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Zinzalla Vittoria - - 2007
The rapamycin-sensitive (TOR) signalling pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae controls growth and cell proliferation in response to nutrient availability. Rapamycin treatment causes cells to arrest growth in G1 phase. The mechanism by which the inhibition of the TOR pathway regulates cell cycle progression is not completely understood. Here we show that ...
Baek Ji Yeon JY Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu 137-701, Seoul, - - 2007
To investigate the growth inhibitory mechanism of NS-398, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, in two hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines (HepG2 and Huh7). HepG2 and Huh7 cells were treated with NS-398. Its effects on cell viability, cell proliferation, cell cycles, and gene expression were respectively evaluated by water-soluble tetrazolium salt ...
Aaltonen Vesa - - 2007
Protein kinase C (PKC) alpha/betaI isoenzyme inhibitor Go6976 has been suggested to be a G2 checkpoint abrogator by direct Chk1 inhibition. In the present study, we demonstrate that Go6976 induces mitosis in doxorubicin treated G2-arrested 5637 urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma cells and interestingly also in non-synchronized 5637 cells. Importantly, ...
Chen Taiping - - 2007
Studies have shown that DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is the principal enzyme responsible for maintaining CpG methylation and is required for embryonic development and survival of somatic cells in mice. The role of DNMT1 in human cancer cells, however, remains highly controversial. Using homologous recombination, here we have generated a ...
Rakitina Tatiana V - - 2007
In a series of colorectal cancer cell lines, both necrosis and apoptosis were induced upon exposure to oxaliplatin, and enhanced by co-administration of the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG. We analyzed the effects of these interventions on the cell cycle, and found that oxaliplatin treatment caused G1 and G2 arrest in HCT116 ...
Vashistha Surabhi - - 2007
We had earlier shown that human foetal epithelial cells (WISH), growth-inhibited by interferon gamma (IFNgamma), were reversibly detained at a point prior to DNA synthesis. In the present study, we determined the window of action of IFNgamma in the G1 phase duration and the exact point of detention of WISH ...
Baguma-Nibasheka Mark - - 2007
Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a potent heparin-binding protein with growth-promoting and anti-apoptotic activity. Transcription of the GFG/NUDT6 gene on the opposite DNA strand generates an overlapping antisense RNA (FGF-AS) implicated in the post-transcriptional regulation of FGF-2. C6 glioma cells coordinately express FGF-2 and FGF-AS mRNA in a cell cycle-dependent ...
Morley Karen L - - 2007
Tangeretin and nobiletin are citrus flavonoids that are among the most effective at inhibiting cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. The antiproliferative activity of tangeretin and nobiletin was investigated in human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7 and human colon cancer line HT-29. Both flavonoids inhibited proliferation ...
Wagner, Mark W
Cells deficient in MMR display a loss of G2 cell cycle checkpoint arrest and resistance to the alkylating agent, N–methyl–N′–nitro–N–nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), or the fluorinated thymidine analog, 5–fluoro–2′–deoxyuridine (FdUrd). Here, we investigated signaling pathways involved in differential G2 arrest and apoptotic responses using isogenic MMR–proficient and —deficient cells exposed to either ...
Edelbrock, Michael Aaron
Mismatch repair (MMR) corrects mispaired bases and insertion/deletion loops and has long been regarded as a post-replicative DNA repair process. MMR proteins also are involved in DNA damage surveillance, damage-induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and other DNA repair pathways. Biochemical mechanisms of MMR within human cells are not well understood ...
Pekovic, V.
In human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs), expression of lamina-associated polypeptide 2 (LAP2) upon entry and exit from G0 is tightly correlated with phosphorylation and subnuclear localization of retinoblastoma protein (Rb). Phosphoisoforms of Rb and LAP2 are down-regulated in G0. Although RbS780 phosphoform and LAP2 are up-regulated upon reentry into G1 and ...
Zimmermann Katrin - - 2007
We used a rapid and simple protocol using lysolecithin for mapping HS sites in vivo. The protocol is based on partial digestion with DNase I of exponentially growing cells following permeabilization by short treatment with lysolecithin. Using this protocol, we analyzed the chromatin structure of the region surrounding two overlapping ...
