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Techangamsuwan Somporn - - 2008
Adult canine Schwann cells and olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have been shown to promote neural regeneration in vivo. Since the majority of studies have been performed in rodents, it is not yet clear in how far OECs from large animals and humans share the reported properties. Moreover, due to the ...
Xu Yongfeng - - 2008
Although Schwann cell (SC) transplantation can enhance peripheral and central nerve repair experimentally, it is difficult to generate sufficient SC quickly for clinical application. So alternative cell systems for SC are desired. SC-like cells induced from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) may be one of the ideal alternative cell systems for ...
Techangamsuwan Somporn - - 2009
Adult canine Schwann cells and olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are closely related cell types that are considered attractive candidates for translational studies of neural repair. To establish a reliable cell source by comparing the in vitro properties of immortalized Schwann cells and OECs for transplantation purposes, we transfected both cell ...
Belkadi Abdelmadjid - - 2008
The mechanisms underlying developmental myelination have therapeutic potential following CNS injury and degeneration. We report that transplanted central glial (CG)-4 cells had a diminished myelinating capacity in myelin-deficient (md) rats when cells express a mutated form of Tau (Tau [688]), which binds Fyn but not the microtubules. In the brain ...
Agudo M M The Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, United Kingdom. - - 2008
There is a strong current interest in the use of cell transplantation for the treatment of spinal cord injuries. We report here the novel and potentially useful properties of an early cell in the Schwann cell lineage, the Schwann cell precursor (SCP). The experiments reveal a striking difference between these ...
Sato Tokiharu - - 2008
Cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs) proliferate in the outer part of the external granular layer (EGL). They begin their differentiation by exiting the cell cycle and migrating into the inner part of the EGL. Here we report that JSAP1, a scaffold protein for JNK signaling pathways, is expressed predominantly in ...
Jacob Claire - - 2008
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) promotes epithelial cell differentiation but induces Schwann cell proliferation. We show that the protooncogene Ski (Sloan-Kettering viral oncogene homologue) is an important regulator of these effects. TGFbeta down-regulates Ski in epithelial cells but not in Schwann cells. In Schwann cells but not in epithelial cells, ...
Dun Wen - - 2008
Cardiac Purkinje fibers, due to their unique anatomical location, cell structure and electrophysiologic characteristics, play an important role in cardiac conduction and arrhythmogenesis. Purkinje cell action potentials are longer than their ventricular counterpart, and display two levels of resting potential. Purkinje cells provide for rapid propagation of the cardiac impulse ...
Koda Masao - - 2008
Anoikis is a type of apoptosis due to the detachment from the extracellular matrix and neighboring cells. In case of cell transplantation therapy for spinal cord injury, preparation of graft cells includes dissociation of cultured cells, which may cause anoikis-induced cell death. Thus suppression of anoikis may increase survival of ...
Saavedra José T - - 2008
Numerous mouse myelin mutants are available to analyze the biology of the peripheral nervous system related to health and disease in vivo. However, robust in vitro biochemical characterizations of players in peripheral nerve processes are still not possible due to the limited growth capacities of Schwann cells. In order to ...
Overdiek Anja - - 2008
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a hereditary disease caused by mutations of the NF1 gene at 17q11.2. Loss of the NF1 gene product in Schwann cells leads to the development of benign nerve sheath tumors. These neurofibromas may occur at any time but tend to arise during periods of hormonal ...
Nadra Karim - - 2008
Lipids play crucial roles in many aspects of glial cell biology, affecting processes ranging from myelin membrane biosynthesis to axo-glial interactions. In order to study the role of lipid metabolism in myelinating glial cells, we specifically deleted in Schwann cells the Lpin1 gene, which encodes the Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP1) ...
de Solages Camille - - 2008
The cerebellum controls complex, coordinated, and rapid movements, a function requiring precise timing abilities. However, the network mechanisms that underlie the temporal organization of activity in the cerebellum are largely unexplored, because in vivo recordings have usually targeted single units. Here, we use tetrode and multisite recordings to demonstrate that ...
