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Wessler Silja - - 2011
Dynamic rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is a significant hallmark of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infected gastric epithelial cells leading to cell migration and invasive growth. Considering the cellular mechanisms, the type IV secretion system (T4SS) and the effector protein cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) of H. pylori are well-studied initiators ...
Backert Steffen - - 2011
Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful pathogen uniquely adapted to colonize humans. Gastric infections with this bacterium can induce pathology ranging from chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers to gastric cancer. More virulent H. pylori isolates harbour numerous well-known adhesins (BabA/B, SabA, AlpA/B, OipA and HopZ) and the cag (cytotoxin-associated genes) ...
Murray-Dunning Celia - - 2011
Injuries to the peripheral nervous system affect 1 in 1,000 individuals each year. The implication of sustaining such an injury is considerable with loss of sensory and/or motor function. The economic implications too are extensive running into millions of pounds (or dollars) annually for provision and support. The natural regrowth ...
Pertino Mariano Walter - - 2011
New diterpenylquinones, combining a diterpene diacid and a naphthoquinone, were prepared from junicedric acid and lapachol. The new derivatives were assessed as gastroprotective agents by the HCl-EtOH-induced gastric lesions model in mice as well as for basal cytotoxicity on the following human cell lines: Normal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), gastric epithelial ...
Drews Gary N - - 2011
The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that ...
Wroblewski Lydia E - - 2011
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human gastric epithelium and induces chronic gastritis, which can lead to gastric cancer. Through cell-cell contacts the gastric epithelium forms a barrier to protect underlying tissue from pathogenic bacteria; however, H. pylori have evolved numerous strategies to perturb the integrity of the gastric barrier. In this ...
Kaeffer Bertrand - - 2011
In preterm infants, exfoliated gastric epithelial cells can be retrieved from aspirates sampled through the naso-gastric feeding tube. Our aims were to determine (1) whether the recovery of exfoliated cells is feasible at any time from birth through the removal of the nasogastric tube, (2) whether they can be grown ...
Terada Tadashi - - 2011
Gastric adenocarcinoma of fundic gland type is extremely rare. A 78-year-old Japanese man with carcinomatosis of unknown primary origin underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The endoscopy revealed an elevated lesion with central ulcer (1.3 × 2 × 1.5 cm) in the gastric corpus of fundic gland area. One biopsy was taken. ...
Costa Natália R - - 2011
Gastric carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. The high mortality associated with this disease is in part due to limited knowledge about gastric carcinogenesis and a lack of available therapeutic and prevention strategies. MUC1 is a high molecular weight transmembrane mucin protein expressed at the apical ...
Wei Xu - - 2011
Our study aims to evaluate the anti-growth effects of recombinant immunotoxin (IT) anti-c-Met/PE38KDEL on gastric cancer cells, and its mechnisms. Gastric cancer cells were treated with increasing doses of IT and c-Met protein was quantified by Western blotting. Cell proliferation was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay (CCK). [3H]-leucine incorporation ...
Hallböök Helene - - 2011
Despite years of interest in the anti-cancerous effects of cardiac glycosides (CGs), and numerous studies in vitro and in animals, it has not yet been possible to utilize this potential clinically. Reports have demonstrated promising in vitro effects on different targets as well as a possible therapeutic index/selectivity in vitro ...
Guidi Sandra - - 2011
Evidence in mouse models for Down syndrome (DS) and human fetuses with DS clearly shows severe neurogenesis impairment in various telencephalic regions, suggesting that this defect may underlie the cognitive abnormalities of DS. As cerebellar hypotrophy and motor disturbances are part of the clinical features of DS, the goal of ...
Xu Yongfeng - - 2011
Schwann cells (SC) which are myelin forming cells in peripheral nervous system can remyelinate demyelinated central nervous system (CNS) axons in vivo. However, potential drawbacks to the use of SC in the CNS are nevertheless apparent, and Schwann cell precursors (SCP) are favourable cells for myelin repair in the CNS. ...
