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Results 501 - 550 of 2063
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Corallini Serena - - 2006
Numb is an adaptor protein that is asymmetrically inherited at mitosis and controls the fate of sibling cells in different species. The role of m-Numb (mammalian Numb) as an important cell fate-determining factor has extensively been described mostly in neural tissues, particularly in progenitor cells, in the mouse. Biochemical and ...
Stambrook Peter J - - 2007
Many physiological and cellular processes contribute to the ageing of individuals. One hypothesis argues that the genomes of somatic cells accumulate mutations, which, in turn, alter the metabolism of the cells and contribute to the ageing process. The frequency of somatic mutation approaches 10(-4) and the majority of mutagenic events ...
Kolar Grant R - - 2007
We have identified a novel mature human B-cell subpopulation in the human tonsil that has characteristics of both naive B cells and germinal center B cells including the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which is essential for the process of immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination. These cells are ...
Trauner Jochen - - 2007
Tribolium castaneum has telotrophic meroistic ovarioles of the Polyphaga type. During larval stages, germ cells multiply in a first mitotic cycle forming many small, irregularly branched germ-cell clusters which colonize between the anterior and posterior somatic tissues in each ovariole. Because germ-cell multiplication is accompanied by cluster splitting, we assume ...
Evans Daniel S - - 2007
Female differentiation of Drosophila germ cells is induced by cell-nonautonomous signals generated in the gonadal soma that work with germ-cell-autonomous signals determined by germ-cell X chromosome dose. Generation of the nonautonomous feminizing signals was known to involve female-specific protein encoded by the master sex-determination gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) acting on its ...
Runyan Christopher - - 2006
During germ-cell migration in the mouse, the dynamics of embryo growth cause many germ cells to be left outside the range of chemoattractive signals from the gonad. At E10.5, movie analysis has shown that germ cells remaining in the midline no longer migrate directionally towards the genital ridges, but instead ...
Alvarez M Carmen - - 2007
ES cells provide a promising tool for the generation of transgenic animals with site-directed mutations. When ES cells colonize germ cells in chimeras, transgenic animals with modified phenotypes are generated and used either for functional genomics studies or for improving productivity in commercial settings. Although the ES cell approach has ...
Hosokawa Mihoko - - 2007
The germ-line cells of many animals possess a characteristic cytoplasmic structure termed nuage or germinal granules. In mice, nuage that is prominent in postnatal male germ cells is also called intermitochondrial cement or chromatoid bodies. TDRD1/MTR-1, which contains Tudor domain repeats, is a specific component of the mouse nuage, analogously ...
Ahmed Shawn - - 2006
A dichotomy exists between germ and somatic cells in most organisms, such that somatic cell lineages proliferate for a single generation, whereas the germ cell lineage has the capacity to proliferate from one generation to the next, indefinitely. Several theories have been proposed to explain the unlimited replicative life span ...
Buschini M L T - - 2006
A total of 67 nests of Centris tarsata were obtained from wood trap-nests of different diameters, consisting of a linear series of brood cells built with sand mixed with oil. This species showed a preference for open habitats, since it occurred only in Swamp and Grassland areas and has never ...
Fujimoto Takafumi - - 2006
The staging of embryonic and larval development, and the germ cell lineage of the loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, are described. Fertilized eggs were obtained by artificial insemination. For the convenience of detailed observation and photography of the external appearance, we use dechorionated embryos. Through a series of operations, these embryos were ...
Mruk Dolores D - - 2006
Throughout spermatogenesis, developing germ cells remain attached to Sertoli cells via testis-specific anchoring junctions. If adhesion between these cell types is compromised, germ cells detach from the seminiferous epithelium and infertility often results. Previously, we reported that Adjudin is capable of inducing germ cell loss from the epithelium. In a ...
Adler Ilse-Dore - - 2007
Germ cell mutagenicity testing provides experimental data to quantify genetic risk for exposed human populations. The majority of tests are performed with exposure of males, and female data are relatively rare. The reason for this paucity lies in the differences between male and female germ cell biology. Male germ cells ...
