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Wang Jin - - 2010
To describe the phenotypic changes of Schwann cells during nerve regeneration, we made two different neurorrhaphy models after rat sciatic nerves injury, the epineurium neurorrhaphy and small gap bridging suture. Then, at selected time points after surgery (1d, 3d, 5d, 7d, 2 weeks, 3 weeks), the materials were drawn for ...
Bremer Juliane - - 2010
The myelin sheaths that surround the thick axons of the peripheral nervous system are produced by the highly specialized Schwann cells. Differentiation of Schwann cells and myelination occur in discrete steps. Each of these requires coordinated expression of specific proteins in a precise sequence, yet the regulatory mechanisms controlling protein ...
Verdes J M - - 2010
Solanum bonariense intoxication is characterized by cerebellar neuronal vacuolation, degeneration, and necrosis. Cerebellar Purkinje cells seem especially susceptible, but more research is needed to determine the pathogenesis of neuronal necrosis and the mechanism of Purkinje cell susceptibility. Calbindin D28k (CbD28k) is highly expressed in Purkinje cells and has been used ...
Elrick Matthew J - - 2010
Pathways regulating neuronal vulnerability are poorly understood, yet are central to identifying therapeutic targets for degenerative neurological diseases. Here, we characterize mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by impaired cholesterol trafficking. To date, the relative contributions of neuronal and glial defects to ...
Bradford Barry M - - 2009
Expression of the prion protein (PrP(C)) is a requirement for host susceptibility to the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and thought to be necessary for the replication and transport of the infectious agent. The mechanism of TSE neuroinvasion is not fully understood, although the routing of infection has been mapped through ...
Kofron Celinda M - - 2009
Anisotropic tissue structures provide guidance for navigating neurons in vitro and in vivo. Here we optimized the generation of comparable anisotropic monolayers of astrocytes, endothelial cells, and Schwann cells as a first step toward determining which properties of anisotropic cells are sufficient for nerve guidance. The statistical experimental design method ...
Magnaghi Valerio - - 2010
Recent evidence showed that neurotransmitters are synthesised in glial cells, such as the Schwann cells, which form myelin sheaths in the PNS. While the presence of GABA type A (GABA-A) receptors has been previously demonstrated in these cells, the evidence of GABA synthesis remained still elusive. In an attempt to ...
Spiegel Ivo - - 2009
Myelinating cocultures of Schwann cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons are a powerful experimental system for probing the molecular mechanisms of axon-Schwann cell interaction. The isolation of a pure population of myelination-competent Schwann cells is a prerequisite for this experimental system. We describe here a protocol for a FACS-based isolation ...
Billeci L - - 2010
The morphological development of in vitro single cerebellar Purkinje cells obtained from wild type P1 CD1 mice was assessed through a dedicated non-invasive technique based on image processing algorithms and multivariate analysis. Image processing algorithms were implemented to extract metrical features characterizing cell structure and dendritic arborization from sequential optical ...
Bachelin C - - 2010
Recent findings suggested that inducing neural cell adhesion molecule polysialylation in rodents is a promising strategy for promoting tissue repair in the injured central nervous system. Since autologous grafting of Schwann cells is one potential strategy to promote central nervous system remyelination, it is essential to show that such a ...
Radtke Christine - - 2010
Johnson et al report tumor formation following murine neural precursor cell transplantation in a rat peripheral nerve injury model, emphasizing the importance of full in vitro characterization of cells prior to transplantation. Cell lines can change during expansion and subclones which may become tumerogenic may be selected in the process ...
Chung S-H - - 2009
Cerebellar unipolar brush cells (UBCs) are glutamatergic interneurons of the granular layer. Previous studies have identified three distinct UBC subsets in the mouse cerebellar cortex: one expressing the calcium-binding protein calretinin (CR), a second expressing both the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)1alpha and phospholipase C(PLC)beta4, and a third expressing PLCbeta4 but ...
Coulpier Fanny - - 2009
Neural crest (NC) cells are a multipotent, highly migratory cell population that generates most of the components of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), including the glial Schwann cells (SC) and boundary cap (BC) cells. These latter cells are located at the interface between the central nervous system and PNS, at ...