Polit Justyna Teresa - - 2007
Protein kinases and phosphatases are the foremost agents which take part in cell cycle regulation in both plants and other eukaryotes. Protein kinases are a very well examined group of proteins with respect to chemical structure and function. Nowadays protein phosphatases, including PP1 and PP2A belonging to the PSP family, ...
Yamaguchi Masashi - - 2007
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic human pathogen belonging to basidiomycetous fungi and has unique properties in cell cycle progression. The purpose of this study was to measure the duration of the cell cycle in this yeast. Under standard liquid culture conditions (1% yeast extract, 1% polypeptone, and 1% glucose; 24 ...
Engstrom Julia U - - 2007
Single-stranded oligonucleotides (ssODN) are used routinely to direct specific base alterations within mammalian genomes that result in the restoration of a functional gene. Despite success with the technique, recent studies have revealed that following repair events, correction frequencies decrease as a function of time, possibly due to a sustained activation ...
Wang Ling - - 2007
Merbarone, a topoisomerase II (topo II) inhibitor which, in contrast to etoposide, does not stabilize topo II-DNA cleavable complexes, was previously shown to be a potent clastogen in vitro and in vivo. To investigate the possible mechanisms, we compared the cell cycle-specificity of the clastogenic effects of merbarone and etoposide ...
Zilz Thomas R - - 2007
The potential cytotoxicity of two hexanedione food additives (2,3 and 3,4 isomers) was evaluated in comparison with the neurotoxic hexane metabolite 2,5-hexanedione in the human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma line using the MTT assay to indicate mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and flow cytometry to monitor the cell cycle over 48 h. The IC(50)s ...
Jones Allison - - 2007
Pathogenic bacteria can modulate and interfere with human cell cycle progression. Here we study the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its ability to influence and affect the cell cycle in two human target cell lines. We found that bacteria adhere equally well to cells synchronized into the different cell cycle ...
Lu Mei - - 2007
In the adult brain, neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle. The proliferating population and the cell cycle kinetics in the ventricular zone regulate cortical neurogenesis during the development. Using the embryonic model, we investigated kinetics of SVZ cells in adult rats after stroke, incorporating migration ...
Blagosklonny Mikhail V - - 2006
Withdrawal of mitogens (growth factors) arrests normal cells in G0 (quiescence). All other stresses and factors arrest cell cycle beyond the restriction point in G1 and G2 (non-G0 arrest), in the presence of mitogenic stimulation. Strong mitogenic stimuli by themselves cause non-G0 arrest. Unlike G0, arrest beyond restriction point is ...
Becker Klaus A KA Department of Cell Biology and Cancer Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA 01655, - - 2006
Competency for self-renewal of human embryonic stem (ES) cells is linked to pluripotency. However, there is a critical paucity of fundamental parameters of human ES cell division. In this study we show that human ES cells (H1 and H9; NIH-designated WA01 and WA09) rapidly proliferate due to a very short ...
Mak, Carmen K.M.
Dinoflagellates genomes are large (up to 200 pg) and are encoded in histoneless chromosomes that are quasi-permanently condensed and circular. This unique combination of chromosomal characteristics presents additional topological and cell cycle control problems for a eukaryotic cell, potentially requiring novel topoisomerase activities. The heterotrophic dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii was used ...
Gehen Sean C - - 2007
Prolonged exposure to hyperoxia inhibits cell proliferation in G1 via increased expression of p21. While p21 inhibits proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-dependent DNA synthesis, it can also directly lower PCNA abundance; however, it is unclear whether loss of PCNA contributes to growth arrest. Here, we investigate how PCNA loss affects ...
Vassilev Lyubomir T - - 2006
Chemical agents for cell cycle synchronization have greatly facilitated the study of biochemical events driving cell cycle progression. G1, S and M phase inhibitors have been developed and used widely in cell cycle research. However, currently there are no effective G2 phase inhibitors and synchronization of cultured cells in G2 ...
