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Results 401 - 450 of 1632
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Kosta Artemis - - 2008
Dictyostelium HMX44A cells can withstand starvation under monolayer conditions for a few days without dying. They die only when the differentiation factor DIF-1 is exogenously added. Still, when HMX44A were subjected to starvation without addition of DIF-1 they showed, by electron microscopy and electron tomography, gross mitochondrial lesions including marked ...
Mohammad Fahad Haroon
Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is a retinal ganglionic neurodegenerative disorder caused by a maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA point mutation. The dysfunction of complex I of the respiratory chain, affected by the mutation, results in an increased production of reactive oxygen species and a decreased synthesis of ATP. This biochemical ...
Ferraro Elisabetta - - 2008
Cytochrome c release from mitochondria promotes apoptosome formation and caspase activation. The question as to whether mitochondrial permeabilization kills cells via a caspase-independent pathway when caspase activation is prevented is still open. Here we report that proneural cells of embryonic origin, when induced to die but rescued by apoptosome inactivation ...
He Min - - 2008
Thioredoxin-2 (Trx2) is a multifunctional, mitochondria-specific protein, which inhibits cell death. The mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is a distinct mechanism for cell death activated by oxidants and linked to both necrotic and apoptotic morphologies. We studied mitochondria from Trx2 transgenic mice to determine whether Trx2 protects against oxidant-induced MPT. All ...
Landshamer S - - 2008
Mitochondrial dysfunction and release of pro-apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c or apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria are key features of neuronal cell death. The precise mechanisms of how these proteins are released from mitochondria and their particular role in neuronal cell death signaling are however largely unknown. Here, we ...
Zhang Lingrui - - 2008
Methyl jasmonate (MeJa) is a well-known plant stress hormone. Upon exposure to stress, MeJa is produced and causes activation of programmed cell death (PCD) and defense mechanisms in plants. However, the early events and the signaling mechanisms of MeJa-induced cell death have yet to be fully elucidated. To obtain some ...
Matsushima Ryo - - 2008
Visualization of organelles in living cells is a powerful method for studying their dynamic behavior. Here we attempted to visualize mitochondria in angiosperm male gametophyte (pollen grain from Arabidopsis thaliana) that are composed of one vegetative cell (VC) and two sperm cells (SCs). Combination of mitochondria-targeted fluorescent proteins with VC- ...
Panda Sanjib Kumar - - 2008
The present investigation was undertaken to verify whether mitochondria play a significant role in aluminium (Al) toxicity, using the mitochondria isolated from tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum, non-chlorophyllic cell line SL) under Al stress. An inhibition of respiration was observed in terms of state-III, state-IV, succinate-dependent, alternative oxidase (AOX)-pathway capacity and ...
Schieke Stefan M - - 2008
Relatively little is known regarding how energetic demand during cell proliferation is sensed or coordinated with mitochondrial metabolism. Here we demonstrate that cell cycle progression through G(1) is associated with a significant increase in mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) and respiration. We used this change in metabolic rate to isolate cells ...
Ncango Desmond M - - 2008
When oxylipin and mitochondrion probes, i.e., fluorescing antibodies specific for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH oxylipins) and rhodamine 123 (Rh123), were added to yeast cells, these probes accumulated mainly in the sexual cells (i.e., both associated with ascospores) and not in the vegetative cells. This suggests increased mitochondrial activity in asci, ...
Ferraresi Roberta - - 2008
Cells lacking mitochondrial genome (defined as rho(0)) are useful models in studies on cancer, aging, mitochondrial diseases and apoptosis, but several of their functional aspects have been poorly characterized. Using different clones of rho(0) cells derived from the human osteosarcoma line 143B, we have tested the effects of different apoptogenic ...
Yamazaki Hideya - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on radiation sensitivity under hypoxic conditions. The cell lines used were rho+ and rho0, which carry wild-type mtDNA and no mtDNA, respectively. The rho0 cells do not utilize oxygen because they lack the capacity to carry ...
Miller J H - - 2008
Previous work by Morgan and coworkers on radiation-induced genome instability in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines showed that unstable LS-12 cells had persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that were likely due to dysfunctional mitochondria. To further investigate the correlation between radiation-induced genome instability and dysfunctional mitochondria, ...