Heinen André - - 2008
The p57kip2 gene encodes a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor family, proteins known to block G(1)/S transition during the mammalian cell cycle. We observed that expression of p57kip2 in Schwann cells of the developing and injured adult peripheral nervous system is dynamically regulated. Using gene knockdown by means of ...
Mirsky Rhona R Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London, UK. - - 2008
Immature Schwann cells found in perinatal rodent nerves are generated from Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) that originate from the neural crest. Immature Schwann cells generate the myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells of adult nerves. When axons degenerate following injury, Schwann cells demyelinate, proliferate and dedifferentiate to assume a molecular phenotype ...
Salzer James L - - 2008
Schwann cells are remarkably plastic cells that can both form and stably maintain myelin sheaths around axons and also rapidly dedifferentiate upon injury. New findings (Parkinson, D.B., A. Bhaskaran, P. Arthur-Farraj, L.A. Noon, A. Woodhoo, A.C. Lloyd, M.L. Feltri, L. Wrabetz, A. Behrens, R. Mirsky, and K.R. Jessen. 2008. J. ...
Zhang Zhi-Yuan - - 2009
Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a well-known animal model of Guillain-Barré Syndrome. In this study, we studied the spatiotemporal expression of interleukin-16 (IL-16) in the nervous system of EAN rats and pharmacological effects of minocycline on IL-16 expressions in EAN rats. In sciatic nerves and dorsal/ventral roots of EAN rats, ...
Lee Youngki - - 2008
The reduction in neuron number in specific brain regions is one of the most destructive aspects of alcohol-induced developmental brain injury, and its occurrence depends on the timing, pattern, and dose of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the dose-response aspect of Purkinje ...
Huang Zhi-hui - - 2008
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a unique type of glial cells that have axonal growth-promoting properties. OEC transplantation has emerged as a promising experimental therapy of axonal injuries and demyelinating diseases. However, some fundamental cellular properties of OECs remain unclear. In this study, we found that the distinct OEC subpopulations ...
Aszmann Oskar C - - 2008
Over the last decade, several models have investigated the usefulness of different biologic and/or synthetic matrices as alternatives to conventional nerve grafts. Still, axonal regeneration did not occur over longer (> 3 cm) distances. One problem may be that a growth-promoting environment not only includes physical cues but also a ...
Kadesch, Tom
This is an annual report that presents data obtained during the grant's third year of funding. The grant addresses the potential role of Notch signaling in the malignant transformation of neurofibromas to MPNSTs in patients with NF1. Our previous work has shown that constitutive expression of Notch can transform rat ...
Zavan Barbara - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: For peripheral nerve regeneration, three-dimensional distribution and growth of cells within the porous scaffold are of clinical significance. The purpose of this study was to test in vitro a novel hyaluronic acid-based tubular conduit (HYAFF-11 biomaterials: 1 x 10 mm) as a nerve guide. METHODS: Human fibroblasts, RN22 Schwann ...
Lu Hai-xia - - 2008
Purkinje cell loss is the hallmark of the cerebellar ataxias. Here the fungal neurotoxin Penitrem A was used to create partially Purkinje-cell-deficient cerebella in neonate and young adult rats suitable for use in neural stem cell transplantation studies. I.p. administration of Penitrem A to P3, P6 and 11-week old rats ...
Yang David P - - 2008
Peripheral nerve injury is followed by a wave of Schwann cell proliferation in the distal nerve stumps. To resolve the role of Schwann cell proliferation during functional recovery of the injured nerves, we used a mouse model in which injury-induced Schwann cell mitotic response is ablated via targeted disruption of ...
Yip Jane - - 2008
It has been widely reported that in autism, the number of Purkinje cells (PCs) is decreased, and recently, decreased expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) mRNA in Purkinje cells also has been observed. However, the autism literature has not addressed key GABAergic inputs into Purkinje cells. Inhibitory basket and ...
