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Wu Ning - - 2010
DNA topoisomerase I (Top1) is an essential nuclear enzyme and a validated target for anticancer agent screening. In a previous study, we found that indolizinoquinoline-5,12-dione derivatives show significant biological activity against several human cancer cell lines. To understand their mechanism of inhibition of cancer cell growth, one indolizinoquinoline-5,12-dione derivative, CY13II, ...
Wirt Stacey E SE Department of Pediatrics, Stanford Medical School, Stanford, CA 94305, - - 2010
The ability of progenitor cells to exit the cell cycle is essential for proper embryonic development and homeostasis, but the mechanisms governing cell cycle exit are still not fully understood. Here, we tested the requirement for the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and its family members p107 and p130 in G0/G1 arrest ...
Dalman A - - 2010
Cell cycle stage and synchronization of donor cells are important factors influencing the success of somatic cell nuclear transfer. This study examined whether serum starvation has any effect on specific cell death. We also studied the effects of serum starvation, culture to confluence, and full confluency (confluent + 72 h) on cell cycle ...
Mulvey Claire - - 2010
An origin activation checkpoint has recently been discovered in the G1 phase of the mitotic cell cycle, which can be triggered by loss of DNA replication initiation factors such as the Cdc7 kinase. Insufficient levels of Cdc7 activate cell cycle arrest in normal cells, whereas cancer cells appear to lack ...
Liu Hui H Departments of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, - - 2010
Tumor cells are characterized by their high rate of glycolysis and clotrimazole has been shown to disrupt the glycolysis pathway thereby arresting the cells in the G1 cell cycle phase. Herein, we present data to support our hypothesis that clotrimazole arrests tumor cells in a radiosensitizing, late G1 phase. The ...
Lichner Zsuzsanna - - 2011
The mmu-miR-290-295 cluster codes for a family of microRNAs (miRNAs) that are expressed de novo during early embryogenesis and are specific for mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and embryonic carcinoma cells (ECC). Detailed sequence analysis and alignment studies of miR-290-295 precursors demonstrated that the cluster has evolved by repeated duplication ...
Persico Angela - - 2010
At the onset of mitosis, the Golgi complex undergoes a multistep fragmentation process that is required for its correct partitioning into the daughter cells. Inhibition of this Golgi fragmentation results in cell cycle arrest at the G2 stage, suggesting that correct inheritance of the Golgi complex is monitored by a ...
de Lima Aliny Pereira - - 2010
Ruthenium (III) complexes are increasingly attracting the interest of researchers due to their promising pharmacological properties. Recently, we reported that the cis-(dichloro)tetrammineruthenium (III) chloride compound has cytotoxic effects on murine sarcoma 180 (S-180) cells. In an effort to understand the mechanism responsible for their cytotoxicity, study we investigated the genotoxicity, ...
Hahm Sahng-Wook - - 2010
Opuntia humifusa, a member of the Cactaceae family widely distributed in the southern regions of the Korean peninsula, has potential bioactive functions and medicinal benefits. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hexane, ethyl acetate extracts and water partitioned fraction of O. humifusa on proliferation, G1 arrest and ...
Latchney Sarah E - - 2011
Neurogenesis involves the proliferation of multipotent neuroepithelial stem cells followed by differentiation into lineage-restricted neural precursor cells (NPCs) during the embryonic period. Interestingly, these progenitor cells express robust levels of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates expression of genes important for growth regulation, and xenobiotic ...
Cui Yongping - - 2010
Mps1 is a dual specificity protein kinase with key roles in regulating the spindle assembly checkpoint and chromosome-microtubule attachments. Consistent with these mitotic functions, Mps1 protein levels fluctuate during the cell cycle, peaking at early mitosis and abruptly declining during mitotic exit and progression into the G(1) phase. Although evidence ...
Hishida Takashi - - 2010
Differential posttranslational modification of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) by ubiquitin or SUMO plays an important role in coordinating the processes of DNA replication and DNA damage tolerance. Previously it was shown that the loss of RAD6-dependent error-free postreplication repair (PRR) results in DNA damage checkpoint-mediated G(2) arrest in cells ...