Dragone Roberto - - 2009
Several functional and biochemical parameters have been proposed as biomarkers of effect of environmental pollutants. A rapid biosensor working with immobilized human U-937 cells was developed and applied to environmentally relevant chemicals with different structures and toxicological pathways, i.e. benzalkonium chloride, clofibric acid, diclofenac, mercury nitrate, ofloxacin, and sodium dodecyl ...
Martinvalet Denis - - 2008
The killer lymphocyte protease granzyme A (GzmA) triggers caspase-independent target cell death with morphological features of apoptosis. We previously showed that GzmA acts directly on mitochondria to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disrupt the transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) but does not permeabilize the mitochondrial outer membrane. Mitochondrial damage is critical ...
Shavali Shaik - - 2008
Alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in alpha-syn gene or alpha-syn locus (SNCA) triplication are associated with mitochondrial abnormalities and early onset of familial PD. The goals of the present study were to examine whether alpha-syn is localized in the mitochondria of alpha-syn overexpressing ...
Sakai Shinji - - 2008
The swelling behavior of the structural material of cell-enclosing capsules is a key factor for the successful transplantation of these capsules in the treatment of diseases. The present study aimed to develop cell-enclosing capsules displaying minimal swelling under physiological conditions. We investigated the use of an alginate-tyramine conjugate synthesized by ...
Ross Meredith F MF Medical Research Council Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, - - 2008
Mitochondria-targeted molecules comprising the lipophilic TPP (triphenylphosphonium) cation covalently linked to a hydrophobic bioactive moiety are used to modify and probe mitochondria in cells and in vivo. However, it is unclear how hydrophobicity affects the rate and extent of their uptake into mitochondria within cells, making it difficult to interpret ...
Yu Tianzheng - - 2008
One of the main causes of cardiovascular complications in diabetes is the hyperglycaemia-induced cell injury, and mitochondrial fission has been implicated in the apoptotic process. We investigated the role of mitochondrial fission in high glucose-induced cardiovascular cell injury. We used several types of cultured mouse, rat, and bovine cells from ...
Takahashi Eiji - - 2008
The physical law of diffusion imposes O2 concentration gradients from the plasma membrane to the center of the cell. The present study was undertaken to determine how such intracellular radial gradients of O2 affect the fate of isolated single cardiomyocytes. In single rat cardiomyocytes, mitochondrial respiration was moderately elevated by ...
Plecitá-Hlavatá Lydie - - 2008
Mitochondria in numerous cell types, especially in cultured cells, form a reticular network undergoing constant fusion and fission. The three dimensional (3D) morphology of these networks however has not been studied in detail to our knowledge. We have investigated insulinoma INS-1E and hepatocellular carcinoma HEP-G2 cells transfected with mitochondria-addressed GFP. ...
Li Yan - - 2008
We investigated the potential role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in colorectal carcinogenesis by constructing a eukaryotic expression vector of the mitochondrial D-loop gene from colorectal cancer cell SW480 and transfected NIH3T3 cells. The NIH3T3/SW480 cells exhibited a significantly increased growth rate and colony formation rate, and also had a decreased ...
Bottone M G - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Cisplatin (cisPt) is used as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of a variety of human tumours; more recently, it has been demonstrated that tumour cell exposure to cisPt ultimately results in apoptosis, but the mechanism by which nuclear cisPt/DNA generates the cytoplasmic cascade of events involved has not ...
Valiathan Rajeshwari R RR Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2008
In budding yeast, the actin-based class V myosin motors, Myo2 and Myo4, transport virtually all organelles from mother to bud during cell division. Until recently, it appeared that mitochondria may be an exception, with studies showing that the Arp2/3 complex is required for their movement. However, several recent studies have ...
Zhang Ji - - 2008
The controlled elimination of defective mitochondria is necessary for the health of long-lived post-mitotic cells, like cardiomyocytes and neurons. Mitochondrial elimination also occurs during the course of normal development, in lens epithelial and erythroid cells. Strikingly, at the final stage of erythroid cell maturation, newly formed erythrocytes, also known as ...