Gökçe Mehmet Fatih - - 2011
Zinc is an important trace element in biological systems; however, excessive extracellular zinc could lead to neuronal cell death following ischemia, seizures, and brain trauma. In this study, we investigated whether the intracortical injection of zinc sulphate (200 μg/kg, i.c.) changes total number of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and ...
Chung Seung-Hyuk SH Department of Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, - - 2011
Alteration in mitochondrial dynamics has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) plays a key role in multiple cellular and disease processes. Using immunoblotting and flow cytometry analysis with Harlequin mutant mice that have a proviral insertion in the AIF gene, we first revealed that mitofusion ...
Tong Lei - - 2010
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent stem cells that have the potential to differentiate into different cells of the neural lineage like neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In the current work, we explored whether NSCs could be differentiated into functional Schwann-like cells, which has not been investigated up to date. NSCs ...
Belmeguenai Amor A Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The - - 2010
Synaptic gain control and information storage in neural networks are mediated by alterations in synaptic transmission, such as in long-term potentiation (LTP). Here, we show using both in vitro and in vivo recordings from the rat cerebellum that tetanization protocols for the induction of LTP at parallel fiber (PF)-to-Purkinje cell ...
Lavdas Alexandros A - - 2010
For biotechnological applications, insect cell lines are primarily known as hosts for the baculovirus expression system that is capable to direct synthesis of high levels of recombinant proteins through use of powerful viral promoters. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of two alternative approaches based on the baculovirus system for production ...
Erceg Slaven - - 2010
The cerebellum has critical roles in motor and sensory learning and motor coordination. Many cerebellum-related disorders indicate cell therapy as a possible treatment of neural loss. Here we show that application of inductive signals involved in early patterning of the cerebellar region followed by application of different factors directs human ...
Furutama Daisuke - - 2010
The cerebellar Purkinje cell monolayer is organized into heterogeneous Purkinje cell compartments that have different molecular compositions. Here we describe a transgenic mouse line, 1NM13, that shows heterogeneous transgene expression in parasagittal Purkinje cell arrays. The transgene consists of a nuclear localization signal (nls) fused to the beta-galactosidase (lacZ) composite ...
Parrinello Simona S MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and the UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, - - 2010
The peripheral nervous system has astonishing regenerative capabilities in that cut nerves are able to reconnect and re-establish their function. Schwann cells are important players in this process, during which they dedifferentiate to a progenitor/stem cell and promote axonal regrowth. Here, we report that fibroblasts also play a key role. ...
Wewetzer Konstantin - - 2011
Autologous transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and Schwann cells (SCs) is considered a promising option to promote axonal regrowth and remyelination after spinal cord injury in humans. However, if the experimental data from the rodent model can be directly extrapolated to humans, as widely believed, remains to be established. ...
Whitlon D S - - 2010
Schwann cells line nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and synthesize myelin. In addition, they support neuronal survival, neurite growth and regeneration. In dissociated cultures of postnatal mouse spiral ganglia, regenerating neurites spontaneously associate with Schwann cells. However, the mechanisms and consequences of interactions between cochlear Schwann cells ...
Muguruma Keiko - - 2010
Purkinje cells are the sole output neurons of the cerebellar cortex and their dysfunction causes severe ataxia. We found that Purkinje cells could be robustly generated from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells by recapitulating the self-inductive signaling microenvironments of the isthmic organizer. The cell-surface marker Neph3 enabled us to carry ...
Sawada Yusuke - - 2010
Lentiviral vectors are promising as gene-transfer vehicles for gene therapy targeted to intractable brain diseases. Although lentiviral vectors are thought to exert little toxicity on infected cells, the adverse influence of viral infection on vulnerable developing neurons has not been well studied. Here, we examined whether lentiviral vector infection and ...
Schonewille M M Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The - - 2010
Cerebellar motor learning is required to obtain procedural skills. Studies have provided supportive evidence for a potential role of kinase-mediated long-term depression (LTD) at the parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapse in cerebellar learning. Recently, phosphatases have been implicated in the induction of potentiation of Purkinje cell activities in vitro, ...
