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Results 451 - 500 of 2063
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Yao Bo - - 2007
SOX3 has been suggested to play significant roles in gametogenesis and gonad differentiation of vertebrates, but the exact cellular localization evidence is insufficient and controversial. In this study, a protogynous hermaphrodite fish Epinephelus coioides is selected to analyze EcSox3 differential expression and the expression pattern in both processes of oogenesis ...
Rebscher N - - 2007
To elucidate the evolution of germ cell specification in Metazoa, recent comparative studies focus on ancestral animal groups. Here, we followed the germline throughout the life cycle of the polychaete annelid Platynereis dumerilii, by examining mRNA and protein expression of vasa and other germline-specific factors in combination with lineage tracing ...
Handberg-Thorsager Mette - - 2007
Planarians are highly regenerative organisms with the ability to remake all their cell types, including the germ cells. The germ cells have been suggested to arise from totipotent neoblasts through epigenetic mechanisms. Nanos is a zinc-finger protein with a widely conserved role in the maintenance of germ cell identity. In ...
Ahmed Emad A - - 2007
In male germ cells the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) differs from that described for somatic cell lines. Irradiation induced immunofluorescent foci (IRIF's) signifying a double strand DNA breaks, were followed in spermatogenic cells up to 16 h after the insult. Foci were characterised for Mdc1, 53BP1 and ...
Goel Sandeep - - 2007
Gonocytes are primitive germ cells that reside in the seminiferous tubules of neonatal testes and give rise to spermatogonia, thereby initiating spermatogenesis. Due to a lack of specific markers, the isolation and culture of these cells has proven to be difficult in the pig. In the present study, we show ...
Wang Yuying Y Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, - - 2007
Germ cells are required for the successful propagation of sexually reproducing species. Understanding the mechanisms by which these cells are specified and how their totipotency is established and maintained has important biomedical and evolutionary implications. Freshwater planarians serve as fascinating models for studying these questions. They can regenerate germ cells ...
Huang Ben - - 2007
There have been few studies done on the isolation and characterization of Chinese swamp buffalo embryonic germ cells (EG cells). Here, we first report on EG-like cells isolated from Chinese swamp buffalo fetuses. The results showed the cells grew in large, multilayered colonies, which were densely packed with an obvious ...
Fitzgerald Scott D - - 2007
This report describes the gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of ovarian dysgerminomas in two adult female mountain chicken frogs (Leptodactylusfallax) from the same zoological institution. One frog was found dead, and the other frog had been ill for several days with a bloated abdomen and lethargy. On necropsy, large, pale ...
Aizawa Kouichi - - 2007
The radiation-sensitive mutant "ric1" has a defect in the repair mechanism of DNA double strand breaks induced by gamma-rays in early embryogenesis. In this study, the new radiation-sensitive Medaka (Oryzias latipes) strain, ric1olvas-GFP was established to monitor the development of germ cells in vivo. The development of germ cells was ...
Wyrobek Andrew J AJ Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California, - - 2007
Birth defects, de novo genetic diseases, and chromosomal abnormality syndromes occur in approximately 5% of all live births, and affected children suffer from a broad range of lifelong health consequences. Despite the social and medical impact of these defects, and the 8 decades of research in animal systems that have ...
Lamont Liana B LB Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706-1544, - - 2007
The specification of a germ cell as sperm or oocyte and determination of cell number remain unsolved questions in developmental biology. This paper examines Caenorhabditis elegans FOG-1, a CPEB-related RNA-binding protein that controls the sperm fate. We find that abundant FOG-1 protein is observed transiently in germ cells just prior ...
Chang Chun-Che - - 2007
In the parthenogenetic and viviparous pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, germline specification depends on the germ plasm localized to the posterior region of the egg chamber before the formation of the blastoderm. During blastulation, germline segregation occurs at the egg posterior, and in early gastrulation germ cells are pushed inward by ...
