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Results 201 - 250 of 1176
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Roth Therese M - - 2007
The neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) gene functions as a tumor suppressor gene. One known function of neurofibromin, the NF1 protein product, is to accelerate the slow intrinsic GTPase activity of Ras to increase the production of inactive rasGDP, with wide-ranging effects on p21ras pathways. Loss of neurofibromin in the autosomal ...
Honkanen Henrika - - 2007
Most studies of peripheral nerve myelination using culture models are performed with dorsal root ganglion neurons and Schwann cells pre-purified from the rat. The potential of this model is severely compromised by the lack of rat myelin mutants and the published protocols work poorly with mouse cells, for which numerous ...
Zhao Yangu - - 2007
Purkinje cells are one of the major types of neurons that form the neural circuitry in the cerebellum essential for fine control of movement and posture. During development, Purkinje cells also are critically involved in the regulation of proliferation of progenitors of granule cells, the other major type of neurons ...
McFarland Rebecca - - 2007
Oxidative stress is postulated to play a role in cell death in many neurodegenerative diseases. As a model of neonatal neuronal cell death, we have examined the role of oxidative stress in Purkinje cell death in the heterozygous Lurcher mutant (+/Lc). Lurcher is a gain of function mutation in the ...
Benninger Yves - - 2007
During peripheral nervous system (PNS) myelination, Schwann cells must interpret extracellular cues to sense their environment and regulate their intrinsic developmental program accordingly. The pathways and mechanisms involved in this process are only partially understood. We use tissue-specific conditional gene targeting to show that members of the Rho GTPases, cdc42 ...
Woodhoo A - - 2007
Cell transplant therapies are currently under active consideration for a number of degenerative diseases. In the immune-mediated demyelinating-neurodegenerative disease multiple sclerosis (MS), only the myelin sheaths of the CNS are lost, while Schwann cell myelin of the PNS remains normal. This, and the finding that Schwann cells can myelinate CNS ...
Pfister Lukas A - - 2007
Peripheral nerves possess the capacity of self-regeneration after traumatic injury. Transected peripheral nerves can be bridged by direct surgical coaptation of the two nerve stumps or by interposing autografts or biological (veins) or synthetic nerve conduits (NC). NC are tubular structures that guide the regenerating axons to the distal nerve ...
Yu Wei-Ming - - 2007
Laminins are extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that play an important role in cellular function and tissue morphogenesis. In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), laminins are expressed in Schwann cells and participate in their development. Mutations in laminin subunits expressed in the PNS and in skeleton muscle may cause peripheral neuropathies ...
Sheikhi Abdolkarim - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells are the most abundant leukocytes in pre-implantation endometrium and early pregnancy deciduas in humans and rodents. They are associated with structural changes in maternal spiral arteries but regulation of their recruitment and activation is incompletely understood. The major subpopulation of uNK cells in humans ...
Servais Laurent - - 2007
In cerebellum and other brain regions, neuronal cell death because of ethanol consumption by the mother is thought to be the leading cause of neurological deficits in the offspring. However, little is known about how surviving cells function. We studied cerebellar Purkinje cells in vivo and in vitro to determine ...
Stendel Claudia - - 2007
GTPases of the Rho subfamily are widely involved in the myelination of the vertebrate nervous system. Rho GTPase activity is temporally and spatially regulated by a set of specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Here, we report that disruption of frabin/FGD4, a GEF for the Rho GTPase cell-division cycle 42 ...
Fernandez Fernando R - - 2007
Knowledge of intrinsic neuronal firing dynamics is a critical first step to establishing an accurate biophysical model of any neuron. In this study we examined cerebellar Purkinje cells to determine the bifurcations likely to underlie firing dynamics within a biophysically realistic and experimentally supported model. We show that Purkinje cell ...
Päiväläinen Satu - - 2007
The temporo-spatial expression profiles of the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and galactosylcerebrosides (Gal-CBs) were analysed during Schwann cell differentiation and myelination in Schwann cell cultures and in dorsal root ganglion/Schwann cell cocultures. The temporal expression profiles demonstrate that the mechanisms triggering and regulating MAG and Gal-CBs are different and independent. They ...