Liang Wei - - 2010
Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) and ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1), two major ingredients in ginseng root, have gained extensive attention because of its neuroprotective properties. Thus far, most of the studies on GRb1 and GRg1 have been focused on their neuroprotective effects on neurons. The potential beneficial effects of GRb1 and GRg1 on ...
Pascual Rodrigo - - 2010
A number of clinical studies suggest that prenatal stress can be a risk factor in the development of various psychopathologies, including schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and autism. The cerebellar vermis has been shown to be involved in most of these disorders. In the present study, therefore, we evaluate the effect of ...
Cornejo Martha M Department of Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330, - - 2010
The Schwann cells are the myelinating glia of the peripheral nervous system that originated during development from the highly motile neural crest. However, we do not know what the guidance signals for the Schwann cell precursors are. Therefore, we set to test some of the known neurotrophins that are expressed ...
Oldfield Claire S - - 2010
We demonstrate that single interneurons can toggle the output neurons of the cerebellar cortex (the Purkinje cells) between their two states. The firing of Purkinje cells has previously been shown to alternate between an "up" state in which the cell fires spontaneous action potentials and a silent "down" state. We ...
Kang Guoxin G The Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, - - 2010
The Purkinje fiber network has been proposed as the source of arrhythmogenic Ca(2+) release events in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), yet evidence supporting this mechanism at the cellular level is lacking. We sought to determine the frequency and severity of spontaneous Ca(2+) release events and the response to the ...
Sun M - - 2010
In an attempt to obviate the drawbacks of nerve autograft, ultrathin microporous biodegradable PCL and PCL/PLA films were tested for their compatibility with motor neuron-like NG108-15 cells and primary Schwann cells. Data obtained from MTS colorimetric and DNA fluorimetric assays showed that both cell lines readily attached and proliferated on ...
Dickson Price E PE Department of Psychology, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152, United - - 2010
Although behavioral inflexibility and Purkinje cell loss are both well established in autism, it is unknown if these phenomena are causally related. Using a mouse model, we tested the hypothesis that developmental abnormalities of the cerebellum, including Purkinje cell loss, result in behavioral inflexibility. Specifically, we made aggregation chimeras (Lc/+<-->+/+) ...
Shea Graham K H - - 2010
Schwann cell transplantation improves post-traumatic nerve regeneration in both PNS and CNS but sufficient numbers of immunocompatible cells are required for clinical application. Currently, Schwann cell-like cells derived from the bone marrow lack fate commitment and revert to a fibroblast-like phenotype upon withdrawal of differentiation-inducing factors. In recapitulation of embryonic ...
Adameyko Igor - - 2010
Melanocytes and Schwann cells are derived from the multipotent population of neural crest cells. Although both cell types were thought to be generated through completely distinct pathways and molecular processes, a recent study has revealed that these different cell types are intimately interconnected far beyond previously postulated limits in that ...
Suri Shalu - - 2010
Various neural tissue engineering approaches that are under development for applications ranging from guidance conduits to cell-based therapies rely on the ability to encapsulate cells in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds. Schwann cells play a key role in peripheral nerve regeneration by forming oriented paths for regrowing axons. We have engineered collagen ...
Afshari Fardad T FT Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge University Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0PY, United - - 2010
Schwann cells transplantation has considerable promise in spinal cord trauma to bridge the site of injury and for remyelination in demyelinating conditions. They support axonal regeneration and sprouting by secreting growth factors and providing a permissive surface and matrix molecules while shielding axons from the inhibitory environment of the central ...
Gilloteaux Jacques - - 2010
Comparisons of atrial tissues from Syrian hamster offspring born from cocaine-treated mothers during the last days of pregnancy with sham-treated ones demonstrate irreversible focal ischemic damage in the Purkinje myofibers and minor endocardial damages as well as minute cardiomyocyte vacuolization. These defects are consistent with the pharmacotoxicity of cocaine or ...
