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Results 251 - 300 of 1178
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Croci Laura - - 2006
Early B-cell factor 2 (EBF2) is one of four mammalian members of an atypical helix-loop-helix transcription factor family (COE). COE proteins have been implicated in various aspects of nervous and immune system development. We and others have generated and described mice carrying a null mutation of Ebf2, a gene previously ...
Lavdas Alexandros A - - 2006
Schwann cells, the myelin-forming cells of the PNS, are attractive candidates for remyelination therapy as they can remyelinate CNS axons. Yet their integration in CNS tissue appears hampered, at least in part, by their limited motility in the CNS environment. As the polysialylated (PSA) form of NCAM regulates migration of ...
Johnson William E B - - 2006
STUDY DESIGN: Coculture assays of the migration and interaction of human intervertebral disc cells and chick sensory nerves on alternate substrata of collagen and aggrecan. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of aggrecan on disc cell migration, how disc cells and sensory nerves interact, and whether disc cells affect previously reported ...
Fukuda Yoichiro - - 2006
The Onodi cell is a large pneumatized posterior ethmoid cell and closely related to optic nerve. We present an extremely rare case of retrobulbar optic neuropathy caused by mucocele in an Onodi cell. A 79-year-old man complained of headaches and simultaneous bilateral visual disturbance. A computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated ...
Wu Jianqiang - - 2006
Benign peripheral nerve tumors called neurofibromas are a major source of morbidity for patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. Some neurofibroma Schwann cells aberrantly express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In a mouse model in which the CNPase promoter drives expression of human EGFR in Schwann cells, nerves develop hypertrophy, ...
Ibrahim Ahmed A Spinal Repair Unit, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London, - - 2006
Until now, brain and spinal cord injuries that sever nerve fibres have resulted in a degree of incurable functional loss. An incoming tide of research is now beginning to challenge this as yet unbreached sea wall. One of the most promising approaches involves a recently discovered type of cell, the ...
de Ruiter Martijn M - - 2006
Cerebellar Purkinje cells of mormyrid fish differ in some morphological as well as physiological parameters from their counterparts in mammals. Morphologically, Purkinje cells of mormyrids have larger dendrites that are characterized by a lower degree of branching in the molecular layer. Physiologically, there are differences in electrophysiological response patterns that ...
McTigue Dana M - - 2006
The NG2 proteoglycan is of general interest after spinal cord injury because it is expressed by oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs), which contribute to central nervous system remyelination; however, NG2 may inhibit axon regeneration. We and others have examined the spatiotemporal expression of NG2 after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we extend ...
Nakai Yoko Y Division of Experimental Hematology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Research Foundation, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, - - 2006
Schwann cell-axon interaction is the hallmark feature of peripheral nerves, yet the intracellular signals underlying this interaction are unknown. Schwann cells extend processes and migrate on developing axons before differentiation, requiring coordinated regulation of the Schwann cell cytoskeleton. Small GTPases of the Rho family, including Rho, Rac, and cell division ...
Boiko Tatiana - - 2006
Myelinating glial cells synthesize specialized myelin proteins and deposit them in the growing myelin sheath that enwraps axons multiple times. How do axons and myelinating glial cells coordinate this spectacular cell-cell interaction? In this issue, Trajkovic et al. show that neuronal signaling regulates cell surface expression of the myelin proteolipid ...
Torashima Takashi - - 2006
Cerebellar Purkinje cells are key elements in motor learning and motor coordination, and therefore, it is important to clarify the mechanisms by which Purkinje cells integrate information and control cerebellar function. Gene transfer into neurons, followed by the assessment of the effects on neural function, is an effective approach for ...
Liu Jun - - 2006
Cell migration is central to development and post-traumatic regeneration. The differential increase in 6-sulphated chondroitins during axonal growth in both crushed sciatic nerves and brain development suggests that chondroitin 6-sulphotransferase-1 (C6ST-1) is a key enzyme that mediates cell migration in the process. We have cloned the cDNA of the C6ST-1 ...
