgcr functions in the hedgehog (hh) signaling pathway. When hmgcr activity ...
Misro M M - - 2005
Germ cell death and their removal from the seminiferous epithelium are common in the affected testis in conditions of unilateral ischemia or cryptorchidism; the similarities and differences, however, have not been studied between these two conditions. The present study was designed to examine the severity of the effect on testicular ...
Zhuang Zhengping - - 2005
By virtue of meiotic cell division, primordial germ cells with heterozygous alleles develop into postmeiotic germ cells with homozygous alleles. Female and male germ cells may develop tumors--so-called teratomas--with a unique coexistence of a variety of histological elements from all three embryonic germ layers. In particular, mature teratomas consist exclusively ...
Takayama Takeshi - - 2005
It is generally believed that cell-to-cell cross-talk and signal transduction are mediated by cell surface molecules that play diverse and important regulatory roles in spermatogenesis and fertilization. Recently, we identified a novel plasma membrane-associated protein, TES101-reactive protein (TES101RP, or TEX101), on mouse testicular germ cells. In this study, we investigate ...
Hou Mi - - 2005
The underlying primary damage to the seminiferous epithelium caused by chemotherapeutic regimens at childhood is largely unknown. The present investigation was designed to identify acute cytotoxic events in the testis caused by a single dose of doxorubicin. Male rats at 6, 16, and 24 days of age were injected with ...
Nakao Hajime - - 2006
Germ cell development in the silkworm Bombyx mori is interesting in that the species has no recognizable germ plasm, and its germ cells appear first on the ventral side of the embryo, not on the posterior pole as in Drosophila melanogaster. We previously reported the isolation of a vasa homologue ...
Büning Jürgen - - 2005
The ovary structure of the myxophagan beetle, Hycdoscapha natans, was investigated by means of light and electron microscopy for the first time. Each of the two ovaries consists of three ovarioles, the functional units of insect oogenesis. The ovary type is telotrophic meroistic but differs strongly from the telotrophic ovary ...
Pauls Katharina - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to examine fetal male germ cells for expression of proteins associated with differentiation and maturation and to compare them with morphologically defined subpopulations. METHODS: Testes of 61 fetuses from week 12 of gestation to the newborn period were selected. Immunohistochemistry was performed ...
Lambard Sophie - - 2005
The mammalian testis serves two main functions: production of spermatozoa and synthesis of steroids, among them oestrogens are the end products obtained from the irreversible transformation of androgens by aromatase (P450arom). Up today P450arom has been demonstrated in male germ cells of all mammals so far studied (mice, rat, bank ...
Loveland Kate Lakoski - - 2005
Male germ cell development involves a tightly controlled sequence of differentiation switches, from the time that this lineage is specified in the embryo to the moment of sperm release for transport from the testis. Recent research findings and technological advances have allowed key mediators of developmental switches to be identified, ...
Aflatoonian Behrouz - - 2005
Human embryonic germ (hEG) cells derive from the transformation of primordial germ cells (PGCs) under appropriate culture conditions with embryonic fibroblast feeder cells. Although the pluripotent and proliferative capacity of hEG cells is thought to be equivalent to that of human embryonic stem (hES) cells, the difficulties of isolating and ...
Ebata Kevin T - - 2005
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are stem cells of the male germ line. In mice, SSCs are quiescent at birth but actively proliferate during the first postnatal week, while they rarely divide in adult, suggesting an age-dependent difference in SSC characteristics. As an approach to evaluate this possibility, we studied the ...
Porada Christopher D - - 2005
The recent observation of vector sequences in the semen of men undergoing clinical gene therapy for hemophilia has highlighted the need to evaluate the risk of inadvertent germ-line transduction in a clinically relevant animal model. In the present study, we used three different approaches to investigate whether the germ line ...
Kipreos Edward T - - 2005
The adult Caenorhabditis elegans nematode, a small roundworm, has a precisely defined number of somatic cells that create organs that are also found in larger animals, including intestine, muscles, skin, an excretory system and a primitive brain. Every cell has a defined role in this sophisticated, but tiny animal. Therefore, ...
Wu Ming-Yih - - 2005
Deriving oocytes from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells in the laboratory would be a major advance in therapeutic cloning from today's insufficient process. The first step in this attempt is to study the precursors - primordial germ cells (PGCs), including their emergence, presentation, migration and differentiation. By comparing various reported ...
Mussali-Galante Patricia - - 2005
Vanadium is an important environmental and industrial pollutant whose concentrations have increased in the last decades. Due to its status as reproductive toxicant and a microtubule damaging agent, the present study investigated by immunohistochemistry the effect of the inhalation of vanadium pentoxide on gamma-tubulin within somatic and testicular germ cells. ...
Besse Florence - - 2005
The genetic analysis of Drosophila adult oogenesis has provided insights into the molecular mechanisms that control cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and intercellular signaling. However, little is known about the larval and pupal cellular events leading to the formation of the highly organized adult ovary, which is composed of ovarioles each ...
Palmer G E - - 2005
Yeast-hypha differentiation is believed to be necessary for the normal progression of Candida albicans infections. The emergence and extension of a germ tube from a parental yeast cell are accompanied by dynamic changes in vacuole size and morphology. Although vacuolar function is required during this process, it is unclear if ...
Bendsen E - - 2006
BACKGROUND: This study presents the number of germ cells and somatic cells in human fetal ovaries during week 6 to week 9 post conception, i.e. the first weeks following sex differentiation of the gonads. METHODS: One ovary with attached mesonephros from each of 11 individual legal abortions was used for ...
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