Huang Jinghui - - 2010
Electrical stimulation (ES) can dramatically enhance neurite outgrowth through conductive polymers and accelerate peripheral nerve regeneration in animal models of nerve injury. Therefore, conductive tissue engineering graft in combination with ES is a potential treatment for neural injuries. Conductive tissue engineering graft can be obtained by seeding Schwann cells on ...
Phoka Elena - - 2010
Cerebellar Purkinje cells display complex intrinsic dynamics. They fire spontaneously, exhibit bistability, and via mutual network interactions are involved in the generation of high frequency oscillations and travelling waves of activity. To probe the dynamical properties of Purkinje cells we measured their phase response curves (PRCs). PRCs quantify the change ...
Afshari Fardad T FT Cambridge Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0PY, United - - 2010
Schwann cells are a promising candidate for bridging spinal cord injuries and remyelinating axons. However, grafted Schwann cells show little intermingling with host astrocytes and therefore limited migration from transplant sites. This leads to the formation of a sharp border between host astrocytes and Schwann cells, which results in axons ...
Vodenicharov A - - 2010
The enzymehistochemical localization of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) reactive cells next and within the autonomic nerves in the porcine kidney's hilus, close to renal artery and vein as well as in its adventitia, was studied. It was established that the prevailing part of NADPH-d-reactive cells were distributed next ...
Odemis Veysel - - 2010
The alternative SDF-1 (stromal cell derived factor-1) receptor, CXCR7, has been suggested to act as either a scavenger of extracellular SDF-1 or a modulator of the primary SDF-1 receptor, CXCR4. CXCR7, however, also directly affects the function of various tumor-cell types. Here, we demonstrate that CXCR7 is an active component ...
Smithson Laura J - - 2010
This is the first description of a population of Iba1- and annexin A3-immunopositive cells residing in the peripheral olfactory nerves of adult rats and adult cats. Based on their ramified appearance, positive immunostaining for the monocytic markers Iba1 and annexin A3, and reactivity to bulbectomy (in adult rats), these cells ...
Anderson Jennifer L - - 2010
The purpose was to study homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse in the mdx mouse, a murine model of the human dystrophinopathy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), in order to examine whether the absence of dystrophin affects the induction and extent of this form of synaptic plasticity. ...
Roy Soumen - - 2010
Cell specific targeting is an emerging field in nanomedicine. Homing of the multifunctional nanoparticles (MFNPs) is achieved by the conjugation of targeting moieties on the nanoparticle surface. The inner ear is an attractive target for new drug delivery strategies as it is hard to access and hearing loss is a ...
Windus Louisa C E - - 2010
The growth and guidance of primary olfactory axons are partly attributed to the presence of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs). However, little is understood about the differences between the subpopulations of OECs and what regulates their interactions. We used OEC-axon assays and determined that axons respond differently to peripheral and central ...
Saitoh Fuminori - - 2010
Rapid saltatory nerve conduction is facilitated by myelin structure, which is composed of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Schwann cells drastically change their phenotype following peripheral nerve injury. These phenotypic changes are required for efficient degeneration/regeneration. We previously identified ZNRF1 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase containing a RING ...
Sane Komal M KM Department of Pharmacology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, - - 2010
Prenylation inhibitors have gained increasing attention as potential therapeutics for cancer. Initial work focused on inhibitors of farnesylation, but more recently geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitors (GGTIs) have begun to be evaluated for their potential antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we have developed a nonpeptidomimetic GGTI, termed ...
Sawada Kazuhiko - - 2010
Rolling mouse Nagoya is an ataxic mutant mouse that carries a mutation in a gene encoding for the alpha 1A subunit of the voltage-gated P/Q-type Ca2+ channel (Cav2.1). This report summarizes our studies and others concerning cerebellar abnormalities in rolling mice based on chemical neuroanatomy. While there are no obvious ...
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