Padmanabhan Jaya - - 2007
Purkinje cells are vulnerable to a number of physical, chemical, and genetic insults during development and maturity. Normal development of these cells depends on the cell-cell interactions between granule and astroglial cell populations. Apoptotic death in Purkinje neurons had been shown to be associated with cell cycle activation, and new ...
Sekiya Tetsuji - - 2007
Cell transplantation is a realistic potential therapy for replacement of auditory sensory neurons and could benefit patients with cochlear implants or acoustic neuropathies. The procedure involves many experimental variables, including the nature and conditioning of donor cells, surgical technique and degree of degeneration in the host tissue. It is essential ...
Fonte Cosima - - 2007
In the nervous system, glucocorticoid hormones play a major role during development, and they continue to affect functional and structural plasticity throughout life. Glucocorticoid actions are mediated by their cognate nuclear receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The transcriptional activity of the GR is enhanced by the recruitment of one of ...
Trousson Amalia - - 2007
In the nervous system, glucocorticoids exert beneficial or noxious effects, depending on their concentration and time-exposure. They act via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) which recruits the p160 coactivators (SRC-1, SRC-2 and SRC-3). It was often shown that the three SRCs are interchangeable. The aim of the present study was to ...
Campana Wendy Marie - - 2007
Schwann cells provide trophic support and in some cases, insulation to axons. After injury, Schwann cells undergo phenotypic modulation, acquiring the capacity to proliferate, migrate, and secrete soluble mediators that control Wallerian degeneration and regeneration. Amongst the soluble mediators are pro-inflammatory cytokines that function as chemoattractants but also may sensitize ...
Funk Dorothee - - 2007
Schwann cells (SCs) can support the regeneration of lesioned fiber tracts of the peripheral and central nervous system and have been transplanted alone or in combination with synthetic nerve guides. For neuronal tissue engineering purposes, the cells must be isolated from small biopsies and expanded in vitro. In this study ...
Sawada Tomokazu - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to investigate quantitatively the longitudinal temporal, spatial changes of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) immunopositive cells during Wallerian degeneration and the following regeneration after crush injury in rat sciatic nerve using immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The number of ...
Wang De-Yao - - 2007
Microenvironment mimicking biological situation is a vital issue in tissue regeneration. With much progress being made, one of the major challenges remains to develop a convenient method to fabricate the scaffold microenvironment suitable for cell attachment and proliferation. This article demonstrates the efficacy of microcontact printed laminin, an extracellular matrix ...
Chojnowski Alexandre - - 2007
Loss of function of the myotubularin (MTM)-related protein 2 (MTMR2) in Schwann cells causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B1, a severe demyelinating neuropathy, but the consequences of MTMR2 disruption in Schwann cells are unknown. We established the expression profile of MTMR2 by real-time RT-PCR during rat myelination and showed it to ...
Grove Matthew - - 2007
Signaling by laminins and axonal neuregulin has been implicated in regulating axon sorting by myelin-forming Schwann cells. However, the signal transduction mechanisms are unknown. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been linked to alpha6beta1 integrin and ErbB receptor signaling, and we show that myelination by Schwann cells lacking FAK is severely ...
Ibanez Chrystelle - - 2007
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), the principal glial cells of the peripheral olfactory system, have many phenotypic similarities with Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system. This makes reliably distinguishing these two cells types difficult, especially following transplantation into areas of injury in the central nervous system. In an attempt to ...
Han In Sun - - 2007
Schwann cell migration facilitates peripheral nerve regeneration after injury. We have recently found increased activation of Cdc2 kinase in regenerating sciatic nerves. Here we show that Cdc2 phosphorylation of caldesmon regulates Schwann cell migration and nerve regeneration. A robust but transient increase in Cdc2 expression was found in cultured Schwann ...
Heilmann, A.