Bongiovanni Marco - - 2006
The long-term immunological efficacy of regimens including lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) has not been assessed in HIV-infected HAART-experienced subjects. The present study included 452 consecutive HIV-infected outpatients starting LPV/r before May 2003 after failing (HIV-RNA > 1000 copies/ml) HAART. Four groups were considered according to CD4 cell counts at LPV/r initiation: group ...
Panayiotidis Mihalis I - - 2006
Decreased global DNA methylation have been previously shown in A549 cells exposed to prolonged hyperoxia. Because hyperoxia induces growth arrest in these cells, whether the status of global DNA methylation changed in response to cellular growth arrest was of interest. A549 cells were growth arrested at either the S- or ...
Saintigny Y - - 2007
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) are two pathways that can compete or cooperate for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. NHEJ was previously shown to act throughout the cell cycle whereas HR is restricted to late S/G2. Paradoxically, we show here that defect in XRCC4 (NHEJ) leads to ...
Wan Lihong - - 2006
Genetic studies in budding yeast have provided many fundamental insights into the specialized cell division of meiosis, including the identification of evolutionarily conserved meiosis-specific genes and an understanding of the molecular basis for recombination. Biochemical studies have lagged behind, however, due to the difficulty in obtaining highly synchronized populations of ...
Parikh, Rahul Atul
Nearly 45% of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are characterized by amplification of chromosomal band 11q13, which occurs by breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycle mechanism. The first step in this cycle involves loss of distal 11q. Consequently, critical genes involved in the DNA damage response pathway, MRE11A, ATM, H2AFX and CHEK1 are ...
McFadden David W - - 2006
We hypothesized that combined treatment with Cox-1 and Cox-2 specific inhibitiors would exhibit synergistic effects against breast cancer in vitro. Two human breast cancer cell lines (HTB26, MCF-7) were treated with catechin (Cox-1 inhibitor) or NS398 (Cox-2 inhibitor) at 100 microM as both single and combined treatments. Reductions in cell ...
Lin Weiyang - - 2006
The catabolism of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) appears to play a key role in regulating the net accumulation of the lipid in the cell cycle. Current protocols for measuring the degradation of PtdCho at specific cell-cycle phases require prolonged periods of incubation with radiolabelled choline. To measure the degradation of PtdCho at ...
Notas George - - 2006
The stilbene resveratrol exerts antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions on a number of different cancer cell lines, through diverse mechanisms, including antioxidant effects, enzyme, growth factor and hormone receptor binding, and nucleic acid direct or indirect interactions. Although resveratrol accumulates in the liver, its effect on hepatocellular carcinoma has not been ...
Matsuda Naoto - - 2006
Viral protein R (Vpr), an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), induces the G2 cell cycle arrest in fission yeast for which host factors, such as Wee1 and Rad24, are required. Catalyzing the inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2, Wee1 is known to serve as a major regulator of ...
Hong Y - - 2007
Mutation frequencies at some loci in mammalian somatic cells in vivo approach 10(-4). The majority of these events occur as a consequence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) due to mitotic recombination. Such high levels of DNA damage in somatic cells, which can accumulate with age, will cause injury and, after ...
Li Ziyin - - 2006
Mitosis and cytokinesis are highly coordinated in eukaryotic cells. But procyclic-form Trypanosoma brucei under G1 or mitotic arrest is still capable of dividing, resulting in anucleate daughter cells (zoids). Okadaic acid (OKA), an inhibitor of protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, is known to inhibit kinetoplast replication and cell division yielding ...
Mueller Sandra - - 2006
Testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) are highly sensitive to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. It has been suggested that the chemosensitivity of GCTs can be partially attributed to the preference of apoptosis induction over a p21-mediated G1/S phase cell-cycle arrest following induction of p53. Since cell-cycle progression can be manipulated by a growing ...
Iyer N G - - 2007
The role of the transcriptional coactivator p300 in cell cycle control has not been analysed in detail due to the lack of appropriate experimental systems. We have now examined cell cycle progression of p300-deficient cancer cell lines, where p300 was disrupted either by gene targeting (p300(-) cells) or knocked down ...
