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Results 301 - 350 of 1176
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Lai Cary - - 2005
Neuregulin signaling through ErbB receptors is known to play an essential role in Schwann cell proliferation, survival and myelination. Recent studies in zebrafish provide a peek at living Schwann cells migrating along axons in vivo and suggest that ErbB signaling, while not required for cell movement per se, is required ...
Yu Wei-Ming - - 2005
To investigate the function of laminin in peripheral nerve development, we specifically disrupted the laminin gamma1 gene in Schwann cells. Disruption of laminin gamma1 gene expression resulted in depletion of all other laminin chains known to be expressed in Schwann cells. Schwann cells lacking laminin do not extend processes required ...
Gupta Ranjan - - 2005
Schwann cells within a peripheral nerve respond robustly after an axonal injury. Recent results have revealed that Schwann cells undergo concurrent proliferation and apoptosis after a chronic nerve injury that is independent of axonal pathology. Although the exact nature of the stimulus that produces this Schwann cell response remains unknown, ...
Zerzan Rebecca - - 2005
Summary: On a grander scale, multiple sclerosis is a battle between a patient's will to fight and the disease's vicious attack on central nerve cells. On a cellular scale, it's between the T helper 1 (Th1) cell, which attacks and destroys the myelin sheath that protects nerve cells, and the ...
Bampton E T W - - 2005
We have used PC12 cells to examine the effects of factors secreted by Schwann cells that promote cell survival and neurite outgrowth, and hence are likely candidates for promoting neuronal regeneration. RT-PCR showed that primary Schwann cells produced a range of neurotrophins, excluding NT3, but this profile was different from ...
Schmalenberg Kristine E - - 2005
Microcontact printed polymeric substrates were evaluated for their ability to control Schwann cell attachment and direct proliferation, as Schwann cell guidance is a crucial factor in directing peripheral nerve regeneration. Elastomeric stamps of poly(dimethylsiloxane) were "inked" with laminin, a permissive protein for Schwann cell adhesion, and stamped onto poly(methyl methacrylate) ...
Lyons David A - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Myelin is critical for efficient axonal conduction in the vertebrate nervous system. Neuregulin (Nrg) ligands and their ErbB receptors are required for the development of Schwann cells, the glial cells that form myelin in the peripheral nervous system. Previous studies have not determined whether Nrg-ErbB signaling is essential in ...
Yang Yan - - 2005
In ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), the loss of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase leads to a failure of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA double-strand break detection resulting in cellular radiation sensitivity and a predisposition to cancer. There is also a significant loss of neurons, in particular cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells. Mice ...
Wu Sheng-Zhou - - 2005
Neurodegenerative effects of Schwann cells transplanted into the central nervous system have been observed previously. We report here that conditioned medium from Schwann cell cultures exhibit degenerative influences on hippocampal neurons. Aliquots of Schwann cell-conditioned medium compromised the morphologic integrity of the neurons, markedly elevated their intracellular calcium concentrations, and ...
Wewetzer Konstantin - - 2005
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have gained wide interest because of their unique regeneration-promoting capacity. However, despite their frequent use in regeneration studies, the characterization of the cells has remained fragmentary. In the present study, we analyzed freshly dissociated neonatal rat OECs at the light and electron microscopic level and studied ...
Ara J - - 2005
Neuropilins and group A plexins are components of receptor complexes for class 3 semaphorins, gradients of which help to guide migration of neural progenitor cells and axonal growth cones during development. We demonstrated previously that neuropilins and class 3 semaphorins are induced in sciatic nerve by crush or transection. We ...
Blakemore W F - - 2005
In certain experimental and naturally occurring pathological situations in the central nervous system (CNS), demyelinated axons are remyelinated by Schwann cells. It has always been assumed that these Schwann cells are derived from Schwann cells associated with peripheral nerves. However, it has become apparent that CNS precursors can give rise ...
Hattori Hideo - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Vacuolated cells could be encountered in neurofibroma. OBJECTIVES: Frequency and immunohistochemical feature of vacuolated cells in neurofibroma. METHODS: Sixty-two lesions of neurofibroma including five plexiform neurofibromas were re-evaluated for the search of vacuolated cells. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for cases with vacuolated cells. RESULTS: In five cases of plexiform ...