Jin Yu-Qing - - 2008
Schwann cell purification is usually difficult due to the contamination of fibroblasts, which often become a predominant cell type in Schwann cell culture in vitro. We have developed a novel and efficient method to enrich Schwann cells by differential detachment of two types of cells. In the culture, cells were ...
Futatsugi Akira - - 2008
During postnatal development of the cerebellum, granule cell precursors (GCPs) proliferate in the external granular layer (EGL), exit the cell cycle, differentiate, and migrate from the EGL to the internal granular layer. In the present study, we report that type 2 and 3 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptors (IP(3)R2 and IP(3)R3) ...
Goodyear Emilie - - 2008
Glaucomatous optic neuropathy is the most common optic nerve disease. The mechanisms by which retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) die in glaucoma are becoming better understood, but are still poorly defined. Elucidating the pathways that connect risk factors for glaucoma (e.g., elevated intraocular pressure) and RGC death is difficult in patients ...
Shen Yiping - - 2008
Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) is required for development of a functional cerebral cortex in vertebrates; however, its role in cerebellar development is not well understood. Recently, we showed that absence of GAP-43 caused defects in proliferation, differentiation, and polarization of cerebellar granule cells. In this paper, we show that absence ...
Clarke Robert J - - 2008
PURPOSE: When neural circuits are damaged in adulthood, regenerating and sprouting processes must distinguish appropriate targets to recreate the normal circuitry. We tested the ability of adult nerve cells to target specific cells in culture using the retina as a model system. METHODS: Under sterile culture conditions, retinal cells, isolated ...
Xu Yongfeng - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Schwann cells (SC) which are myelin-forming cells in peripheral nervous system are very useful for the treatment of diseases of peripheral nervous system and central nervous system. However, it is difficult to obtain sufficient large number of SC for clinical use, so alternative cell systems are desired. RESULTS: Using ...
Axelrad Jordan E - - 2008
Clinical and functional imaging evidence suggests that cerebellar dysfunction occurs in essential tremor (ET). In recent postmortem studies, we documented increased numbers of torpedoes (Purkinje cell axonal swellings) in ET patients without Lewy bodies. Purkinje cell loss, however, has never been rigorously assessed. To quantitatively assess the number of Purkinje ...
Zhang Peixun - - 2008
To describe the rule of the Schwann cell proliferation after peripheral nerve injury in detail and to discover the effect of neuroanastomosis, the model of rat sciatic injury was made, with neuroanastomosis on the left side and right side untreated. Then the materials were drawn the 24th hour, 48th hour, ...
Belur Lalitha R - - 2008
The receptor for adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) in Purkinje cells has not been identified, but based on work carried out in non-neuronal cell lines, heparan sulfate proteoglycan is thought to act as a primary receptor, with basic fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 being reported as a co-receptor. In this study, ...
Pettingill L N - - 2008
The intracochlear infusion of neurotrophic factors via a mini-osmotic pump has been shown to prevent deafness-induced spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) degeneration; however, the use of pumps may increase the incidence of infection within the cochlea, making this technique unsuitable for neurotrophin administration in a clinical setting. Cell- and gene-based therapies ...
Muller Arnaud - - 2008
Morphine, the principal active agent in opium, is not restricted to plants, but is also present in different animal tissues and cell types, including the mammalian brain. In fact, its biosynthetic pathway has been elucidated in a human neural cell line. These data suggest a role for morphine in brain ...
Atanasoski Suzana - - 2008
Peripheral myelin formation depends on axonal signals that tightly control proliferation and differentiation of the associated Schwann cells. Here we demonstrate that the molecular program controlling proliferation of Schwann cells switches at birth. We have analyzed the requirements for three members of the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) family in Schwann cells ...
Zurita Mercedes - - 2008
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) can acquire morphological and immunohistochemical features of neural cells when they are treated with diverse chemical agents, a finding interpreted as result of cell transdifferentiation. With the purpose of a better knowledge of the possible utility of BMSC for strategies of Nervous System (NS) repair, ...