Sunanaga Takeshi - - 2007
We investigated the mechanism by which germline cells are recruited in every asexual reproductive cycle of the budding tunicate Polyandrocarpa misakiensis using a vasa homolog (PmVas) as the germline-specific probe. A presumptive gonad of Polyandrocarpa arose as a loose cell aggregate in the ventral hemocoel of a 1-week-old developing zooid. ...
Chuma Shinichiro - - 2006
Embryonic patterning and germ-cell specification in mice are regulative and depend on zygotic gene activities. However, there are mouse homologues of Drosophila maternal effect genes, including vasa and tudor, that function in posterior and germ-cell determination. We report here that a targeted mutation in Tudor domain containing 1/mouse tudor repeat ...
Jung Jin Gyoung - - 2007
We recently succeeded in inducing germline transmission by transferring chicken testicular cells into heterologous testes. This study was designed subsequently to identify pluripotent cells in the testicular cells, which would induce the germline transmission. Testicular cells retrieved from juvenile (4-wk-old) or adult (24-wk-old) White Leghorn (WL) chickens were stained with ...
Suh Nayoung - - 2006
mRNA regulation is crucial for many aspects of metazoan development and physiology, including regulation of stem cells and synaptic plasticity. In the nematode germ line, RNA regulators control stem cell maintenance, the sperm/oocyte decision, and progression through meiosis. Of particular importance to this work are three GLD (germ-line development) regulatory ...
Hejnol Andreas - - 2006
Malacostracan crustaceans have evolved a conserved stereotyped cell division pattern in the post-naupliar germ band. This cleavage pattern is unique in arthropods investigated so far, and allows a combined analysis of gene expression and cell lineage during segmentation and organ development at the level of individual cells. To investigate the ...
Honaramooz Ali - - 2007
During mammalian development, morphogenesis of the testis requires the coordinated interplay of somatic cells to form seminiferous cords in which the primitive germ cells reside. These cords are the precursor of the functional male gonad and as such form the basis of male fertility. Cell migration during mammalian organogenesis and ...
Maymon Batia Bar-Shira - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Genomic stability of cells is known to be linked to their poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity. We aimed to demonstrate, for the first time, the patterns of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation during human spermatogenesis. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: Teaching hospital. PATIENT(S): Azoospermic men who underwent testicular biopsy for sperm recovery. INTERVENTION(S): Testicular biopsy evaluation ...
Deyhle Florian - - 2007
During anther development a series of cell specification events establishes the male gametophyte and the surrounding sporophytic structure. Here we show that the homeobox gene WUSCHEL, originally identified as a central regulator of stem cell maintenance, plays an important role in cell type specification during male organogenesis. WUS expression is ...
Ishida Kelly - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this work was to investigate the antifungal activity of a crude extract, fractions and subfractions from Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville, known as 'barbatimão'. METHODS: The growth inhibition by 'barbatimão' of 103 isolates of yeasts from vaginal fluid was determined using the broth microdilution method. In ...
Balla Marianthi - - 2006
Dimorphism between testis and ovary in germ cells proliferative behavior, shows remarkable differences in foetal and neonatal period [14.5 days post conception (dpc)--7 days post partum (dpp)]. Immunostaining of the foetal testis, with the PCNA and Ki-67 antibodies [estimation of Labeling Index (LI)], reveals increasing germ cells population until birth. ...
Rasmussen Tina H - - 2006
It is essential to know the timing and process of normal gonadal differentiation and development in the specific species being investigated in order to evaluate the effect of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on these processes. In the present study gonadal sex differentiation and development were investigated in embryos of a ...
Gallo Christopher M - - 2006
A fascinating property of germ cells is their ability to maintain totipotency throughout development. At fertilization, this totipotency is unleashed and the egg generates all the cell types needed to make a brand new organism. Occasionally, germ cells differentiate precociously in the embryo or in the gonads and form teratomas, ...