For the investigation of the adhesion of mammalian cells on a semiconductor biosensor structure, nerve cells on silicon neurochips were prepared for scanning electron microscopy investigations (SEM) and cross-sectional preparation by focused ion beam technology (FIB). The cross-sectional pattern demonstrates the focal contacts of the nerve cells on the chip. ...
Kawashima Ikuo - - 2007
Peripheral neuropathy is one of the important manifestations of Fabry disease. Enzyme replacement therapy with presently available recombinant alpha-galactosidases does not always improve the Fabry neuropathy. But the reason has not been determined yet. We established a Schwann cell line from Fabry mice, characterized it, and then examined the uptake ...
Liu Xiaochun - - 2007
PURPOSE: Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes gene expression, cell survival and differentiation in various types of peripheral and central neurons, glia and nonneural cells. The level of CNTF rises rapidly upon injury to neural tissue, suggesting that CNTF exerts its cytoprotective effects after release from cells via mechanisms induced by ...
Cao Qiong - - 2007
Transdifferentiation of transplanted marrow stromal cells (MSCs) and reactive changes of glial cells in a completely transected rat spinal cord were examined. Marrow stromal cells exhibited 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) at the plasma membrane and this has allowed their identification after transplantation by immunoelectron microscopy. In the control rats, the ...
Lou Mingji - - 2007
This paper proposes a swarm of magnetically levitated nano-robots with high sensitivity nano-sensors as a mean to detect chemical sources, specifically the chemical signals released by injured nervous cells. In the aftermath of the process, further observation by these nano-robots would be used to monitor the healing process and assess ...
Saito Takashi - - 2007
We previously reported that ABCA2, of the A subclass of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, is expressed in mature oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, the cells responsible for myelination in the brain and the peripheral nerve, respectively. However, unidentified cells expressing ABCA2 also were found. Here, we provide evidence for ...
Kim Heechul - - 2007
The levels of phosphorylated caveolin-1 (p-caveolin-1) were analyzed in the sciatic nerves of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN). Western blot analysis showed that the phosphorylation of caveolin-1 increased significantly in the sciatic nerves of EAN-affected rats at the paralytic stage of EAN on day 14 post-immunization (PI) (P<0.05) ...
Tsutsui Kazuyoshi - - 2006
New findings over the past decade have shown that the brain has the capability of forming steroids de novo from cholesterol, the so-called "neurosteroids". To understand neurosteroid action in the brain, data on the regio- and temporal-specific synthesis of neurosteroids are needed. Recently, we have demonstrated that the Purkinje cell, ...
Huynh Duong P - - 2007
Expansion of the polyQ repeat in ataxin-2 results in degeneration of Purkinje neurons and other neuronal groups including the substantia nigra in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). In animal and cell models, overexpression of mutant ataxin-2 induces cell dysfunction and death, but little is known about steady-state levels ...
Ponomareva Olga N - - 2006
Here we show that neuregulin-2 (Nrg-2) alpha- and beta-isoforms can activate acetylcholine receptor (AChR) transcription as surface-attached ligands. More importantly, we demonstrate that Schwann cells that express Nrg-2alpha on their cell surface, the same Nrg-2 isoform expressed by terminal Schwann cells at the neuromuscular junction, can induce AChR expression if ...
Lu Paul - - 2006
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have been reported to migrate long distances and to bridge lesion sites, guiding axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). To understand mechanisms of OEC migration and axonal guidance, we injected lamina propria OECs 1 mm rostral and caudal to C4 SCI sites. One month later, ...
Hausmann R - - 2007
The significance of both Purkinje cell numbers and various neuronal changes for the diagnosis and timing of hypoxic-induced brain lesions was investigated in tissue samples from the cerebellar cortex of 52 individuals with a history of acute or prolonged cerebral hypoxia/ischemia before death. Furthermore, the area of the Purkinje cell ...
Kazakov Dmitry V - - 2006
Eleven schwannomas are described. All tumors were well demarcated and surrounded by a true capsule or pseudocapsule and manifested Antoni A and Antoni B areas, Verocay bodies, and hyalinized vessels. In addition to typical schwannoma, there were clear cell areas composed of spindled cells arranged either in parallel sheets or ...
