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Results 351 - 400 of 1774
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Yamasaki Fumiyuki - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms involved in the cell cycle and cell death remain unresolved despite much investigation. Staurosporine induces cell death and G1 or G2/M arrest in a dose-dependent manner, but the mechanisms remain unknown. METHODS: In the present study an adenovirus vector expressing p16 or p21 genes in human glioma ...
Al-Feel Walid - - 2003
To elucidate the essential functions of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1FAS3) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a temperature-sensitive mutant (acc1(ts)) was constructed. When the acc1(ts) cells were synchronized in G(1) phase with alpha-factor at the permissive temperature of 24 degrees C and then released from the blockade and incubated at the restrictive temperature of ...
Margolis Robert L - - 2003
Checkpoints suppress improper cell cycle progression to ensure that cells maintain the integrity of their genome. During mitosis, a metaphase checkpoint requires the integration of all chromosomes into a metaphase array in the mitotic spindle prior to mitotic exit. Still, mitotic errors occur in mammalian cells with a relatively high ...
Cooper Stephen - - 2003
The restriction point in the G1 phase of the mammalian cell cycle is the oldest, best-known, and widely accepted control point regulating division cycle in mammalian cells. Origins of the restriction point and its subsequent history are reanalyzed here. The initial proposal of the restriction point has an alternative explanation, ...
Kemp Hilary A - - 2003
In budding yeast, diffusible mating pheromones initiate a signaling pathway that culminates in several responses, including cell cycle arrest. Only a handful of genes required for the interface between pheromone response and the cell cycle have been identified, among them FAR1 and FAR3; of these, only FAR1 has been extensively ...
Yeung P K K - - 2003
Cell proliferation of dinoflagellates is negatively affected by mechanical agitation and red tides caused by members of the group have been correlated with periods of calm sea conditions. The mechanism involved in the mechanically transduced inhibition of cell proliferation is thought to involve the disruption of the cell division apparatus. ...
Hidayat Sujuti - - 2003
We have previously demonstrated that N-acetylleucine amide, a derivative of L-leucine, inhibits leucine-induced p70(S6k) activation in a rat hepatoma cell line. In the present study, we investigated whether N-acetylleucine amide is capable of inhibiting amino acid-mTOR signaling. N-Acetylleucine amide caused cell cycle arrest at G1 stage in Jurkat cells, a ...
Short S C - - 2003
PURPOSE: To examine the low-dose radiation response of human glioma cell lines separated into different cell-cycle phases and to determine if low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) differs in populations defined by cell-cycle position. To assess whether predictions of the outcome of multiple low-dose regimens should take account of cell-cycle effects. MATERIALS AND ...
Nakahara Takahiro - - 2003
Bone morphogenetic proteins, including growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5), are multifunctional cytokines. Recent studies of intracellular signal transduction mechanisms for the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily have focused on Smad proteins. However, scant attention has been given to the mechanism by which GDF-5 exerts its negative growth effect on immunological competent cells. In ...
Carvalhal Ana V - - 2003
Arresting cell growth and thus decreasing cell division potentially lessens the chance for genetic drift in the cell population; this would be of utmost importance for the consistent production of biopharmaceuticals during long periods. The drawback of the addition of well-known synchronizing agents, such as chemotherapeutics, is that they cause ...
Cuddihy Andrew R - - 2003
Cellular reproduction, at its basic level, is simply the passing of genetic information from a single parent cell into two daughter cells. As the cellular genome encodes all the information that defines a cell, it is crucial that the genome be accurately replicated. Furthermore, the duplicated genome must be properly ...
Pelayo Helvia R - - 2003
Allium cepa L. meristems were used as a plant model to study the p53-independent control of S and G2 phases by checkpoint pathways, in eukaryotic cells. Checkpoint blocks were induced at early and mid S by hydroxyurea. After their spontaneous override, cells became accumulated in G2-prophase, giving rise later on ...
Shawna Miles
lins,whli directth phctUYNb)[UVY localization and/or substrate specificity of th kinase. Thna is a critical distinction between G1phYE and th rest of th cell cycle, inthw G1 is expandable in response to th environment (Rupe 2002).Th length of G1 is influenced by age,growth conditions, and th size of th cell (Hartwell ...