Crockett David P - - 2005
Remyelination is a critical step for recovery of function after demyelination and defines the ability to generate new myelin. This repair process is dependent on the presence of resident oligodendrocyte progenitors (OLPs) that have been shown to remyelinate axons after demyelination. We have previously shown that the levels of the ...
Lin Y Q - - 2005
Schwann cells, from a variety of sources, are known to possess P2Y purinergic metabotropic receptors. However, it is not known if Schwann cells associated with autonomic nerve terminals possess such receptors and if so whether these receptors are activated by the endogenous release of ATP from the nerve terminals. We ...
Tabata Toshihide - - 2005
Cerebellar Purkinje cells integrate motor information conveyed by excitatory synaptic inputs from parallel and climbing fibres. Purkinje cells abundantly express B-type G-protein-coupled gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABABR) that are assumed to mediate major responses, including postsynaptic modulation of the synaptic inputs. However, the identity and function of effectors operated by GABABR ...
Chiappelli Francesco - - 2005
By testing archival paraffinized biopsy blocks obtained from the oral pathology library with immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that substantial alterations are demonstrable in the cross-talk between sympathetic (VMAT) and para-sympathetic innervation (VAchT), and resident CD3+ T cells in the mucosa from oral lichen planus (OLP), compared to recurrent aphthous ...
Luo Jia - - 2005
The morphogenesis of the cerebellar cortex depends on intrinsic genetic programs as well as orchestrated cell-cell/cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family comprises of more than 20 members that catalyze the degradation of all the protein constituents of the ECM. These proteolytic endopeptidases mediate cell-cell/cell-ECM interactions by remodeling ...
Servais L - - 2005
Fast (approximately 160 Hz) cerebellar oscillation has been recently described in different models of ataxic mice, such as mice lacking calcium-binding proteins and in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome. Among them, calretinin-calbindin double knockout mice constitute the best model for evaluating fast oscillations in vivo. The cerebellum of these ...
Real Carla - - 2005
In the vertebrate embryo, the neural crest cells (NCCs) that migrate out from the neural primordium yield multiple phenotypes, including melanocytes, peripheral neurones and glia and, in the head, cartilage, bone, connective cells and myofibroblasts / vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The differentiation of pluripotent NCCs is mainly directed by ...
Ohsawa Mai - - 2005
We have established spontaneously immortalized Schwann cell lines from dorsal root ganglia and peripheral nerves of Sandhoff mice. One of the cell lines exhibited genetically and biochemically distinct features of Sandhoff Schwann cells. The enzyme activities toward 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine (beta-hexosaminidases A, B, and S) and 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine-6-sulfate (beta-hexosaminidases A and ...
Brandt Jerker - - 2005
A new method of acute dissociation of Schwann cells was used to study the effect of addition of such cells to a tendon autograft--a recently-described graft material--on peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. Autologous Schwann cells were obtained from enzymatic dissociation of predegenerated nerves. The tendon autografts were supplied with Schwann ...
Bengtsson F - - 2004
The pathway from the deep cerebellar nuclei to the inferior olive, the source of the climbing fibre input to the cerebellum, inhibits olivary transmission. As climbing fibre activity can depress the background firing of the Purkinje cells, it was suggested that nucleo-olivary (N-O) inhibition is a negative feedback mechanism for ...
Halperin Reuvit - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: In order to better understand the etiology of the vulvar vestibulitis syndrome, we examined the histopathologic parameters in vestibular mucosa, and compared the findings in specimens obtained from women with vulvar vestibulitis with those obtained from the control group. STUDY DESIGN: Specimens of vestibulitis were obtained from 24 patients, ...
Taveggia Carla - - 2004
Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells use diverse regulatory elements to transcribe myelin basic protein (Mbp). For example, an enhancer 9.0 kb upstream of Mbp (MbpSCE1) activated either the proximal Mbp or hsp68 promoters only in Schwann cells in transgenic mice. Here, we analyze MbpSCE1 in vitro and in vivo and show ...