Shi Li-Min - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the toxicity of copper on MES23.5 dopaminergic cells and the probable mechanisms involved in this process. METHODS: MES23.5 dopaminergic cells were selected as our experimental model. [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay was used to detect the influence of copper on the cell viability. The semi-quantitative ...
Hashimoto Fumie - - 2008
Using morphological and biochemical (Western blot and cell fractionation) methods, we investigated whether peroxisomes are present in human extravillous trophoblast cells. Immortalized extravillous trophoblast cells (TCL-1) were incubated in the presence or absence of 0.5 mM clofibric acid for 3 d. In immunofluorescence staining of trophoblast cells with antibodies anti-catalase ...
Zhou Hongning - - 2008
Although radiation-induced bystander effects have been well described over the past decade, the mechanisms of the signaling processes involved in the bystander phenomenon remain unclear. In the present study, using the Columbia University charged particle microbeam, we found that mitochondrial DNA-depleted human skin fibroblasts (rho(o)) showed a higher bystander mutagenic ...
Piskacek Martin - - 2009
The human gene MRS2L encodes a mitochondrial protein distantly related to CorA Mg(2+) transport proteins. Constitutive shRNA-mediated knockdown of hMRS2 in human HEK-293 cell line was found here to cause death. To further study its role in Mg(2+) transport, we have established stable cell lines with conditionally expressing shRNAs directed ...
Eimre Margus - - 2008
Expression and function of creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK) and hexokinase (HK) isoforms in relation to their roles in regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and intracellular energy transfer were assessed in beating (B) and non-beating (NB) cardiac HL-l cell lines and adult rat cardiomyocytes or myocardium. In both types ...
Gurvitz Aner - - 2008
We report on the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis HtdZ (Rv0130), representing a novel 3-hydroxyacyl-thioester dehydratase. HtdZ was picked up by the functional complementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae htd2Delta cells lacking the dehydratase of mitochondrial type II fatty acid synthase. Mutant cells expressing HtdZ contained dehydratase activity, recovered their respiratory ability, and ...
Yue Xiaojing - - 2008
Although generally acknowledged as a plasma membrane protein, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor has been found in the nucleus and subcellular organelles. Recently, the mitochondrial localization of the EGF receptor (EGFR) was reported; nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying EGFR localization in mitochondria is largely unknown. Using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron ...
Pereira C - - 2008
Mitochondrial involvement in yeast apoptosis is probably the most unifying feature in the field. Reports proposing a role for mitochondria in yeast apoptosis present evidence ranging from the simple observation of ROS accumulation in the cell to the identification of mitochondrial proteins mediating cell death. Although yeast is unarguably a ...
Kukat Alexandra - - 2008
Eukaryotic cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA (rho0 cells) were originally generated under artificial growth conditions utilizing ethidium bromide. The chemical is known to intercalate preferentially with the mitochondrial double-stranded DNA thereby interfering with enzymes of the replication machinery. Rho0 cell lines are highly valuable tools to study human mitochondrial disorders ...
Murias Marek - - 2008
The phytochemical resveratrol, which is found in grapes and red wine, has been reported to have a variety of biological properties. It was shown in our previous research that introduction of additional hydroxyl groups into the stilbene structure increases the biological activity of resveratrol. In this study, the activity of ...
Hu Wan-Ping - - 2008
A series of novel thiobenzanilides is described. These compounds have been previously found to show strong biological activity such as antimycotic and antifungal actions. This is the first demonstration on the mechanism of the anticancer effect of thiobenzanilide agents (4a-c) on human melanoma A375 cells. The cytotoxic studies of compounds ...
Parihar Mordhwaj S - - 2008
mAtNOS1 is a novel gene recently reported in mammalian cells with functions that are not fully understood. The present study generated human neuroblastoma SHSY cells over- and underexpressing mAtNOS1 and shows that mAtNOS1 is involved in regulating mitochondrial nitric oxide, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, protein tyrosine nitration, cytochrome c release, and ...
Parihar Arti - - 2008
In the present study, we tested the significance of mitochondria for apoptosis upon exposure to tamoxifen and etoposide using two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. We showed that both tamoxifen and etoposide induced apoptosis, increased intramitochondrial calcium and nitric oxide, and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential in both ...