Ji Yuhong - - 2010
Src-suppressed protein kinase C substrate (SSeCKS) plays an important role in the differentiation process. In regeneration of sciatic nerve injury, expression of SSeCKS decreases, mainly in Schwann cells. However, the function of SSeCKS in Schwann cells differentiation remains unclear. We observed that SSeCKS was decreased in differentiated Schwann cells. In ...
Boyden Penelope A - - 2010
Purkinje cells are specialized for rapid propagation in the heart. Furthermore, Purkinje fibers as the source as well as the perpetuator of arrhythmias is a familiar finding. This is not surprising considering their location in the heart and their unique cell ultrastructure, cell electrophysiology, and mode of excitation-contraction coupling. This ...
Facello Bruna - - 2009
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has a neuroprotective role in Purkinje cells of cerebellum, promoting the survival and the differentiation of these cells. Its signalling is mediated by a receptorial complex GFRalpha1/RET. In the brain of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) we previously investigated GDNF expression and localization, but no ...
Rodrigues Luciana Silva - - 2010
Peripheral nerve lesions are considered the most relevant symptoms of leprosy, a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The strategies employed by M. leprae to infect and multiply inside Schwann cells (SCs), however, remain poorly understood. In this study, it is shown that treatment of SCs with M. leprae ...
Chattopadhyay Sharmila - - 2009
Phenotypic remodeling of Schwann cells is required to ensure successful regeneration of damaged peripheral axons. After nerve damage, Schwann cells produce an over 100-fold increase in metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and therapy with an MMP inhibitor increases the number of resident (but not infiltrating) cells in injured nerve. Here, we demonstrate that ...
Tomioka Ryosaku - - 2009
GOTO cells, a neuroblastoma cell line retaining the ability to differentiate into neuronal or Schwann cells, were found to be rich in membrane rafts containing ganglioside GM2 and hypersensitive to lipid raft-disrupting methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD); the GM2-rich rafts and sensitivity to MbetaCD were markedly diminished upon their differentiation into Schwann cells. ...
Lu Chunye - - 2009
Mutations in the frataxin gene cause dorsal root ganglion demyelination and neurodegeneration, which leads to Friedreich's ataxia. However the consequences of frataxin depletion have not been measured in dorsal root ganglia or Schwann cells. We knocked down frataxin in several neural cell lines, including two dorsal root ganglia neural lines, ...
Astori Simone - - 2009
Transmitter release from boutons along a common axon is often regulated depending on the postsynaptic target. Here, GABA release from cerebellar stellate cells onto Purkinje cells and other stellate cells was examined in acute cerebellar slices of 2- and 4-week-old mice. Consistent with previous findings on action potential-dependent GABA release, ...
Pan Ning - - 2009
Neurod1 is a crucial basic helix-loop-helix gene for most cerebellar granule cells and mediates the differentiation of these cells downstream of Atoh1-mediated proliferation of the precursors. In Neurod1 null mice, granule cells die throughout the posterior two thirds of the cerebellar cortex during development. However, Neurod1 is also necessary for ...
Storstein A - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Immunohistochemical studies of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) are rare, and the findings vary. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of the brain, medulla and tumour of two patients with PCD, Yo antibodies and ovarian adenocarcinoma. RESULTS: The cerebellum of both patients had extensive loss of Purkinje ...
Woodhoo Ashwin A Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, - - 2009
Notch signaling is central to vertebrate development, and analysis of Notch has provided important insights into pathogenetic mechanisms in the CNS and many other tissues. However, surprisingly little is known about the role of Notch in the development and pathology of Schwann cells and peripheral nerves. Using transgenic mice and ...
Kanda Takashi - - 2009
The value of peripheral nerve biopsy is now sometimes questioned due to the high complication rate and the recent development of noninvasive molecular techniques for diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy. However, the disorders that can be diagnosed by genetic analysis are limited and sural nerve biopsy is still a powerful tool ...