Greenbaum Michael P MP Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2007
Whereas somatic cell cytokinesis resolves with abscission of the midbody, resulting in independent daughter cells, germ cell cytokinesis concludes with the formation of a stable intercellular bridge interconnecting daughter cells in a syncytium. While many proteins essential for abscission have been discovered, until recently, no proteins essential for mammalian germ ...
Surani M Azim - - 2007
Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms regulate the transition from the totipotent zygote to pluripotent primitive ectoderm cells in the inner cell mass of mouse blastocysts. These pluripotent cells can be propagated indefinitely in vitro, underpinned by a unique epigenetic state. Following implantation of the blastocyst, diverse epigenetic modifiers control differentiation of ...
Welchman David P - - 2007
During animal development, a complex of Par3, Par6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) plays a central role in cell polarisation. The small G protein Cdc42 also functions in cell polarity and has been shown in some cases to act by regulating the Par3 complex. However, it is not yet ...
Chan Agnes P - - 2007
Fatvg is a localized maternal transcript that translocates to the vegetal cortex of Xenopus laevis oocytes through both the METRO and Late RNA localization pathways. It is a member of a gene family that functions in vesicular trafficking. Depletion of the maternal store of fatvg mRNA results in a dual ...
Komine Akihiko - - 2007
In order to investigate tooth development, several cell lines of the dental epithelium and ectomesenchyme have been established. However, no attempt has been reported to regenerate teeth with cell lines. Here, we have established several clonal cell lines of the dental epithelium from a p53-deficient fetal mouse. They expressed specific ...
Rivero-Müller A - - 2007
Improvement of cancer treatment is a major challenge of medical research. Despite the immense efforts made in the improvement of diagnosis and treatment, cancer remains a major concern and cause of morbidity and mortality. Most of the modern anti-neoplastic therapies have severe side effects, and tumor cells often develop drug ...
Chen Bin - - 2007
In previous studies, progenitor embryoid body-derived (EBD) cells have been derived from human embryonic germ cells. These cells express lineage markers of three primary germ layers, although their potential to produce true fetal cells of various types has yet to be tested. To this end, we have transplanted EBD cells ...
Reeve Simon - - 2007
Null mutations in the Drosophila gene, slowmo (slmo), result in reduced mobility and lethality in first-instar larvae. Slowmo encodes a mitochondrial protein of unknown function, as do the two other homologs found in Drosophila. Here, we have studied a hypomorphic P-element allele of slmo demonstrating its effects on germline divisions ...
Matsui Y - - 2007
The germ cell lineage is the sole cell lineage through which genomic information is transmitted into successive generations. To this end, germ cells undergo various specific differentiation steps including meiosis, whose regulation seems to correlate closely with fundamental mechanisms that create differences between germ cells and somatic cells. In mammals, ...
Zhao Dayong - - 2007
This study reports on the toxic effects of 35-days intragastric perfusion of pharmaceutical wastewater on the male reproductive system of Mus musculus. Flow cytometric analyses and staining with fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI) were used to assess the toxicity on spermatogenic cells. Significant depletions in the relative percentages ...
Petrella Lisa N - - 2007
An essential component of normal development is controlling the transition from cell proliferation to differentiation. One such transition occurs during Drosophila oogenesis. In early oogenesis, germ cells undergo mitotic proliferation and contain a specialized organelle called a fusome, whereas later post-mitotic cells differentiate and lose the fusome as F-actin-rich ring ...
Alton Michelle - - 2007
Female reproductive life is limited by the oocyte/follicle pool, which has been determined by the number of germ cells to enter meiosis and subsequent loss of oocytes. It has been suggested that apoptosis accounts for the elimination of germ cells throughout oogenesis. However, female germ cells are lost continuously while ...
Ahn Kwang Sung - - 2007
Embryonic germ (EG) cells are undifferentiated stem cells isolated from cultured primordial germ cells (PGC). Porcine EG cell lines with capacities of both in vitro and in vivo differentiation have been established. Because EG cells can be cultured indefinitely in an undifferentiated state, they may be more suitable for nuclear ...