Winseck Adam K - - 2006
Building upon previous in vitro studies, the present investigation involves an in vivo examination of Schwann cell programmed cell death (PCD) and development in the brachial spinal ventral roots of embryonic mice. The period of Schwann cell PCD was found to occur between embryonic days (E) 11.5 and 18.5, which ...
Lee Hyunkyoung - - 2006
Schwann cells play an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration. Upon nerve injury, Schwann cells are activated and produce various proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, resulting in the recruitment of macrophages and the phagocytosis of myelin debris. However, it is unclear how nerve injury induces Schwann cell activation. Recently, it was ...
Decker Laurence - - 2006
Onset of myelination in Schwann cells is governed by several transcription factors, including Krox20/Egr2, and mutations affecting Krox20 result in various human hereditary peripheral neuropathies, including congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy (CHN) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). Similar molecular information is not available on the process of myelin maintenance. We have generated conditional ...
Court Felipe A - - 2006
Schwann cells form myelin in the peripheral nervous system. All Schwann cells are surrounded by a basal lamina. Extracellular matrix molecules in the basal lamina, such as laminin, regulate key aspects of Schwann cell development including the formation, architecture and function of myelin. Recent genetic and cell biological experiments suggest ...
Kizuki Takashi - - 2006
Accelerations of bone-like apatite deposition and cell growth on an electrically polarized ceramic hydroxyapatite have been reported. A relationship between these phenomena was investigated in a previous report, and then it was suggested that osteoblast-like cell's (MC3T3-E1) growth had relevance to the mineral growth. The effect of the formed apatite ...
Jelsing Jacob - - 2006
The postnatal development of total number and perikaryon volume of cerebellar Purkinje cells was estimated in the Göttingen minipig cerebellar cortex using a new stereological approach, the vertical bar fractionator. Data were obtained from the brains of five neonate and five adult female Göttingen minipigs. The total number of Purkinje ...
Vroemen Maurice - - 2007
Adult neural progenitor cells (NPC) co-grafted with fibroblasts replace cystic lesion defects and promote cell-contact-mediated axonal regeneration in the acutely injured spinal cord. Fibroblasts are required as a platform to maintain NPC within the lesion; however, they are suspected to create an inhospitable milieu for regenerating central nervous system (CNS) ...
Benninger Yves - - 2006
Previous reports, including transplantation experiments using dominant-negative inhibition of beta1-integrin signaling in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, suggested that beta1-integrin signaling is required for myelination. Here, we test this hypothesis using conditional ablation of the beta1-integrin gene in oligodendroglial cells during the development of the CNS. This approach allowed us to study ...
Weisheit Gunnar - - 2006
The cerebellar cortex consists of a small set of neuronal cell types interconnected in a highly stereotyped way. While the development of cerebellar cortical projection neurons, i.e. Purkinje cells, and that of granule cells has been elucidated in considerable detail, that of cerebellar cortical inhibitory interneurons is still rather fragmentarily ...
Torashima Takashi - - 2006
Cerebellar Purkinje cells play an important role in cerebellar function; lesions of Purkinje cells result in the disruption of motor coordination and motor learning. Although selective gene delivery to Purkinje cells would be a powerful technique for the study of pathophysiology in the cerebellum, a method for such a delivery ...
McKenzie Ian A - - 2006
Although neural stem cells hold considerable promise for treatment of the injured or degenerating nervous system, their current human sources are embryonic stem cells and fetally derived neural tissue. Here, we asked whether rodent and human skin-derived precursors (SKPs), neural crest-related precursors found in neonatal dermis, represent a source of ...
Croci Laura - - 2006
Early B-cell factor 2 (EBF2) is one of four mammalian members of an atypical helix-loop-helix transcription factor family (COE). COE proteins have been implicated in various aspects of nervous and immune system development. We and others have generated and described mice carrying a null mutation of Ebf2, a gene previously ...
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