Lee Kyung Ho - - 2006
Male germ cell development includes mitotic and meiotic cell divisions that are followed by dramatic morphological changes resulting in the production of spermatozoa. Genetic evidence has indicated that the DAZ family genes are critical for successful male germ cell development in diverse animals as well as humans. In the present ...
Gilboa Lilach - - 2006
The ability of organs such as the liver or the lymphoid system to maintain their original size or regain it after injury is well documented. However, little is known about how these organs sense that equilibrium is breached, and how they cease changing when homeostasis is reached. Similarly, it remains ...
Lu Chunxia - - 2006
Insulin-like peptide 6 (Insl6) is a member of the insulin/relaxin superfamily with unknown biological function(s). In the current report, we establish that meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells of the testis are the principal sites of expression of Insl6. Analysis of stably or transiently transfected cells revealed that Insl6 is a ...
Fox Mark S - - 2007
In some species such as flies, worms, frogs and fish, the key to forming and maintaining early germ cell populations is the assembly of germ plasm, microscopically distinct egg cytoplasm that is rich in RNAs, RNA-binding proteins and ribosomes. Cells which inherit germ plasm are destined for the germ cell ...
Hoei-Hansen C E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) originate from a common precursor, carcinoma in situ (CIS). Diagnosis at the CIS stage is desirable as it minimizes the necessary treatment. A detailed clinical evaluation of an approach to detect CIS cells in the ejaculate using primordial germ cell/gonocyte markers is presented. METHODS: ...
Li Shanru - - 2007
Mouse gonadal development is regulated by a variety of transcription factors. Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel nuclear zinc finger protein called GATA like protein-1 (GLP-1), which is expressed at high levels in the somatic cells of the developing gonads, including Leydig cells in the testes ...
Maatouk Danielle M - - 2006
DNA methylation is necessary for the silencing of endogenous retrotransposons and the maintenance of monoallelic gene expression at imprinted loci and on the X chromosome. Dynamic changes in DNA methylation occur during the initial stages of primordial germ cell development; however, all consequences of this epigenetic reprogramming are not understood. ...
Jin Hong - - 2006
TEX101, a glycoprotein we recently identified, is primarily characterized as a unique germ-cell-specific marker protein that shows sexually dimorphic expression during mouse gonad development. Based on data obtained from molecular biological as well as immuno-morphological studies, we believe this molecule may play a role in the process underlying germ cell ...
Casper Abbie - - 2006
Whether to be male or female is a critical decision in development. Nowhere is this more important than in the germ cells, which must produce either the sperm or eggs necessary for the perpetuation of the species. How does a germ cell make this decision and how is it executed? ...
Nakasone Naohiro - - 2006
Odontoblast- and ameloblast-lineage cells acquire heat-shock protein (HSP)-25 immunoreactivity after they complete cell division during postnatal odontogenesis in rat molars. However, there are no data available concerning the relationship between the termination of cell proliferation and HSP-25 immunoreactivity during tooth morphogenesis. We compared the expression of HSP-25 in tooth germs ...
Haerizadeh Farzad - - 2006
In flowering plants, the male germline begins with an asymmetric division, after which one of the resulting cells, the generative cell, divides symmetrically to produce two sperm cells. We show here that the male germline is initiated by transcriptional control. We identify GRSF, germline-restrictive silencing factor, from the lily. GRSF ...
Koh Kyu-Bom - - 2006
Neonatal administration of diethylstilbestrol (DES) to rodents has adverse effects on spermatogenesis. However, not many studies have been conducted to determine which type of cell - germ or somatic - is the major target of DES. In order to clarify this, we tried reciprocal germ cell transplantation--transplantation of germ cells ...