Collier Lara S - - 2007
Although alterations in the genomes of somatic cells cannot be passed on to future generations, they can have beneficial or detrimental effects on the host organism, depending on the context in which they occur. This review outlines the ways in which transposable elements have important consequences for somatic cell genomes.
Srivastava Niloo - - 2007
Homologous recombination (HR) is established as a significant contributor to double-strand break (DSB) repair in mammalian somatic cells; however, its role in mammalian germ cells has not been characterized, although being conservative in nature it is anticipated to be the major pathway in germ cells. The germ cell system has ...
Tagami Takahiro - - 2007
In our previous studies, we demonstrated that female primordial germ cells (PGCs) have the ability to differentiate into W chromosome-bearing (W-bearing) spermatozoa in male gonads of germline chimeric chickens. In this study, to investigate the differentiation pattern of female PGCs in male gonads in chickens, three germline chimeric chickens were ...
Haeussler S - - 2007
The glucocorticoid (GC)-cortisol receptor (GCR)-11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11 beta-HSD2) system is involved in the regulation of Leydig cell function and spermatogenesis in mature animals. Herein, we describe the expression of the GCR and 11 beta-HSD2 and the occurrence of apoptosis during fetal development. Male fetuses were collected from Weeks ...
Saiti Deshira - - 2007
In mammalian development, primordial germ cells (PGCs) represent the initial population of cells that are committed to the germ cell lineage. PGCs segregate early in development, triggered by signals from the extra-embryonic ectoderm. They are distinguished from surrounding cells by their unique gene expression patterns. Some of the more common ...
Kotaja Noora - - 2007
The chromatoid body, a unique cloud-like structure of male germ cells, moves dynamically in the cytoplasm of haploid spermatids, but its function has remained elusive for decades. Recent findings indicate that microRNA and RNA-decay pathways converge to the chromatoid body. This highly specialized structure might function as an intracellular focal ...
Cheng L - - 2007
Germ cell tumours (GCTs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, which develop in the gonads as well as in extragonadal sites, that share morphological patterns and an overall good prognosis, owing to their responsiveness to current surgical, chemotherapeutic, and radiotherapeutic measures. GCTs demonstrate extremely interesting biological features because of their ...
Perrard Marie-Hélène - - 2007
NGF appears to be involved in spermatogenesis. However, mice lacking NGF or TrkA genes do not survive more than a few days whereas p75(NTR) knockout mice are viable and fertile. Therefore, we addressed the effect of betaNGF on spermatogenesis by using the systems of rat germ cell culture we established ...
Teramura Takeshi - - 2007
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) of nonhuman primates are important for research into human gametogenesis because of similarities between the embryos and fetuses of nonhuman primates and those of humans. Recently, the formation of germ cells from mouse ESCs in vitro has been reported. In this study, we established cynomolgus monkey ...
Clark Ivan B N - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Movement of cells, either as amoeboid individuals or in organised groups, is a key feature of organ formation. Both modes of migration occur during Drosophila embryonic gonad development, which therefore provides a paradigm for understanding the contribution of these processes to organ morphogenesis. Gonads of Drosophila are formed from ...
Liu Guangwei - - 2007
Biological effects of low-dose radiation (LDR) in somatic cells have captured the interest of radiobiologists for the last two decades. Apoptosis of germ cells is required for normal spermatogenesis and often occurs through highly conserved events, including the transfer of vital cellular materials to the growing gametes following death of ...
Roy Angshumoy - - 2007
The germline is unique among tissues in being the only lineage that is transmitted through generations. The gonadal somatic cells that interact with male and female germ cells are equally important for their juxtacrine and paracrine signalling pathways that lead to the formation of functionally mature gametes and healthy progeny. ...
