Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1177
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Galla T J - - 2004
The goal of this study was to investigate if a three dimensional matrix, loaded homogeneously with Schwann cells and the neurotrophic factor LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor), enhances regeneration in a biodegradable nerve guidance channel as compared to non-structured cell suspensions. Therefore a 10 mm nerve gap in the buccal branch ...
Raabe Timothy D - - 2004
Neuregulins (NRGs) are growth factors present in neurons and glial cells of the central and peripheral nervous systems and play a role in the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of these cells. We now report the localization of the two major isoforms of NRG (alpha and beta) and their receptors (erbB) ...
Röszer Tamás - - 2004
The anatomical and functional relationship between neurons expressing nitric oxide (NO) synthase and molluscan cardioexcitatory (FMRFamide)-like neuropeptides was studied in the central ganglia of Helix lucorum (Pulmonata, Gastropoda), applying NADPHdiaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry to visualize NO synthase and immunocytochemistry to demonstrate FMRFamide (FMRFa) at the light microscopic level. The NO production ...
Lawrence Jean M - - 2004
PURPOSE: To assess the capacity of a retrovirus-engineered Schwann cell line (SCTM41), transfected with either a glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) construct or a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) construct, to sustain visual function in the dystrophic Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat. METHODS: Cell suspensions were injected into the ...
Birder Lori - - 2004
Historically, the urinary bladder urothelium has been viewed as a passive barrier; however, recent evidence has demonstrated that the urothelium is a responsive structure, which exhibits both "sensor" (i.e. ability to respond to thermal, mechanical and chemical stimuli) and "transducer" (i.e. ability to release chemicals) functions. Studies have also revealed ...
Ferraro Gino B - - 2004
Trauma in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) results in devastating clinical consequences due to the failure of injured axons to spontaneously regenerate. This regenerative failure can be attributed to both a lack of positive cues and to the presence of inhibitory cues that actively prevent regeneration. Substantial progress ...
Raisman Geoffrey - - 2004
Cells generated in cultures of primary tissue from the olfactory nerves can be transplanted into areas of spinal cord damage where they induce growth of severed nerve fibers and return of lost functions. These cells are of two types, both essential for the reparative effect. The precise lineage relationships are ...
Woodhoo Ashwin - - 2004
Regulation of survival during gliogenesis from the trunk neural crest is poorly understood. Using adapted survival assays, we directly compared crest cells and the crest-derived precursor populations that generate satellite cells and Schwann cells. A range of factors that supports Schwann cells and glial precursors does not rescue crest, with ...
Zanjani Hadi - - 2004
Naturally occurring cell death is an important feature of neuronal network development: the absence of adequate postsynaptic target neurons during a critical period may result in the death of presynaptic neurons, the degree of death varying inversely with the size of the target population. Studies of mouse mutants with abnormal ...
Birge R B - - 2004
FK506 and its non-immunosuppressive derivatives represent a class of pharmacological agents referred to as immunophilin ligands that have been reported to promote neuroregeneration and survival in several experimental models; however their cellular and molecular mechanisms of action have not been well established. Here we characterize a new immunophilin ligand that ...
Kotani Sadaharu - - 2003
During classical eyeblink conditioning, animals acquire adaptive timing of the conditioned response (CR) to the interstimulus interval (ISI) between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). To investigate this coding of the timing by the cerebellum, we analyzed Purkinje cell activities during acquisition of new timing after we ...
Choi Hyun Jin - - 2003
We and others have previously reported that neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) do not co-express GTP cyclohydrolase I, the enzyme that synthesize its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). BH4 is released from catecholaminergic cells and nNOS-expressing cells are located close to BH4-producing catecholaminergic nerve terminals. We show that BH4 is ...
Watanabe Shun - - 2003
Although adenosine or ATP is known to control various physiological functions in the brain, including synaptic transmission, neuronal cell death, and neurite outgrowth via P1 or P2 purinergic receptors in the nervous system, little is known about the functions of many other purine derivatives. We examined the effects of various ...