Fujikawa-Yamamoto Kohzaburo - - 2002
Triploid V79 cells were established from tetraploid cells. Diploid V79 cells were polyploidized by K-252a, an inhibitor of protein kinases, and then released from the drug for 10 days. At that time, the cell population was a mixture of diploid and tetraploid cells. Triploid cells were obtained through the cloning ...
Katska L - - 2002
An important factor governing developmental rates of somatic cloned embryos is the phase of the cell cycle of donor nuclei. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the distribution of cell cycle phases in bovine cumulus and fibroblast cells cultured using routine treatment, and under cell cycle-arresting treatments. The ...
Brown Geoffrey - - 2002
Differentiating agents regulate the proliferation and myeloid maturation of HL60 cells by mechanisms that are at least partly independent (Drayson et al., (2001), Exp. Cell Res. 266, 126-134). We have investigated whether halting HL60 cells in G1 or S phase influences their commitment to or maturation along the neutrophil and ...
Hapke Gunnar - - 2002
Human head and neck squamous carcinoma cell lines, A253 and FaDu, were utilized to identify mediators associated with response to topoisomerase I poison, SN-38, a metabolite of irinotecan. The drug sensitivity of FaDu cells to SN-38 was significantly higher than that of the A253 cells. In A253 cells, G2/M arrest ...
Park Woo Hyun - - 2002
Monensin, a Na+ ionophore, regulates many cellular functions, including apoptosis. We investigated the in vitro antiproliferative effect of monensin on nine human lymphoma cell lines. Monensin significantly inhibited the proliferation of all the lymphoma cell lines examined with a 50% inhibition concentration of about 0.5 micromol/l, and induced a G1 ...
Chiu Shu Jun - - 2002
We report here for the first time that germanium oxide (GeO(2)) blocks cell progression. GeO(2) is not genotoxic to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and has limited cytotoxicity. However, GeO(2) arrests cells at G2/M phase. The proportion of cells stopped at G2/M phase increased dose-dependently up to 5 mM GeO(2) ...
Muñoz C Martínez - - 2002
Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induces a number of events, which are also induced by mitogens. Since the progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle is dependent on mitogen stimulation, we were interested to study the effect of H(2)O(2) on the cell cycle progression. This study demonstrates that H(2)O(2) inhibits ...
O'Reilly Michael A - - 2003
Reactive oxygen species produced during hyperoxia damage DNA, inhibit proliferation in G1- through p53-dependent activation of p21(Cip1/WAF1/Sdi1), and kill cells. Because checkpoint activation protects cells from genotoxic stress, we investigated cell proliferation and survival of the murine type II epithelial cell line MLE15 during hyperoxia. These cells were chosen for ...
Katdare Meena - - 2002
Germline mutations of the Apc tumor suppressor gene result in increased risk for gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. The Apc1638N [+/-] mouse exhibits accelerated gastrointestinal carcinogenesis that is modifiable by select pharmacological and dietary agents. Experiments in the present study were conducted on a subculturable epithelial 1638NCOL cell line established from histologically normal ...
Wang Chau Jong - - 2002
Esculetin, a coumarin compound, was found to inhibit cell growth and cell cycle progression by inducing arrest of the G1 phase in HL-60 cells. To obtain information regarding cell cycle arrest induced by esculetin, we examined its effect on the regulating factors of the G1 phase in the leukemia HL-60 ...
Fiore Mario - - 2002
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a well-known differentiation inducer in several myeloid cells, also induces a reversible G(1) arrest in many cell lines. We recently showed that DMSO induces a G(1) phase arrest in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, by restoring contact inhibition and preventing high density-dependent apoptosis. CHO cells are frequently ...
Czajkowski RafaƂ - - 2002
Sporadic melanoma is a neoplasm whose etiology has not been fully investigated. Contemporary achievements in molecular biology have made it possible to localize the genes whose damage can contribute to the initiation of neoplastic transformation of melanocytes and lead to a progression of the disease. The majority of these genes ...