Janowski Miroslaw - - 2008
The access of transplanted cells to large areas of the CNS is of critical value for cell therapy of chronic diseases associated with widespread neurodegeneration. Intrathecal cell application can match this requirement. Here we describe an efficient method for cell injection into the cisterna magna and the assessment of the ...
Okuda Tomohiko - - 2008
The N-myc downstream-regulated gene (NDRG) family consists of four proteins: NDRG1, NDRG2, NDRG3, and NDRG4 in mammals. NDRG1 has been thoroughly studied as an intracellular protein associated with stress response, cell growth, and differentiation. A nonsense mutation in the NDRG1 gene causes hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type ...
Chew Sing Yian - - 2008
Peripheral nerve regeneration can be enhanced by the stimulation of formation of bands of Büngner prior to implantation. Aligned electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers were fabricated to test their potential to provide contact guidance to human Schwann cells. After 7 days of culture, cell cytoskeleton and nuclei were observed to align ...
Zode Gulab S GS Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA. - - 2007
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily that controls multiple functions in a variety of cells. We have previously shown that human optic nerve head (ONH) astrocytes and lamina cribrosa (LC) cells express BMP and BMP receptor mRNA and proteins. The purpose of the ...
Lin T-Y - - 2008
Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a member of the transferrin protein family that is abundant in bovine milk. Recent studies have shown that bLF plays roles in the regulation of cell growth. However, the biological function of bLF in the peripheral nervous system is still unclear. In this study, the immortalized ...
Willerth Stephanie M - - 2008
This review presents a summary of the various types of cellular therapy used to treat spinal cord injury. The inhibitory environment and loss of axonal connections after spinal cord injury pose many obstacles to regenerating the lost tissue. Cellular therapy provides a means of restoring the cells lost to the ...
Hsu Shan-hui - - 2007
Cell alignment plays an important role in the repair of damaged peripheral nerves. The aligned Schwann cells could direct the axonal outgrowth during nerve reconstruction. One way of aligning Schwann cells is to use surface grooves in micrometric dimensions. In this study, microgrooves on chitosan or poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) were fabricated ...
Hedayatpour Azim - - 2007
It has been found that one of the methods to repair peripheral nervous system or even central nervous system injury is to use Schwann cells as nerve regeneration promoters. Therefore, it seems necessary to look for a way to obtain activated Schwann cells, with a sufficient amount of numbers and ...
Gonçalves Leonor - - 2007
The spared nerve injury (SNI) model of peripheral neuropathy produces a robust and long-lasting hypersensitivity. Previous behavioural studies suggest that brainstem-spinal pathways originating in or relaying through the rostroventromedial medulla (RVM) contribute to neuropathic hypersensitivity. We determined whether SNI induces changes in response properties of RVM neurons that might influence ...
Zakir Hossain S M - - 2007
There is an increasing interest in new strategies to detect neurotransmitters released from nerve cells in real time for brain science, drug assessment, and so on. Previously we reported real-time monitoring of dopamine release from nerve model cells by enzyme-catalyzed luminescence measurement with tyramine oxidase and peroxidase. In the present ...
Blakemore W F WF Department of Veterinary Medicine and Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OES, England, UK. - - 2008
The relative merits of endogenous and exogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) for remyelination are compared in terms of their ability to repopulate OPC-depleted tissue and generate remyelinating oligodendrocytes. Exogenous neonatal OPCs can repopulate OPC-depleted tissue 5-10 times faster than endogenous cells and as a result are capable of more extensive ...
Lee Hyun Kyoung - - 2007
Netrin and its receptors, DCC (Deleted in Colorectal Cancer) and Unc5, are proposed to be involved in the axon guidance and neuroglial migration during development. However, accumulating evidence implies that they may also participate in the cell survival and apoptosis. Here, we show that netrin-1 induces proliferation of Schwann cells. ...
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