Franssen Elske H P - - 2009
Schwann cells (SCs) and olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) have both been used as cellular transplants to promote spinal cord repair. Both cell types support axonal regeneration and have beneficial effects on functional recovery. A significant difference between SCs and OEG is the effect of these cell types on astrocytes (ACs) ...
Gorlewicz Adam - - 2009
CD44 is a multifunctional cell surface glycoprotein which regulates cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in a variety of tissues. In particular, the protein was found to be expressed in glial cells of developing, but not adult, peripheral nerves, where it takes part in signaling mediated by ErbB class of receptors for ...
Lee Tina X - - 2009
Vestibular schwannomas (VS) frequently express high levels of activated AKT. Small-molecule inhibitors of AKT signalling may have therapeutic potential in suppressing the growth of benign VS and malignant schwannomas. Primary VS and Schwann cells, human malignant schwannoma HMS-97 cells and mouse Nf2(-/-) Schwann cells and schwannoma cells were prepared to ...
Becker Esther B E EB Medical Research Council Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QX, United - - 2009
The hereditary ataxias are a complex group of neurological disorders characterized by the degeneration of the cerebellum and its associated connections. The molecular mechanisms that trigger the loss of Purkinje cells in this group of diseases remain incompletely understood. Here, we report a previously undescribed dominant mouse model of cerebellar ...
Dreesmann Lars - - 2009
In order to reveal non-neuronal cell interactions after peripheral nerve lesions, we began to analyze the impact of sciatic nerve fibroblasts on Schwann cells in vitro. Both cell types are considered to have opposite effects on axonal regeneration. Few data are available on how repulsive nerve fibroblasts affect neuritotrophic Schwann ...
Jankowski Jakob - - 2009
Physiological cell death is crucial for matching defined cellular populations within the central nervous system. Whereas the time course of developmental cell death in the central nervous system is well analyzed, information about its precise spatial patterning is scarce. Yet, the latter one is needed to appraise its contribution to ...
Sasaki Hirofumi - - 2009
STUDY DESIGN: Magnetically isolated, peripheral blood-derived CD133+ cells were used as the therapeutic agent of spinal cord injury (SCI). A rat model was used to investigate the hypothesis that the cell therapy using this clinically accessible cell fraction could be an attractive option for injured spinal cord. OBJECTIVE: Given the ...
Kao Shih-Chu SC Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, - - 2009
Schwann cells develop from multipotent neural crest cells and form myelin sheaths around axons that allow rapid transmission of action potentials. Neuregulin signaling through the ErbB receptor regulates Schwann cell development; however, the downstream pathways are not fully defined. We find that mice lacking calcineurin B1 in the neural crest ...
Hill Kenneth E - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies reactive with intracellular neuronal proteins have been described in paraneoplastic and other autoimmune disorders. Because neurons have been thought impermeable to immunoglobulins, however, such antibodies have been considered unable to enter neurons and bind to their specific antigens during life. Cerebellar Purkinje cells - an ...
Neville Craig M - - 2009
Schwann cells and primary progenitor cells improve regeneration across peripheral nerve defects. This study examined the impact of immortalized neural precursor cells on regeneration of rat nerve defects. Across 10-mm gaps, neuromas formed without neural cables with C17.2- or RN33B-transplanted cells, but neural cables formed across 5-mm gaps seeded with ...
Chakrabarti Lisa - - 2009
Purkinje cells are a class of specialized neurons in the cerebellum, and are among the most metabolically active of all neurons, as they receive immense synaptic stimulation, and provide the only efferent output from the cerebellum. Degeneration of Purkinje cells is a common feature of inherited ataxias in humans and ...
Fitzgerald R S - - 2009
Research on arterial chemoreceptors, particularly on the carotid body, has been fruitful in the last fifty years, to which this review is addressed. The functional anatomy of the organ appears to be well established. The biophysical bases by which glomus cells transduce chemical changes in the milieu intérieur (hypoxia, hypercapnia, ...