Hashmi Sarwar - - 2006
In the present study, we characterized a sterile cpi-2a(ok1256) deletion mutant in Caenorhabditis elegans and showed that CPI-2a has an essential regulatory role during oogenesis and fertilization. We have also shown that the CPI2a inhibitor and both Ce-CPL-1 and Ce-CPZ-1 enzymes are present in the myoepithelial sheath surrounding germ cells, ...
Durcova-Hills Gabriela G Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute of Cancer and Developmental Biology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, United - - 2006
Germ cells in XY male mice establish site-specific methylation on imprinted genes during spermatogenesis, whereas germ cells in XX females establish their imprints in growing oocytes. We showed previously that in vitro, sex-specific methylation patterns of pluripotent stem cell lines derived from germ cells were influenced more by the sex ...
Swain Amanda - - 2006
Germ cell sex determination is directed by the gonad and is characterized by a difference in the timing of entry into meiosis. Recent data show that retinoic acid signalling is responsible for the induction of germ cell meiosis in the developing ovary. In the fetal testis, this process is inhibited ...
Dyce Paul W - - 2006
Generating oocytes from cells derived from skin in vitro may provide a valuable model for identifying factors involved in germ cell formation and oocyte differentiation. In addition, the "oocytes" produced could potentially be useful for therapeutic cloning, and thus offer new possibilities for tissue therapy. We recently reported the differentiation ...
Shirae-Kurabayashi Maki - - 2006
Ascidian embryos sequester a specific cytoplasm, called the postplasm, at the posterior pole, where many maternal RNAs and proteins accumulate. Although the postplasm is thought to act as the germ plasm, it is also highly enriched in several factors essential for somatic cell development, and how the postplasm components regulate ...
Ganot Philippe - - 2006
The urochordate appendicularians play a key trophic role in marine ecosystems and are the second largest component of zooplankton after copepods. Part of their success is due to their ability to undergo rapid population blooms in response to changes in primary productivity. Nonetheless, the reproductive biology of this important group ...
Wawersik Matthew - - 2006
In many multicellular organisms, proper germ cell development is crucial for production of future generations. One critical step in this process is the decision of germ cells to develop into either sperm or eggs. Defects in germ cell sex determination can lead to infertility and germ cell tumors. However, while ...
Al-Majed Abdulhakeem A - - 2006
Valerian is widely known for its use as a sedative and an anti-anxiety drug in the folk medicine. Literature reports suggested valerian to induce genotoxicity in vitro (ECV304 cells) by reactive oxygen species-mediated mechanism; however, there are no reports on its genotoxicity and/or the epigenetic mechanism in vivo. In view ...
Raz Erez - - 2006
The migration of zebrafish primordial germ cell towards the region where the gonad develops is guided by the chemokine SDF-1a. Recent studies show that soon after their specification, the cells undergo a series of morphological alterations before they become motile and are able to respond to attractive cues. As migratory ...
Montell Denise J - - 2006
Studies of cell migration in Drosophila are yielding insights into the complex interactions migrating cells have with each other and with the cells in their environment. Intriguing links between factors that promote cell migration and those that control cell survival have been reported recently. For example, migrating germ cells compete ...
del Vecchio M Teresa - - 2006
Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of unclassified type (IGCNU) is the precursor lesion of adult testicular germ cell invasive tumors. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are recognized as the cells of origin of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) because of the genetic and phenotypic characteristics analyzed. The most important risk factors responsible ...
Hogeveen Kevin N - - 2006
Spermatogenesis is a remarkably complex process in which diploid spermatogonial stem cells undergo a series of mitotic and meiotic cell divisions to give rise to haploid round spermatids. These haploid cells then go through a dramatic morphological remodelling involving extensive chromatin condensation, reduction in nuclear and cytoplasmic volume, formation of ...
Pereda Jaime - - 2006
This review is an account of the origin and migratory events of primordial germ cells until their settlement in the gonad before sexual differentiation in the human as well as mice. In this context, the morphodynamic characteristics of the migration of the primordial germ cells, the macromolecular characteristics of the ...
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