Lemire Joseph - - 2008
Although zinc (Zn) is a known environmental toxicant, its impact on the cellular energy-producing machinery is not well established. This study investigated the influence of this divalent metal on the oxidative ATP producing network in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Zn-challenged cells contained more oxidized proteins and lipids compared with ...
Yano Takahisa - - 2008
Amiodarone is an effective class III antiarrhythmic drug, however, the pulmonary toxicity is one of the most life-threatening complications of its use. The present study was designed to determine the mechanisms underlying pulmonary toxicity of amiodarone. In cultured human lung epithelial cells A549, amiodarone caused cell injury characterized by mitochondrial ...
Meng Qinglai - - 2008
Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), like other lentiviruses, has a transmembrane glycoprotein with an unusually long cytoplasmic tail (CT). Viral envelope (Env) proteins having CT truncations just downstream the putative membrane-spanning domain (PMSD) are assumed to exist among all wild-type budded virions, and also in some cell-adapted strains. To determine ...
Zhang Huafeng - - 2008
Autophagy is a process by which cytoplasmic organelles can be catabolized either to remove defective structures or as a means of providing macromolecules for energy generation under conditions of nutrient starvation. In this study we demonstrate that mitochondrial autophagy is induced by hypoxia, that this process requires the hypoxia-dependent factor-1-dependent ...
Sankaran Vijay G - - 2008
Regulation of the cell cycle is intimately linked to erythroid differentiation, yet how these processes are coupled is not well understood. To gain insight into this coordinate regulation, we examined the role that the retinoblastoma protein (Rb), a central regulator of the cell cycle, plays in erythropoiesis. We found that ...
Miyazawa Masaki - - 2008
SDHC E69 cells, which overproduce superoxide anions in their mitochondria, were previously established that had a mutation in the SDHC gene of complex II of the respiratory chain. We now demonstrate that tumors formed by NIH 3T3 and SDHC E69 cells showed significant histological differences. Cytoplasmic cytochrome c release from ...
Kass George E N - - 2008
Mitochondria have multiple functions in eukaryotic cells and are organized into dynamic tubular networks that continuously undergo changes through coordinated fusion and fission and migration through the cytosol. Mitochondria integrate cell-signaling networks, especially those involving the intracellular messenger Ca(2+), into the regulation of metabolic pathways. Recently, it has become clear ...
Wiley David J DJ Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami School of Medicine, P.O. Box 016129, Miami, FL 33101-6129, - - 2008
Maintenance of cell morphology is essential for normal cell function. For eukaryotic cells, a growing body of recent evidence highlights a close interdependence between mitochondrial function, the cytoskeleton, and cell cycle control mechanisms; however, the molecular details of this interconnection are still not completely understood. We have identified a novel ...
Buttigieg J - - 2008
Catecholamine (CAT) release from adrenomedullary chromaffin cells (AMC) in response to stressors such as low O(2) (hypoxia) and elevated CO(2)/H(+) is critical during adaptation of the newborn to extrauterine life. Using a surrogate model based on a v-myc immortalized adrenal chromaffin cell line (i.e., MAH cells), combined with genetic perturbation ...
Chen Chien-Tsun - - 2008
The multidifferentiation ability of mesenchymal stem cells holds great promise for cell therapy. Numerous studies have focused on the establishment of differentiation protocols, whereas little attention has been paid to the metabolic changes during the differentiation process. Mitochondria, the powerhouse of mammalian cells, vary in their number and function in ...
Kuznetsov Andrey V - - 2008
Survival signaling by RAF occurs through largely unknown mechanisms. Here we provide evidence for the first time that RAF controls cell survival by maintaining permissive levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+). Interleukin-3 (IL-3) withdrawal from 32D cells resulted in ROS production, which was suppressed by activated C-RAF. ...
Clybouw C - - 2008
In this study, we showed that the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-mediated apoptosis of Burkitt's lymphoma BL41 cells is dependent on the BH3-only protein Bim. In contrast to what has been observed with other cell types, TGFbeta activation did not promote Bim upregulation in BL41 cells, but instead resulted in ...
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