Cheron Guy - - 2009
Calcium signaling plays a central role in normal CNS functioning and dysfunction. As cerebellar Purkinje cells express the major regulatory elements of calcium control and represent the sole integrative output of the cerebellar cortex, changes in neural activity- and calcium-mediated membrane properties of these cells are expected to provide important ...
Sachs Andrew J - - 2009
The weeble mutant mouse has a frame shift mutation in inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type I (Inpp4a). The phenotype is characterized by an early onset cerebellar ataxia and neurodegeneration, especially apparent in the Purkinje cells. Purkinje cell loss is a common pathological finding in many human and mouse ataxic disorders. Here ...
Sawada Kazuhiko - - 2009
Tottering mouse is an ataxic mutant that carries a mutation in a gene encoding for the apha1A subunit of P/Q-type Ca2+ channel (Cav2.1). This study revisited to examine whether a Purkinje cell loss occurred in the cerebellum of tottering mice. In tottering mice, Calbindin D-28k negative gaps were apparent in ...
Rokni Dan - - 2009
Recent studies have demonstrated that the membrane potential of Purkinje cells is bi-stable and that this phenomenon underlies bi-modal simple spike firing. Membrane potential alternates between a depolarized state, that is associated with spontaneous simple spike firing (up state), and a quiescent hyperpolarized state (down state). A controversy has emerged ...
Court Felipe A - - 2008
Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) are normally thought to comprise three major cell types: skeletal muscle fibres, motor neuron terminals and perisynaptic terminal Schwann cells. Here we studied a fourth population of junctional cells in mice and rats, revealed using a novel cytoskeletal antibody (2166). These cells lie outside the synaptic basal ...
Mantuano Elisabetta E Department of Anesthesiology and Pathology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0629, - - 2008
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP-1) is an endocytic receptor for diverse proteins, including matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and a cell-signaling receptor. In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), LRP-1 is robustly expressed by Schwann cells only after injury. Herein, we demonstrate that MMP-9 activates extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and Akt in Schwann cells ...
Zhou Liang - - 2008
CONCLUSIONS: Schwann cells transfected by GDNF genes + PLGA were superior to Schwann cells + PLGA and direct anastomesis. This is a new and effective strategy for repair of facial nerve defects. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of bioactive artificial nerve conduits in the repair of facial nerve defects in ...
Duobles Tatiana - - 2008
PURPOSE: The neurotrophic factor fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2, bFGF) and Ca++ binding protein S100beta are expressed by the Schwann cells of the peripheral nerves and by the satellite cells of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Recent studies have pointed out the importance of the molecules in the paracrine mechanisms related ...
Woodhoo Ashwin - - 2008
The myelinating and nonmyelinating Schwann cells in peripheral nerves are derived from the neural crest, which is a transient and multipotent embryonic structure that also generates the other main glial subtypes of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Schwann cell development occurs through a series of transitional embryonic and postnatal phases, ...
Svaren John - - 2008
During late fetal life, Schwann cells in the peripheral nerves singled out by the larger axons will transit through a promyelinating stage before exiting the cell cycle and initiating myelin formation. A network of extra- and intracellular signaling pathways, regulating a transcriptional program of cell differentiation, governs this progression of ...
Rychel Amanda L AL Biology Department, Center for Developmental Biology, and Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1800, - - 2008
Ptychodera flava is a hemichordate whose anterior structures regenerate reproducibly from posterior trunk pieces when amputated. We characterized the cellular processes of anterior regeneration with respect to programmed cell death and cell proliferation, after wound healing. We found scattered proliferating cells at day 2 of regeneration using a proliferating cell ...
Shen Aiguo - - 2008
Postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) is one of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-anchoring proteins and plays an important role in specifying the sites of reaction of nitric oxide (NO) in the nervous system. The present study aims to investigate the presence of PSD-95 in rat Schwann cells (SCs) and the association of ...
Heinen André - - 2008
The p57(kip2) gene encodes a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor that belongs to the Cip/Kip family of negative cell cycle regulators. Recently, experimental evidence emerged that beyond cell cycle control p57(kip2) also regulates a number of different cellular processes. We found that in Schwann cells, these are the myelinating glial cells ...
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