Perez-Garcia C G - - 2004
Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein secreted by a variety of cell types throughout the developing brain. The target cells for reelin express the cytoplasmic adapter protein Dab1, which binds to the reelin receptors VLDLR and ApoER2. In the present work, we have studied the localization of both receptors in ...
Harrisingh Marie C - - 2004
Ras signalling is important in the development of Schwann-cell-derived tumors in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) patients. Schwann cells are a regenerative cell type, with no known stem-cell population. To produce new cells in the adult, for example following nerve damage, myelinating Schwann cells de-differentiate, proliferate and then re-differentiate during the ...
Iwasaki Yasushi - - 2004
An autopsy case of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy (HAM) of 29 years' duration is reported. The patient had no history of surgery or blood transfusion and likely contracted HTLV-I sexually while traveling in an endemic area. At age 45, the patient began to experience gait disturbance; he ...
Chen Ke-Min - - 2004
Angiostrongylosis is a neurological disorder caused by invasion of the central nervous system by developing larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Purkinje cells in infected mouse cerebellums are small and irregular with degenerative atrophy or partial loss. Ultrastructural changes in degenerative cells included enlarged vacuolar structures and swollen mitochondria within the cytoplasm. ...
Aono Sachiko - - 2004
Neuroglycan C (NGC) is a membrane-spanning chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycan that is expressed predominantly in the central nervous system (CNS). NGC dramatically changed its structure from a proteoglycan to a nonproteoglycan form with cerebellar development, whereas a small portion of NGC molecules existed in a nonproteoglycan form in the other ...
Atanasoski Suzana - - 2004
Schwann cell proliferation and subsequent differentiation to nonmyelinating and myelinating cells are closely linked processes. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms that control these events is key to the understanding of nerve development, regeneration, nerve-sheath tumors, and neuropathies. We define the protooncogene Ski, an inhibitor of TGF-beta signaling, as an essential component ...
Thompson Deanna M - - 2004
Schwann cells are an important component of the peripheral nervous system and participate in peripheral nerve regeneration. They create a supportive environment for neurite outgrowth by releasing trophic factors and up-regulating permissive molecules on their surface. In addition, Schwann cells are able to self-organize into linear arrays in vitro and ...
Mycko Marcin P - - 2004
Autoreactive T cells represent a natural repertoire of T cells in both diseased patients and healthy individuals. The mechanisms regulating the function of these autoreactive T cells are still unknown. Ob1A12 is a myelin basic protein (MBP)-reactive Th cell clone derived from a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Mice transgenic ...
Harrisingh Marie C - - 2004
Schwann cells are a regenerative cell type. Following nerve injury, a differentiated myelinating Schwann cell can dedifferentiate and regain the potential to proliferate. These cells then redifferentiate during the repair process. This behaviour is important for successful axonal repair, but the signalling pathways mediating the switch between the two differentiation ...
Shikimi Hanako - - 2004
The cerebellar Purkinje cell is a major site for neurosteroid formation. We have demonstrated recently that the Purkinje cell actively produces sex steroids, such as estradiol and progesterone, de novo from cholesterol only during rat neonatal life, when cerebellar cortical formation occurs. We have further demonstrated that both estradiol and ...
Hartmann J - - 2004
G-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate group I receptors (mGluR1s) mediate synaptic transmission and plasticity in Purkinje cells and, therefore, critically determine cerebellar motor control and learning. Purkinje cells express two members of the G-protein G(q) family, namely G(q) and G11. Although in vitro coexpression of mGluR1 with either Galpha11 or Galpha(q) produces ...
Nobbio Lucilla - - 2004
Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) is a hereditary demyelinating neuropathy due to an increased genetic dosage of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22). The mechanisms leading from PMP22 overexpression to impairment of myelination are still unclear. We evaluated expression and processing of PMP22, viability, proliferation, migration, motility and shaping properties, and ...