Atanasoski Suzana - - 2006
Neuregulin/erbB signaling is critically required for survival and proliferation of Schwann cells as well as for establishing correct myelin thickness of peripheral nerves during development. In this study, we investigated whether erbB2 signaling in Schwann cells is also essential for the maintenance of myelinated peripheral nerves and for Schwann cell ...
Racké Kurt - - 2006
In the respiratory tract acetylcholine is neurotransmitter in ganglia and postganglionic parasympathetic nerves, but in addition is paracrine mediator released from various non-neuronal cells. Almost every cell type present in the respiratory tract expresses nicotinic and muscarinic receptors and therefore appears to be a target for acetylcholine. The present review ...
Labombarda Florencia - - 2006
It is now widely accepted that progesterone (PROG) brings neuroprotection in lesions of the peripheral and central nervous system. Spinal cord trauma leads to neuronal degeneration, astrogliosis, demyelination, and proliferation of oligodendrocyte-precursor cells (OPCs). In this work, we studied the effects of PROG on myelin-related parameters in rats with complete ...
Atanasoski Suzana - - 2006
Regulated cell proliferation is a crucial prerequisite for Schwann cells to achieve myelination in development and regeneration. In the present study, we have investigated the function of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p16 as potential regulators of Schwann cell proliferation, using p21- or p16-deficient mice. We report that both ...
Higgins R J - - 2006
A 6-year-old castrated German Shepherd Dog was presented with a 6-month history of progressive, nonpainful, left pelvic limb paresis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed atrophy of left-sided epaxial and hypaxial muscles from L5-L7 and an enlarged L5 spinal nerve. Exploratory hemi-laminectomy revealed focally and cylindrically thickened L5 and L6 nerve roots. ...
Biernaskie Jeffrey A - - 2006
This protocol describes methods of isolating skin-derived precursors (SKPs) from rodent and human skin, and for generating and enriching Schwann cells from rodent SKPs. SKPs are isolated as a population of non-adherent cells from the dermis that proliferate and self-renew as floating spheres in response to fibroblast growth factor 2 ...
Ratner Nancy - - 2006
The study of peripheral nerve function in development and disease can be facilitated by the availability of cultured cells that faithfully mimic in vivo Schwann cell growth, maturation, and differentiation. We have developed a method to establish purified mouse Schwann cell culture from a single embryo at embryonic day 12.5 ...
Haastert Kirsten - - 2006
In orofacial reconstruction not only the osseous structures themselves but also neighboring cranial nerves need to be regenerated. To replace autologous bone implants, biocompatible tissue-engineered scaffolds are under investigation at least for bone replacement but until now these studies have not focused on parallel reconstruction of injured cranial nerves. The ...
Thompson Deanna M - - 2006
Schwann cells enhance axonal regeneration following nerve injury in vivo and provide a favorable substrate for neurite outgrowth in vitro. However, much remains unknown about the nature of interactions that occur between Schwann cells and growing neurites. In this paper, we describe direct evidence of the ability of Schwann cell ...
Bhatheja Kanav - - 2006
The Schwann cell plays a vital role in maintaining the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Schwann cells are derived from neural crest cells, and come in two types either myelinating or non-myelinating Schwann cells. Both play a pivotal role in the maintenance and regeneration of axons of the neurons in the ...
Wang Yi-Ying YY Dept. of Comput. Sci. & Inf. Eng., Nat. Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan, - - 2006
Automated segmentation of nerve cell in microscopic image is an important task in neural researches. We proposed a multi-scale watershed-based approach to cope with this microscopic image analysis problem. There are three stages in the proposed segmentation algorithm: (1) a multi-scale watershed scheme is used to estimate an initial location ...
Wang Yi-Ying YY Departmentof Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, - - 2006
Automated segmentation of nerve cell in microscopic image is an important task in neural researches. We proposed a multi-scale watershed-based approach to cope with this microscopic image analysis problem. There are three stages in the proposed segmentation algorithm: (1) a multi-scale watershed scheme is used to estimate an initial location ...