Skladanowski A - - 2002
Nitracrine (Ledakrin) is an antitumor drug which is activated by cellular enzymes and binds covalently to DNA. Previous studies have shown that covalent binding and crosslinking of DNA is associated with the cytotoxic and antitumor activities of this compound. In this study, cell cycle perturbations, effects on DNA synthesis and ...
Borel Franck - - 2002
Mammalian cells in culture normally enter a state of quiescence during G1 following suppression of cell cycle progression by senescence, contact inhibition or terminal differentiation signals. We find that mammalian fibroblasts enter cell cycle stasis at the onset of S phase upon release from prolonged arrest with the inhibitors of ...
Hagiwara Shin-ya - - 2002
A novel type of circadian and photoperiodic control of the cell division cycle was found in photoautotrophic Euglena gracilis. When algae entrained to 24 h light-dark (LD) cycles (14 h L) were transferred to continuous darkness (DD) at the eighth hour of the final LD photoperiod, cell-cycle transition was arrested ...
Hashimoto Kei - - 2002
The effect of vegetable extracts on the activity of the anticarcinogenic phase II marker enzyme, quinone reductase (QR), was investigated by using human Hep G2 cells as the model system. Hep G2 cells were less sensitive than murine Hepa1c1c7 cells to QR-inducible compounds such as tert-butylhydroquinone which have been widely ...
Abel G Alexander - - 2002
To elucidate the mechanisms mediating the reported transient physiological glucocorticoid resistance in G2/M cell cycle phase, we sought to establish a model system of glucocorticoid-resistant cells in G2. We synchronized various cell lines in G2 to measure dexamethasone (DEX)-induced transactivation of either two endogenous promoters (rat tyrosine aminotransferase and mouse ...
Yoshida M - - 2002
The roles of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and ATM in the cell-cycle-dependent radiosensitivity in human cells were investigated. A DNA-PK activity-deficient human glioblastoma cell line M059J, ataxia telangiectasia cell lines AT3BISV and AT5BIVA, and control cell lines were used. Wortmannin inhibited DNA-PK and ATM activities. Cells were synchronized by hydroxyurea. ...
Bernardin Florence - - 2002
Inhibition of AML1-mediated transactivation potently slows G1 to S cell cycle progression. In Ba/F3 cells, activation of exogenous AML1 (RUNX1)-ER with 4-hydroxytamoxifen prevents inhibition of G1 progression mediated by CBFbeta-SMMHC, a CBF oncoprotein. We expressed three AML1-ER variants with CBFbeta-SMMHC in Ba/F3 cells. In these lines, CBFbeta-SMMHC expression is regulated ...
Naderi Soheil S Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1112 Blindern, Oslo N-0317, Norway. - - 2002
In response to ionizing radiation (IR), cell cycle checkpoints are activated to provide time for DNA repair. Several different checkpoint mechanisms have been elucidated. However, mechanisms that regulate the duration of cell cycle arrest are not understood. Previous studies have shown that the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB) is required ...
Menges Margit - - 2002
Synchronized suspension cultures are powerful tools in plant cell-cycle studies. However, few Arabidopsis cell cultures are available, and synchrony extending over several sequential phases of the cell cycle has not been reported. Here we describe the first useful synchrony in Arabidopsis, achieved by selecting the rapidly dividing Arabidopsis cell suspensions ...
Doi Kohei - - 2002
In order to elucidate the mechanism controlling the biogenesis of the Golgi complex, we have studied whether the expression of a resident membrane protein p138 of the Golgi complex is dependent upon the cell cycle. The protein level of p138 in human KB cells was increased during thymidine block to ...
Grinstein Edgar - - 2002
Sp1 binding sites have been identified in enhancer/promoter regions of several growth and cell cycle regulated genes, and it has been shown that Sp1 is increasingly phosphorylated in G1 phase of the cell cycle. Interactions of Sp1 with proteins involved in control of cell cycle and tumor formation have been ...