Mohammed Abdel Ahmed - - 2010
Universal recipients in the G2 phase of mitotic cell cycle (preactivated oocytes, zygotes, blastomeres) accept embryonic nuclei in all the stages of their cell cycle. To test if recipients in the G2 of meiotic cycle (immature oocytes) are universal recipients, mouse germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes were enucleated and reconstructed with ...
Kang Mi-Sun - - 2010
Mitotic catastrophe provokes endopolyploidy, giant cell formation and, eventually, delayed cell death. Mitotic catastrophe is induced by defective cell cycle checkpoints and by some anticancer drugs, ionizing radiation and microtubule-destabilizing agents. RAD2 is a yeast homologue of XPG, which is a human endonuclease involved in nucleotide excision repair. Here we ...
van Harn Tanja - - 2010
Loss of G1/S control is a hallmark of cancer, and is often caused by inactivation of the retinoblastoma pathway. However, mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking the retinoblastoma genes RB1, p107, and p130 (TKO MEFs) are still subject to cell cycle control: Upon mitogen deprivation, they enter and complete S phase, but ...
Cheng Hua - - 2011
In clinical trials, the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) administered concomitantly with first-line cytotoxicity chemotherapy failed to confer a survival benefit to patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to test whether paclitaxel followed by gefitinib is superior to other treatment schedules ...
Martín-López Alicia - - 2010
Chemical treatment with hydroxyurea (HU) has been selected as a simple and low cost strategy to generate a cell population enriched for the G1 phase. After the chemical treatment with HU, cells were stimulated with anti-mIgG to test if the positive effects of anti-mIgG on CD40 expression and specific IgG2a ...
Lee Ting-Yuan - - 2010
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric enzyme consisting of a scaffold subunit (A), a catalytic subunit (C), and a variable regulatory subunit (B). The regulatory B subunits determine the substrate specificity and subcellular localization of the PP2A holoenzyme. Here, we demonstrate that the subcellular localization of the B56gamma3 regulatory ...
Kandala Prabodh K - - 2010
We evaluated the effect of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) in ovarian cancer cells. DIM treatment inhibited the growth of SKOV-3, TOV-21G, and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells in both a dose- and time-dependent manner with effective concentrations ranging from 40 to 100 muM. Growth-inhibitory effects of DIM were mediated by cell cycle arrest ...
Fallon Ann M AM Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, 1980 Folwell Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108, United States. - - 2010
Cell lines provide a tool for investigating basic biological processes that underlie the complex interactions among the tissues and organs of an intact organism. We compare the evolution of insect and mammalian populations as they progress from diploid cell strains to continuous cell lines, and review the history of the ...
Li Zhi Z Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158-2280, - - 2010
Polo-like kinase in Trypanosoma brucei (TbPLK) is confined to the flagellum attachment zone (FAZ) and regulates only cytokinetic initiation. However, it apparently diffuses into the cytoplasm before the trans-localization of chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) from the midzone of central spindle to FAZ, which is known to be required for initiating ...
Yoshida Chisato - - 2010
We previously reported that many ingenol compounds derived from Euphorbia kansui exhibit topoisomerase inhibitory activity and/or inhibitory activity of cell proliferation. The inhibitory effects of 20-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl) ingenol and 3-O-(2'E,4'Z-decadienoyl)-ingenol among these compounds on topoisomerase II activity and on the cell proliferative activity and arrest phase of the cell cycle were ...
Koledova Zuzana - - 2010
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) proliferate rapidly and have a unique cell-cycle structure with a very short G1 phase. Previous reports suggested that the rapid G1 phase progression of ESCs might be underpinned by high and precocious Cdk2 activity and that Cdk2 activity might be crucial for both cell-cycle regulation and ...
Choi Im Jeong - - 2010
Rosiglitazone has been reported to exert the protective effect against acute renal failure in animal models. However, the underlying mechanisms by which it protects the damaged kidney cells are poorly understood. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the effect of rosiglitazone on cell proliferation and to determine its ...