Freeman Jennifer L - - 2006
Concerns have arisen about the possible effects of herbicide contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Crop herbicides are introduced into the aquatic environment both inadvertently through runoff events and intentionally through the use of those registered for use in waterways. Acetochlor and atrazine are two agricultural crop herbicides that have often been ...
Zhang Rui Lan - - 2006
A critical determinant of proliferation of progenitor cells is the duration of the cell division cycle. Stroke increases proliferation of progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Using cumulative and single S-phase labeling with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, we examined cell cycle kinetics of neural progenitor cells in the SVZ after stroke. In ...
Quirk Susan M - - 2006
Experiments were conducted to test whether oestradiol (E2) protects granulosa cells from Fas ligand (FasL)-induced apoptosis and whether protection involves modulation of the cell cycle of proliferation. Treatment of cultured bovine granulosa cells with E2 decreased susceptibility to FasL-induced apoptosis. The effects of E2 were mediated through oestrogen receptor and ...
Clotet Josep - - 2006
Control of cell cycle progression by stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) is essential for cell adaptation to extracellular stimuli. Exposure of yeast to osmostress leads to activation of the Hog1 SAPK, which controls cell cycle at G1 by the targeting of Sic1. Here, we show that survival to osmostress also requires ...
Ree Anne Hansen - - 2006
BACKGROUND: In order to determine temporal responses of cell cycle populations to DNA damage, a rational combination of cell cycle analyses is critical. Moreover, the targeting of cell cycle checkpoint responses may modify the cytotoxic effect of DNA damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The characteristics of cell cycle populations (DNA content, ...
Coquelle Arnaud - - 2006
The susceptibility of cells to apoptosis induction is deeply influenced by their position in the cell cycle. Unfortunately, however, current methods for the enrichment of cells in defined phases of the cell cycle are mostly based on the synchronization of cells by agents or conditions that are intrinsically toxic and ...
Robinson H M R - - 2006
Chk1 plays a crucial role in the DNA damage and replication checkpoints in vertebrates and may therefore be an important determinant of tumour cell responses to genotoxic anticancer drugs. To evaluate this concept we compared the effects of the nucleoside analogue 5-fluorouracil (5FU) on cell cycle progression and clonogenic survival ...
Shenker Bruce J - - 2006
We have shown previously that treatment of human lymphocytes with the Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt) results in dose-dependent G2 arrest, followed 24 h later by apoptotic cell death. Here we demonstrated that for Jurkat cells exposed to high concentrations of Cdt (>0.2 ng/ml) there was a dose-dependent increase ...
Liliensiek Sara J SJ Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, 2015 Linden Drive, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA. - - 2006
SV40 human corneal epithelial cell (HCEC) populations are readily used as a substitute for primary corneal epithelial cells that are difficult to maintain in vitro. To initiate cell-cycle experiments with the SV40-HCEC cells, two separate methods of cell synchronization were compared including serum starvation and sterile cell sorting. We hypothesized ...
Sansregret Laurent - - 2006
The CDP/Cux transcription factor was previously found to acquire distinct DNA binding and transcriptional properties following a proteolytic processing event that takes place at the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. In the present study, we have investigated the role of the CDP/Cux processed isoform, p110, in cell cycle progression. ...
Stark George R - - 2006
The G2 checkpoint prevents cells from entering mitosis when DNA is damaged, providing an opportunity for repair and stopping the proliferation of damaged cells. Because the G2 checkpoint helps to maintain genomic stability, it is an important focus in understanding the molecular causes of cancer. Many different methods have been ...
Mladenova Veronika - - 2006
Hela cells synchronized in G1 and S phases of the cell cycle were transfected with pEGFP crosslinked with trioxsalen. Twelve hours later the number of fluorescent cells was determined by fluorescent microscopy. Cells in S phase have repaired 0.2-0.3 ICL/kb over the 12h period, while cells in G1 phase repaired ...
Wu Ting-He - - 2006
In this study, we report that the steroid extract 5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxycholest-6-ene-3beta-ol (MME) from Meretrix meretrix has the ability to inhibit growth of hepatoma cells and to induce G1-phase cell cycle arrest in two human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B. HepG2 cells were more sensitive than Hep3B to MME. The ...
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