Storstein Anette - - 2004
The expression of CD59 and other complement regulators was studied in human cerebellum from 14 individuals with no cerebellar pathology, from one patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) and from two patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD). CD59 was present on the Purkinje cells at various levels in eight of the ...
Ge Yun - - 2004
A technique is described that allows for the identification and quantification of Purkinje cell loss in cerebellum subsequent to developmental toxic exposures. This technique relies upon the extensively validated findings that the Purkinje cell is the only site of expression in the cerebellum of the calcium binding protein calbindin-D28k. Thus, ...
Harper James M - - 2004
We generated spinal motoneurons from embryonic stem (ES) cells to determine the developmental potential of these cells in vitro and their capacity to replace motoneurons in the adult mammalian spinal cord. ES cell-derived motoneurons extended long axons, formed neuromuscular junctions, and induced muscle contraction when cocultured with myoblasts. We transplanted ...
Zhou Jun-Lan - - 2004
It is well known that methamphetamine is a neurotoxic drug of abuse to cause cell death both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, the protective effect of nerve growth factor on methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity was examined in R2 cells. Treatment of R2 cells with methamphetamine for 48 h induced ...
Kocsis Jeffery D - - 2004
Schwann cells and neural precursor cells derived from adult human brain (subventricular zone) and from bone marrow were studied anatomically and physiologically after transplantation into the demyelinated rat spinal cord. All cell types formed myelin and restored conduction velocity. Following transection of the dorsal funiculus, Schwann cells and olfactory ensheathing ...
Wakamatsu Yoshio - - 2004
The neural crest gives rise to glial cells in the peripheral nervous system. Among the peripheral glia, Schwann cells form the myelin often wrapping the peripheral axons. Compared to other crest-derived cell lineages such as neurons, the analysis of fate determination and subsequent differentiation of Schwann cells is not well ...
Scappaticci A A - - 2004
We have previously reported immunocytochemical, biochemical, behavioral, and electrophysiological evidence for glutamatergic transmission through (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptors in hydra. We now report specific localization of the N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor subunit 1 (NMDAR1) in epithelial, nerve, nematocytes, and interstitial cells of hydra. Macerates of tentacle/hypostome pieces of Hydra vulgaris were ...
Sawada Kazuhiko - - 2004
This study examined immunohistochemically the expression of an enzymatically active form of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), phosphorylated TH at Ser40 (phospho-TH), in the cerebellum of ataxic mutant mice, rolling mouse Nagoya (RMN) and dilute-lethal (DL). TH immunostaining appeared in some Purkinje cells in RMN and DL, but in a few of ...
Hong Jian - - 2004
T cell reactivity to candidate myelin autoantigens, such as myelin basic protein (MBP), may play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although MBP-reactive T cells have been found to undergo in vivo activation in patients with MS, their true precursor frequency in MS is unknown as ...
Kitao Yasuko - - 2004
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response contributes to neuronal survival in ischemia and neurodegenerative processes. ORP150 (oxygen-regulated protein 150)/HSP12A (heat shock protein 12A), a novel stress protein located in the ER, was markedly induced in Purkinje cells maximally at 4-8 d after birth, a developmental period corresponding to their vulnerability ...
Parkinson David B - - 2004
The transcription factor Krox-20 controls Schwann cell myelination. Schwann cells in Krox-20 null mice fail to myelinate, and unlike myelinating Schwann cells, continue to proliferate and are susceptible to death. We find that enforced Krox-20 expression in Schwann cells cell-autonomously inactivates the proliferative response of Schwann cells to the major ...
Ahmed Zubair - - 2004
We have previously described the production of large cables of fibronectin, a large extracellular matrix cell adhesion glycoprotein, which has a potential application in tissue engineering. Here we have stabilised these cables for longer survival and looked at their ultrastructural cell-substrate behaviour in vitro. Dissolution experiments showed that low concentrations ...
Galla T J - - 2004
The goal of this study was to investigate if a three dimensional matrix, loaded homogeneously with Schwann cells and the neurotrophic factor LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor), enhances regeneration in a biodegradable nerve guidance channel as compared to non-structured cell suspensions. Therefore a 10 mm nerve gap in the buccal branch ...
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