Kotani Sadaharu - - 2006
Purkinje cells are the sole output from the cerebellar cortex and play a critical role during classical eyeblink conditioning. The present study revealed for the first time a learning-related change in individual Purkinje cell activity during successive eyeblink conditioning in decerebrate guinea pigs which permitted continuous single unit recording from ...
Kyuhou Shin-ichi - - 2006
In the current studies, we characterized the molecular and cellular mechanism of cell death in Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) mice using real-time quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. It appears that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in this degeneration of Purkinje cells because ER stress-related substrates, such as CHOP ...
Bermingham John R JR - - 2006
Peripheral nerve development results from multiple cellular interactions between axons, Schwann cells and the surrounding mesenchymal tissue. The delayed axonal sorting and hypomyelination throughout the peripheral nervous system of claw paw (clp) mutant mice suggest that the clp gene product is critical for these interactions. Here we identify the clp ...
Swanson Douglas James - - 2005
The transcriptional regulator Pax6 is expressed in cerebellar granule cells and a mutation in that gene (Sey) has been shown to affect cerebellar development. We have defined novel phenotypes in the Sey/Sey cerebellum, indicating that the mutation of Pax6 alters granule cell behavior in vitro and also the interaction between ...
Noon Luke A - - 2005
Schwann cells are the target of Mycobacterium leprae, the pathogen responsible for leprosy. Once inside the cell, M. leprae activates the host's proliferative machinery, thereby increasing the number of cells susceptible to infection. This astonishing manipulation of the mammalian cell cycle is the subject of recent work by Tapinos and ...
Hopp Béla - - 2005
The survival, proliferation, and differentiation of freshly isolated and cultured cells were studied after absorbing film-assisted laser-induced forward transfer. Rat Schwann and astroglial cells and pig lens epithelial cells were used for transfer and the cells were cultured for 2 weeks after laser-pulsed transfer. All three cell types survived, proliferated, ...
Boyle Kristy - - 2005
Administration of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) to axotomised mouse neonatal sciatic nerves increased Schwann cell apoptosis in the distal nerve segments, 5-fold greater than axotomy alone. TNFalpha upregulated the low affinity neurotrophin receptor, p75NTR, indicative of phenotype reversion in Schwann cells. Furthermore, re-expression of p75NTR and downregulation of the ...
Mimura Tatsuya - - 2005
PURPOSE: To compare the distribution and self-renewal capacity of rabbit corneal endothelial cell precursors in the central and peripheral regions of the cornea. METHODS: The corneal endothelium (CE) and Descemet's membrane of New Zealand White rabbit corneas were divided into a peripheral region (6.0-10.0 mm in diameter) and a central ...
Saito Harukazu - - 2005
Schwann cells are glial cells of the peripheral nervous system. There are two known subtypes of Schwann cells: those that are myelin-forming; and those that are non-myelin-forming. In this study, we looked at the expression of cell adhesion molecules in Schwann cells to determine whether other subtypes might exist. We ...
Carletti Barbara - - 2005
Cell replacement after neuronal degeneration in the adult CNS depends on the availability of specific cues to direct specification, differentiation and integration of newly born neurons into mature circuits. Following recent reports indicating that neurogenic signals may be reactivated in the adult injured CNS, here we asked whether such signals ...
Birder Lori A - - 2005
Although the urinary bladder urothelium has classically been thought of as a passive barrier to ions/solutes, a number of novel properties have been recently attributed to these cells. Studies have revealed that the urothelium is involved in sensory mechanisms (i.e., ability to express a number of sensor molecules or respond ...
Butt A M - - 2005
In vitro studies indicate that fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) has diverse effects on cells of the early and late oligodendrocyte lineage. Here, we have examined this in vivo by comparing the actions of FGF2 on the developing and developed anterior medullary velum (AMV) of postnatal rats. FGF2, or saline ...
Li Xiaoqing - - 2005
Erythropoietin (Epo) expresses potent neuroprotective activity in the peripheral nervous system; however, the underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that Epo is upregulated in sciatic nerve after chronic constriction injury (CCI) and crush injury in rats, largely due to local Schwann cell production. In uninjured and ...