Bartolami Sylvain - - 2003
Vestibular nerve Schwann cells are predisposed to develop schwannoma. While knowledge concerning this condition has greatly improved, little is known about properties of normal vestibular Schwann cells. In an attempt to understand this predisposition, we evaluated cell density regulation and proliferative features of these cells taken from 6-day-old rats. Data ...
Nasu Tetsuo - - 2003
We used immunohistochemical techniques to analyze the localization and distribution of the catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the neuropeptides methionine-endephalin (M-Enk), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), calretinin (Cal), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and galanin (Gal) in the stellate ganglia of two species of domestic ...
Yoshimi Yoji - - 2003
We examined the influence of nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs on rat cerebellar Purkinje cells in primary culture and found that the number of cultured Purkinje cells was greatly increased by the nucleobase adenine. Purkinje cells were cultured for 13 days in vitro in the presence of various reagents, ...
Hashimoto Shigenari - - 2003
In a previous study, we demonstrated that calponin h1 suppressed tumor growth of transformed cells and that the peritonitis carcinomatosa induced by mouse B16-F10 melanoma (F10) cells was more extensive in calponin h1-deficient (CN(-/-)) mice with fragility of mesothelial (MS) cells than in their calponin h1-wild (CN(+/+)) counterparts. In our ...
Heuer Heike - - 2003
The thyroid hormone l-3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) plays an important role during cerebellar development. Perinatal T3 deficiency leads to severe cellular perturbations, among them a striking reduction in the growth and branching of Purkinje cell dendritic arborization. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. Despite the well documented broad expression ...
Yamauchi Junji - - 2003
During development and nerve injury, complex interactions between glial cells and neurons are essential for establishing proper nerve function. Neurotrophins play multiple roles in the developing nervous system, including cell survival, growth, and differentiation. Here we show that migration of Schwann cells, isolated from sciatic nerves, is significantly enhanced by ...
Fieber Lynne A - - 2003
K(+) (K) channels play a role in the proliferation of many cell types in normal cells and certain disease states. Several laboratories have studied K currents in cultured Schwann cells from models of the human diseases, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). These diseases are characterized by ...
Hess Brian H - - 2003
The temporally protracted heredodegeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells in shaker mutant rats can be modified: ablation of the inferior olive accelerates their degeneration whereas chronic intraventricular infusion of trophic factors extends their survival. The present study sought to determine if chronic trophic factor infusion could block the accelerated degeneration of ...
Gundlfinger Anja - - 2003
Activity of protein kinase C (PKC), and in particular the PKCgamma-isoform, has been shown to strongly affect and regulate Purkinje cell dendritic development, suggesting an important role for PKC in activity-dependent Purkinje cell maturation. In this study we have analyzed the role of two additional Ca(2+)-dependent PKC isoforms, PKCalpha and ...
Zuo Yunxia - - 2003
Inflammatory cells and their mediators are known to contribute to neuropathic pain following nerve injury. Mast cells play a key role in non-neural models of inflammation and we propose that mast cells and their mediators (in particular histamine) are important in the development of neuropathic pain. In rats, where the ...
Barmack Neal H - - 2003
Purkinje cells have two action potentials: Climbing fiber responses (CFRs) and simple spikes (SSs). CFRs reflect the discharge of a single climbing fiber at multiple synaptic sites on the proximal dendrite of the Purkinje cell. SSs reflect the summed action of a subset of parallel fiber synapses on Purkinje cell ...
Marino Silvia - - 2003
The involvement of the retinoblastoma gene product (Rb) and its family members (p107 and p130) in cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation of neural precursor cells has been demonstrated in vitro. To investigate the roles of Rb and p107 in growth, differentiation and apoptosis in the developing and mature cerebellum, ...
Sarna Justyna R - - 2003
The object of this review is to assemble much of the literature concerning Purkinje cell death in cerebellar pathology and to relate this to what is now known about the complex topography of the cerebellar cortex. A brief introduction to Purkinje cells, and their regionalization is provided, and then the ...