Karlsson Ulrika - - 2007
The successful derivation of human embryonic stem (hES) cell lines in late 1990s marks the birth of a new era in biomedical research. In the USA, this landmark invention is protected by granted composition-of-matter patents. In addition to these patents, several others have been granted on further development of hES ...
Northcutt Katharine V - - 2007
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA) are anatomically connected sites necessary for chemosensory regulation of social behaviors in rodents. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are a valuable model for studying the neural regulation of social behaviors because, unlike many other rodents, they are gregarious, ...
Ellis Ronald - - 2007
Sexual identity is one of a few basic parameters that specify how development should proceed. Although sex determination has profound effects on many tissues, its most ancient and fundamental role is ensuring that some germ cells become sperm, and others become oocytes or eggs. Spermatocytes and oocytes are usually produced ...
Herpin Amaury - - 2007
Dmrt I is a highly conserved gene involved in the determination and early differentiation phase of the primordial gonad in vertebrates. In the fish medaka dmrt I bY, a functional duplicate of the autosomal dmrt I a gene on the Y-chromosome, has been shown to be the master regulator of ...
Zurita F F Departamento de Genética e Instituto de Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada, - - 2007
In mammals, germ cells are important both during development and for the function of female gonads, whereas male gonads may develop in the absence of germ cells. The gonads of female moles (genus Talpa) develop according to a testis-like pattern which results in the formation of ovotestes. In this paper, ...
Anderson Richard A RA Division of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, Queen's Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, UK. - - 2007
Germ cells arise from a small group of cells that express markers of pluripotency including OCT4. In humans formation of gonadal compartments (cords in testis, nests in ovary) takes place during the 1st trimester (6-8 weeks gestation). In the 2nd trimester germ cells can enter meiotic prophase in females whereas ...
Clark Amander T AT Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Program in Development and Stem Cell Biology, University of California at San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. - - 2007
Germ cells are absolutely essential for fertility. Aberrant germ cell development can result in abnormal gonadal function, incomplete embryogenesis and infertility, or germ cell tumors. Our understanding of the molecular regulation of normal germ cell development in mammals has progressed significantly due to the utility of the mouse as a ...
Hempel Leonie U LU Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive, Bethesda MD 20892 USA. - - 2007
In Drosophila melanogaster, a pre-mRNA splicing hierarchy controls sexual identity and ultimately leads to sex-specific Doublesex (DSX) transcription factor isoforms. The male-specific DSXM represses genes involved in female development and activates genes involved in male development. Spatial and temporal control of dsx during embryogenesis is not well documented. Here we ...
Fukuda Takeaki - - 2007
Reticulocalbin (RCN) is one member of the Ca(2+)-binding proteins in the secretory pathway and is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. RCN may play a role in the normal behavior and life of cells, although its detailed role remains unknown. Overexpression of RCN may also play a role in tumorigenesis, tumor ...
Kee Kehkooi - - 2006
The growth factors bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4), BMP7, and BMP8b are required for specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in mice. Disruption of the genes that encode these factors leads to a severe reduction in number, or the complete absence, of PGCs. In addition, several studies have demonstrated that human ...
Seydoux Geraldine - - 2006
Oocytes and sperm are some of the most differentiated cells in our bodies, yet they generate all cell types after fertilization. Accumulating evidence suggests that this extraordinary potential is conferred to germ cells from the time of their formation during embryogenesis. In this Review, we describe common themes emerging from ...
Fujita Kazutoshi - - 2006
More than 70% of patients survive childhood cancer, but chemotherapy and radiation therapy may cause irreversible impairment of spermatogenesis. To treat infertility secondary to anticancer treatment for childhood cancer, we have developed a procedure to isolate germ cells from leukemic mice by fluorescence-activated cell sorting with two surface markers, and ...
Pepling Melissa E - - 2006
In mammals, the final number of oocytes available for reproduction of the next generation is defined at birth. Establishment of this oocyte pool is essential for fertility. Mammalian primordial germ cells form and migrate to the gonad during embryonic development. After arriving at the gonad, the germ cells are called ...
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