Li Quanhai - - 2010
Signal pathways of novel type III interferons (IFN-lambdas) are similar to those of type I IFNs (IFN-alpha/beta) but their distinct functions have not been well characterised. We examined the growth suppressive activity of IFN-lambda1 with nine human oesophageal carcinoma cell lines expressing the IFN-lambda receptor complexes. Among them, three lines ...
Zeng Huawei - - 2010
The cell growth inhibition induced by bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) may cause compensatory hyperproliferation of colonic epithelial cells and consequently increase colon cancer risk. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence for the efficacy of certain forms of selenium (Se) as anticancer nutrients. Methylselenol has been hypothesized to ...
Frisa Phyllis S - - 2010
Cytometric measurements of DNA content and chromatin-bound Mcm2 have demonstrated bimodal patterns of expression in G1. These patterns, the replication licensing function of Mcm proteins, and a correlation between Mcm loading and cell cycle commitment for cells re-entering the cell cycle, led us to test the idea that cells expressing ...
Li Ge - - 2010
Cell cycle G2 arrest induced by HIV-1 Vpr is thought to benefit viral proliferation by providing an optimized cellular environment for viral replication and by skipping host immune responses. Even though Vpr-induced G2 arrest has been studied extensively, how Vpr triggers G2 arrest remains elusive. To examine this initiation event, ...
Korićanac Lela B LB Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, - - 2010
Metastatic melanoma is one of the most aggressive tumours and is also very resistant to current therapeutic approaches. The aim of this investigation was the in vitro study of the anti-proliferative effects of fotemustine (FM; 100 and 250 microM), bevacizumab (5 microg/ml) and proton irradiation (12 and 16 Gy) on ...
Becker Klaus A KA Department of Cell Biology, Cancer Center and Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, - - 2010
Self-renewal of human embryonic stem (hES) cells proceeds by a unique abbreviated cell cycle with a shortened G1 phase and distinctions in molecular cell cycle regulatory parameters. In this study, we show that early lineage-commitment of pluripotent hES cells modifies cell cycle kinetics. Human ES cells acquire a lengthened G1 ...
Zou Lee - - 2009
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Navadgi-Patil and Burgers show that the budding yeast Mec1 kinase is activated by DNA damage through two distinct Ddc1-mediated mechanisms during G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle.
Mukherjee Piyali - - 2010
Understanding inhibitory mechanisms of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) has provided insight into cell cycle regulation and how TGF-beta1 sensitivity is lost during tumorigenesis. We show here that TGF-beta1 utilizes a previously unknown mechanism targeting the function of prereplication complexes (pre-RCs) to acutely block S-phase entry when added to cells ...
Liu Bao-Qin - - 2010
Resveratrol (RES), a natural plant polyphenol, is an effective inducer of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a variety of carcinoma cell types. In addition, RES has been reported to inhibit tumorigenesis in several animal models suggesting that it functions as a chemopreventive and anti-tumor agent in vivo. The chemopreventive ...
Eckhardt Alexander - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: The dental resin monomer triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) caused a cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Therefore, the influence of TEGDMA on the cell cycle was analyzed in comparison with the chemotherapeutic agents adriamycin and mitomycin C (MMC), which arrest the ...
Nakaya Kohei - - 2009
While analyzing the role of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) in neurogenesis in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells, we noticed that treatment with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, increased the cell size markedly. SP600125-induced enlargement of P19 cells was time- and dose-dependent. The increased cell size in response to SP600125 was also detected ...
Hofstetrová Klára - - 2010
This study is a thorough examination of the effects of the DNA polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin on the nuclear cycle and cell cycle progression characteristics, as well as their reversibility, in Giardia intestinalis. Giardia trophozoites are arrested in the G1/S-junction after aphidicolin treatment according to their DNA content. However, cell growth ...
Dias Ribeiro Ana Paula - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated transenamel and transdentinal cytotoxic effects of a bleaching gel on the MDPC-23 cell line. STUDY DESIGN: Discs obtained from bovine incisors were placed in a metallic device to simulate an in vivo pulp chamber. Groups were formed according to the enamel surface treatment: G1: 35% H(2)O(2) ...