Kolman Ada - - 2002
Cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of aphidicolin (APC), an inhibitor of DNA polymerases alpha and delta, were studied in human diploid VH-10 fibroblasts. The cells were treated (2 or 4h) with APC at concentration ranges of 10-40 microM. The effect of APC on cell survival after 4 h treatment was significantly ...
Xu Bo - - 2002
Cell cycle checkpoints are among the multiple mechanisms that eukaryotic cells possess to maintain genomic integrity and minimize tumorigenesis. Ionizing irradiation (IR) induces measurable arrests in the G(1), S, and G(2) phases of the mammalian cell cycle, and the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) protein plays a role in initiating checkpoint ...
Elder Robert T - - 2002
HIV-1 Vpr induces cell cycle G2/M arrest in both human and fission yeast cells, suggesting a highly conserved activity of this viral protein. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of Vpr-induced G2 arrest based on studies from both mammalian cells and the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) model system. ...
Chang Wen-Huei - - 2002
The effects of the flavonoids from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (baicalein, baicalin and wogonin) in cultured human hepatoma cells (Hep G2, Hep 3B and SK-Hep1) were compared by MTT assay and flow cytometry. All three flavonoids dose-dependently decreased the cell viabilities accompanying the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and the depletion ...
López M E - - 2002
Dehydroleucodine is a sesquiterpene lactone recently isolated from aerial parts of a medicinal herb, Artemisia douglasiana Besser. We have previously shown that 25 and 100 microM dehydroleucodine slowed down onion root growth by 30 and 70%, respectively, affecting neither cell viability nor cell elongation. In the present study we analyze ...
Sasaki Yasushi - - 2002
When DNA damage is induced by unprogrammed extrinsic events, activating-cell-cycle checkpoints delay cell-cycle progression in the G1 or G2 phases and allow repair of a damaged template. In this study, we evaluated changes in gene expression upon radiation-induced G2 cell-cycle arrest using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. T-fimbrin, an actin-binding ...
Acevedo R - - 2002
Changes in the organisation of ribosomal genes and nucleolar protein components were analysed in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. cv Cristalina) from the time the quiescent primordia of the radical bands of nodes were stimulated to proliferate by water imbibition, until the meristematic population reached the steady state of proliferation in ...
Kawa Shigeyuki - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) results in growth inhibition and differentiation of various cancer cells. AIMS: We determined whether the PPAR gamma ligand, troglitazone, inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer cells and clarified the underlying mechanisms with a special focus on restriction point control of ...
Graff Pål - - 2002
Earlier studies have shown that the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is involved in cell-cycle regulation under conditions of moderate hypoxia, which is the term we use to denote oxygen concentrations just above the lower level giving full respiration, ie. 1300 ppm O2. We have studied the cell cycle regulatory influence of ...
van Rossum G S A T - - 2002
Arachidonic acid has been implicated in regulating cellular proliferation, and is preferentially released by the 85-kDa cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). Recently, we demonstrated that cPLA2 is activated at distinct periods during the ongoing cell cycle of neuroblastoma cells. The purpose of the present study was to establish the role of ...
Mourant J R - - 2002
We demonstrate that the effects of cell-cell contact and of changes in cell shape have only a minor effect on the angular distribution of light scattering from mammalian fibroblast cells. This result is important for the development of light scattering as a noninvasive tool for tissue diagnostics such as cancer ...
Cloos Jacqueline - - 2002
Bleomycin-induced chromosomal instability, generally referred to as mutagen sensitivity, is associated with an increased risk for the development of environmentally related cancer including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and lung cancer. On average, the cultured lymphocytes of patients with these types of cancer show an increased number of chromatid ...
Bozko Przemyslaw - - 2002
We here report the influence of the cell cycle abrogator UCN-01 on RKO human colon carcinoma cells differing in p53 status following exposure to two DNA damaging agents, the topoisomerase inhibitors etoposide and camptothecin. Cells were treated with the two drugs at the IC90 concentration for 24 h followed by ...
Kiyota Akihisa - - 2002
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates the growth and progression of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Recently, the link between EGFR signaling and the cell cycle has been identified. Some reports have described that EGFR-blocking monoclonal antibody 225 (mAb225) induced G1 arrest and inhibited the growth of various cancer ...
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