Keegan David J - - 2003
PURPOSE: To determine whether subretinal Schwann cell transplantation can prolong the survival of photoreceptors in the rhodopsin knockout (rho(-/-)) mouse. METHODS: Schwann cells were prepared from postnatal day (PN) 5 to 7 mouse pups and grafted subretinally into the eyes of PN35 rho(-/-) mice. RT-PCR was performed on similarly prepared ...
Ghoumari A M - - 2003
Mifepristone (RU486), which binds with high affinity to both progesterone and glucocorticosteroid receptors (PR and GR), is well known for its use in the termination of unwanted pregnancy, but other activities including neuroprotection have been suggested. Cerebellar organotypic cultures from 3 to 7 postnatal day rat (P3-P7) were studied to ...
Jaegle Martine - - 2003
The genetic hierarchy that controls myelination of peripheral nerves by Schwann cells includes the POU domain Oct-6/Scip/Tst-1and the zinc-finger Krox-20/Egr2 transcription factors. These pivotal transcription factors act to control the onset of myelination during development and tissue regeneration in adults following damage. In this report we demonstrate the involvement of ...
Ciani Elisabetta - - 2003
The Lot1 gene encodes a zinc finger protein that, in vitro, concurrently regulates apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and belongs to a recently identified family of proteins with oncogenic and tumor-supressor functions. The present study, based on the development of the first antibody reportedly produced against rat Lot1, examines protein ...
McGoey Tara N - - 2003
The brain is a key target of ethanol teratogenicity, in which ethanol can produce neurodegeneration in selected areas, including the hippocampus and cerebellum. The research objective was to test the hypothesis that chronic prenatal ethanol exposure, via maternal ethanol administration, produces differential time course of decreased linear density of hippocampal ...
Frohnert Paul W - - 2003
We have previously found that adult Schwann cells express receptors for lysophosphatidic acid (EDG2, EDG7) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (EDG5) and that expression of these receptors is significantly upregulated in injured sciatic nerve coincident with postaxotomy Schwann cell proliferation. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that lysophosphatidic acid and/or sphingosine-1-phosphate promote Schwann ...
Dupin Elisabeth - - 2003
In vertebrate embryos, diversification of the lineages arising from the neural crest (NC) is controlled to a large extent by environmental factors. In previous work, we showed that endothelin 3 (ET3) peptide favors the development of glial and melanocytic NC precursors in vitro. This factor is also capable of inducing ...
Gonzalez-Martinez T - - 2003
This article reviews the distribution of S100 proteins in the human peripheral nervous system. The expression of S100 by peripheral glial cells seems to be a distinctive fact of these cells, independently of their localization and their ability to myelinate or not. S100 proteins expressing cells include satellite cells of ...
Vroemen Maurice - - 2003
The intrinsic capacity of Schwann cells to promote regeneration after limited peripheral nerve lesions has been successfully transferred to extensive peripheral nerve injuries and central nervous system lesions by autologous transplantation strategies. However, both the intrinsic ability of axotomized neurons to regenerate and the permissiveness of the parenchyma surrounding the ...
Qiao Dan - - 2003
Fetal and childhood exposures to widely used organophosphate pesticides, especially chlorpyrifos (CPF), have raised concerns about developmental neurotoxicity. Previously, biomarkers for brain cell number, cell packing density, and cell size indicated that neonatal rats were more sensitive to CPF than were fetal rats, yet animals exposed prenatally still developed behavioral ...
Devaux Jérôme - - 2003
The ability of myelin basic protein (MBP)-reactive T cells to induce conduction failure was investigated and. With the model, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) were recorded before and during adoptively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats. Maximum amplitude SEP were reached within 15 min of anesthesia. During EAE, the ...