Fang Marong - - 2005
The aim of this study was to evaluate the postnatal development of the cerebella of the pig and to compare this with the activation of the fMRI. The cells in the cerebella were studied by silver technique and the activation of the fMRI in the cerebella was initiated by flexion ...
Jessen Kristjan R - - 2005
During the development of peripheral nerves, neural crest cells generate myelinating and non-myelinating glial cells in a process that parallels gliogenesis from the germinal layers of the CNS. Unlike central gliogenesis, neural crest development involves a protracted embryonic phase devoted to the generation of, first, the Schwann cell precursor and ...
Girard Christelle - - 2005
Experimental studies provided overwhelming proof that transplants of myelin-forming cells achieve efficient remyelination in the CNS. Among cellular candidates, Schwann cells can be used for autologous transplantation to ensure robust remyelination of lesions and to deliver therapeutic factors in the CNS. In the present study, macaque Schwann cells expressing green ...
Pummi Kati P - - 2006
Cutaneous neurofibromas consist of axonal processes, Schwann cells, fibroblasts, perineurial cells, mast cells, and abundant extracellular matrix. The distribution and role of perineurial cells in neurofibromas has been uncertain, partly because there has not been a specific immunohistochemical marker for perineurial cells. In this study, tight junctions (TJs) of 16 ...
Servais L - - 2005
Calbindin is a fast Ca2+-binding protein expressed by Purkinje cells and involved in their firing regulation. Its deletion produced approximately 160-Hz oscillation sustained by synchronous, rhythmic Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex of mice. Parvalbumin is a slow-onset Ca2+-binding protein expressed in Purkinje cells and interneurons. In order to assess ...
May Christian Albrecht - - 2005
PURPOSE: In the current study, the appearance and development of choroidal ganglion cells (CGCs) was investigated in eyes of 18 human donors between the 13th week of gestation (wog) and 42 years of age. METHODS: The number and diameter of CGCs was evaluated in scleral and choroidal whole mounts stained ...
El Maarouf Abderrahman - - 2005
Under chronic conditions of neuropathic pain, nociceptive C terminals are lost from their target region in spinal lamina II, leading to reduced thermal hyperalgesia. This region of the spinal cord expresses high levels of polysialic acid (PSA), a cell surface carbohydrate known to weaken cell-cell interactions and promote plasticity. Experimental ...
Journiac Nathalie - - 2005
Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1ss and IL-6, have been detected in the cerebellum of Rora(sg/sg) mice during the first postnatal month of neurodegenerative process. This suggests the existence of a microglial reaction in the context of an inflammatory process that would be triggered by the massive neuronal ...
Wan Lili - - 2005
Reduction of the survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein levels causes the motor neuron degenerative disease spinal muscular atrophy, the severity of which correlates with the extent of reduction in SMN. SMN, together with Gemins 2 to 7, forms a complex that functions in the assembly of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein ...
Kameda Yoko - - 2005
The carotid body consists of chemoreceptive glomus cells, sustentacular cells and nerve endings. The murine carotid body, located at the carotid bifurcation, is always joined to the superior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk. Glomus cells and sympathetic neurons are immunoreactive for the TuJ1, PGP9.5, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuropeptide ...
Wang Shaomei - - 2005
PURPOSE: To study the distribution of the human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE) cell line ARPE-19 and human Schwann (hSC) cells grafted to the subretinal space of the Royal College of Surgeon (RCS) rat and the relation of graft cell distribution to photoreceptor rescue. METHODS: Cell suspensions of both donor types ...
Le Nam - - 2005
Mutations that disrupt Egr2 transcriptional activity cause severe demyelinating peripheral neuropathies. Here we provide evidence that Nab1 and Nab2 proteins are critical transcriptional modulators of Egr2 in myelinating Schwann cells. Like Egr2, these proteins are essential for Schwann cell differentiation into the myelinating state. Mice lacking both Nab1 and Nab2 ...
Pannunzio Michael E - - 2005
We describe a method of using laminin for the selection and purification of Schwann cells in vitro. We also studied the viability of the selected cells suspended in alginate beads both in vitro and in vivo. We observed that the homogeneity of the Schwann cell culture increased with each round ...
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