Li Ziyin - - 2009
Aurora B kinase is an essential regulator of chromosome segregation with the action well characterized in eukaryotes. It is also implicated in cytokinesis, but the detailed mechanism remains less clear, partly due to the difficulty in separating the latter from the former function in a growing cell. A chemical genetic ...
Lindqvist Arne - - 2009
Activation of the DNA damage checkpoint causes a cell-cycle arrest through inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks). To successfully recover from the arrest, a cell should somehow be maintained in its proper cell-cycle phase. This problem is particularly eminent when a cell arrests in G2, as cdk activity is important to ...
Huang Shing - - 2009
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-particles (<100 nm in diameter) have been of interest in a wide range of applications, such as in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals because of their low toxicity. However, recent studies have shown that TiO2 nano-particles (nano-TiO2) induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in various lines of cultured cells as well ...
Jacob Abraham I AI Genomic Medicine Institute, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, - - 2009
The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) exerts its function, in part, by negatively regulating the well-known phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway. Previous histological work has suggested that alterations in the nuclear/cytoplasmic compartmentalization of PTEN may play a role in the development and progression of melanoma. In this study, we examined the nuclear/cytoplasmic ...
Ester Katja - - 2009
The plant hormone auxin is the key regulator of plant growth and development. Auxin regulates transcription of plant genes by targeting degradation of transcriptional repressor proteins Aux/IAA. While there are many reports describing its potential to modulate human cell functions, the majority are based on auxin action following enzymatic activation. ...
Vizán Pedro - - 2009
Cell cycle regulation is dependent on multiple cellular and molecular events. Cell proliferation requires metabolic sources for the duplication of DNA and cell size. However, nucleotide reservoirs are not sufficient to support cell duplication and, therefore, biosynthetic pathways should be upregulated during cell cycle. Here, we reveal that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ...
Martin Sophie G - - 2009
Cells normally grow to a certain size before they enter mitosis and divide. Entry into mitosis depends on the activity of Cdk1, which is inhibited by the Wee1 kinase and activated by the Cdc25 phosphatase. However, how cells sense their size for mitotic commitment remains unknown. Here we show that ...
Murakami Yasuko - - 2009
Antizyme inhibitor (AIn), a homolog of ODC, binds to antizyme and inactivates it. We report here that AIn increased at the G1 phase of the cell cycle, preceding the peak of ODC activity in HTC cells in culture. During interphase AIn was present mainly in the cytoplasm and turned over ...
Polit Justyna T - - 2009
The plant cell cycle is equipped with two principal control points: PCP1 in G1 and PCP2 in G2 phase. These checkpoints can arrest the cell cycle in response to carbohydrate starvation, while sugar presence can revive the replication and mitotic activity. The process of cell cycle revival is strongly repressed ...
Boije Henrik - - 2009
We have addressed the question when horizontal cells in the chick retina are generated and undergo their terminal mitosis. Horizontal cell progenitors replicate their DNA early and migrate bi-directionally to the horizontal cell layer. It was hypothesized that the cells undergo mitosis directly after replication and migrate as post-mitotic transition ...
Jones Michael - - 2009
Artemisinin-acridine hybrids were prepared and evaluated for their in vitro activity against tumour cell lines and a chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum. They showed a 2-4-fold increase in activity against HL60, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells in comparison with dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and moderate antimalarial activity. Strong evidence that the compounds ...
Ydenberg Casey A CA Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, - - 2009
When yeast cells sense mating pheromone, they undergo a characteristic response involving changes in transcription, cell cycle arrest in early G1, and polarization along the pheromone gradient. Cells in G2/M respond to pheromone at the transcriptional level but do not polarize or mate until G1. Fus2p, a key regulator of ...
Nagumo Tatsuhito T Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Showa University, Kitasenzoku, Ohta-ku, Tokyo, Japan. - - 2009
It has been reported recently that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) can block the growth of a variety of malignant tumor cells by reversing the silencing of the tumor suppressor genes; these will be the anticancer agents of the next generation. In this study, we evaluated the antitumor effects of the ...
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