DeLucia Tracey A - - 2003
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), a unique type of macroglia required for normal olfactory axonal regeneration throughout the lifetime of an individual, have been shown to have regeneration-enhancing properties when used to treat various neuronal injuries. Availability of OECs is a hurdle facing future clinical use of the cells for spinal ...
Rosenbluth Jack - - 2003
We showed previously that spinal cord implants of hybridoma cells (O1) that secrete an IgM antigalactocerebroside cause focal multiple-sclerosis-like plaques of demyelination followed by remyelination to form "shadow plaques" (Rosenbluth et al., 1999). The antibody in that case was directed against a glycolipid present in mature oligodendrocytes and myelin but ...
Miller Shyra J - - 2003
Loss of axonal contact characterizes Schwann cells in benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) from neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients. Tumor Schwann cells demonstrate NF1 mutations, elevated Ras activity, and aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. Using cDNA microarrays, we found that brain lipid binding protein (BLBP) ...
Thanaviratananich Sanguansak - - 2003
Endoscopic sinus surgery in patients who have an Onodi cell (sphenoethmoid cell) carries a high risk for optic nerve injury. We meticulously dissected 65 embalmed cadaver adult half-heads and attempted to identify an optic canal bulge in each with a nasal endoscope. Our aims were to determine the prevalence of ...
An Yi-Hua - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of rat Schwann cell secretion on the proliferation and differentiation of human embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs). METHODS: The samples were divided into three groups. In Group One, NSCs were cultured in DMED/F12 in which Schwann cells had grown for one day. In Group Two, ...
Boyd J G - - 2003
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are the glial cells that ensheath the axons of the first cranial nerve. They are attracting increasing attention from neuroscientists as potential therapeutic agents for use in the repair of spinal cord injury and as a source of myelinating glia for use in remyelinating axons in ...
Coesmans Michiel - - 2003
Patients with Hodgkin's disease can develop paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia because of the generation of autoantibodies against mGluR1 (mGluR1-Abs). Yet, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying their motor coordination deficits remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that application of IgG purified from the patients' serum to cerebellar slices of mice acutely reduces ...
Oliveira Rosane B - - 2003
Nerve damage is a clinical hallmark of leprosy and a major source of patient morbidity. We investigated the possibility that human Schwann cells are susceptible to cell death through the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), a pattern recognition receptor of the innate immune system. TLR2 was detected on the ...
Burrell Brian D - - 2003
The leech escape reflex-shortening of the body-can change with nonassociative conditioning, including sensitization, habituation, and dishabituation. Capacity for sensitization, which is an enhancement of the reflex, is lost when a single S-interneuron is ablated, but the reflex response itself remains. In the present experiments, the S-interneuron's axon in the living ...
Sarna Justyna R - - 2003
Niemann Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) is an inherited, autosomal recessive, lipid-storage disorder with major neurological involvement. Purkinje cell death is a prominent feature of the neuropathology of NPC. We have investigated Purkinje cell death in two murine models of NPC1, BALB/c npc(nih) and C57BLKS/J spm. In both cases, extensive ...
Cheng Mingyu - - 2003
Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide that has excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, can be used as nerve conduit material. The purpose of this work was to study the ability of chitosan and some chitosan-derived materials to facilitate nerve cell attachment, differentiation and growth. The biomaterials studied were chitosan, poly-L-lysine-blended chitosan (CP), collagen-blended ...
Gourdie Robert G - - 2003
The heartbeat is initiated and coordinated by a multi-component set of specialized muscle tissues collectively referred to as the pacemaking and conduction system. Over the last few years, impetus has gathered into unravelling the cellular and molecular processes that regulate differentiation and integration of this essential cardiac network. One focus ...
Conlon Ian - - 2003
BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that cell-size checkpoints help to coordinate cell growth and cell-cycle progression, so that proliferating eukaryotic cells maintain their size. There is strong evidence for such size checkpoints in yeasts, which maintain a constant cell-size distribution as they proliferate, even though large yeast cells grow faster ...
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