Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1681
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >
Cheng Yuan - - 2009
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease that threatens public health, and current therapies remain limited. This study investigated the protective effect of magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MGL), a novel compound, against free fatty acid (FFA)-induced lipotoxicity in a cellular model of steatosis. METHODS: HepG2 cells were incubated ...
Sandebring Anna - - 2009
PTEN-induced novel kinase 1 (PINK1) mutations are associated with autosomal recessive parkinsonism. Previous studies have shown that PINK1 influences both mitochondrial function and morphology although it is not clearly established which of these are primary events and which are secondary. Here, we describe a novel mechanism linking mitochondrial dysfunction and ...
Mineri Rossana - - 2009
Mitochondrial biogenesis is under the control of two different genetic systems: the nuclear genome (nDNA) and the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). The mtDNA is a circular genome of 16.6 kb encoding 13 of the approximately 90 subunits that form the respiratory chain, the remaining ones being encoded by the nDNA. Eukaryotic ...
Martín Rubén - - 2009
Triterpene alcohols and acids are multifunctional compounds widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom that exhibit a variety of beneficial health properties, being synthetic analogs of oleanolic acid under clinical evaluation as anti-tumoral therapeutic agents. However, the antineoplastic activity of two natural occurring triterpenoid alcohols extracted from olive oil, erythrodiol (an ...
Zhang Ji J Department of Biochemistry, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, - - 2009
Mitochondria are the site of oxidative phosphorylation in animal cells and a primary target of reactive oxygen species-mediated damage. To prevent the accumulation of damaged mitochondria, mammalian cells have evolved strategies for their elimination. Autophagy is one means for the controlled elimination of mitochondria; however, although there has been considerable ...
Ogura Aki - - 2009
Mitochondria in mammalian cells are well-known to play an important role in the intrinsic pathway of genotoxic-agent-induced apoptosis by releasing cytochrome c into cytosol and to be a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to examine whether mitochondrial ROS are involved in radiation-induced ...
Takada Shunya - - 2009
Manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (SOD2) serves as the primary defense against mitochondrial superoxide, and decreased SOD2 activity results in a range of pathologies. To investigate the events occurring soon after depletion of SOD2, we generated SOD2 gene knockout chicken DT40 cells complemented with a human SOD2 (hSOD2) cDNA, whose expression can ...
Han Young Su - - 2009
Treatment of depression may ameliorate the cognitive disability and motor slowness in Parkinson's disease. It has been shown that antidepressants, including fluoxetine, may attenuate or exacerbate neuronal cell death. The present study assessed the effect of antidepressants (amitriptyline, tranylcypromine and fluoxetine) against the toxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) in relation to ...
Van Blerkom Jonathan - - 2009
The role of mitochondria as central determinants of development competence of oocytes and preimplantation stage embryos is considered in the context of the diverse activities these organelles have in normal cell function. Stage- and cell-cycle-specific mitochondrial translocations and redistributions are described with respect to mechanisms of cytoplasmic remodeling that may ...
Jeyaraju Danny V - - 2009
In the Fifties, electron microscopy studies on neuronal cells showed that mitochondria typically cluster at synaptic terminals, thereby introducing the concept that proper mitochondria trafficking and partitioning inside the cell could provide functional support to the execution of key physiological processes. Today, the notion that a central event in the ...
Ellis C E - - 2010
Intake of pavetamine, a novel polyamine, synthesized by certain rubiaceous plants, is the cause of gousiekte ("Quick disease") in ruminants. The disease is characterized by a latent period of 4-8 weeks, followed by heart failure. The aim of this study was to firstly investigate the cytotoxicity in H9c2(2-1) cells using ...
Matsukawa Kazushige - - 2009
Alternative oxidase (AOX) plays a pivotal role in cyanide-resistance respiration in the mitochondria of plants, fungi and some protists. Here we show that AOX from thermogenic skunk cabbage successfully conferred cyanide resistance to human cells. In galactose medium, HeLa cells with mitochondria-targeted AOX proteins were found to have significantly less ...
Singer Mervyn - - 2008
Cellular dysfunction is a commonplace sequelum of sepsis and other systemic inflammatory conditions. Impaired energy production (related to mitochondrial inhibition, damage, and reduced protein turnover) appears to be a core mechanism underlying the development of organ dysfunction. The reduction in energy availability appears to trigger a metabolic shutdown that impairs ...
Porcelli Anna Maria - - 2009
We have studied mitochondrial bioenergetics in HL180 cells (a cybrid line harboring the T14484C/ND6 and G14279A/ND6 mtDNA mutations of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, leading to an approximately 50% decrease of ATP synthesis) and XTC.UC1 cells (derived from a thyroid oncocytoma bearing a disruptive frameshift mutation in MT-ND1, which impairs complex ...
Petrović V - - 2008
As a complex, cell-specific process that includes both division and clear functional differentiation of mitochondria, mitochondriogenesis is regulated by numerous endocrine and autocrine factors. In the present ultrastructural study, in vivo effects of L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-producing pathway on mitochondriogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) were examined. For that purpose, ...
Soberanes Saul - - 2009
We have previously reported that airborne particulate matter air pollution (PM) activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in alveolar epithelial cells through a pathway that requires the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of p53. We sought to examine the source of mitochondrial oxidant production and the ...
van Horssen Remco - - 2009
ATP is the "principal energy currency" in metabolism and the most versatile small molecular regulator of cellular activities. Although already much is known about the role of ATP in fundamental processes of living systems, data about its compartmentalization are rather scarce, and we still have only very limited understanding of ...
Chacko Alex D - - 2008
We have developed a versatile and rapid method for the quantitative estimation of cell death kinetics, following direct single-shot activation of the mitochondrial death pathway by a cell permeable BH3 activator peptide (D-R(8)BH3(BID)). This approach employs timelapse epifluorescent imaging of live cells and a machine- vision based feature extraction algorithm, ...
Tani Akio - - 2008
Rhodotorula glutinis IFO1125 was found to acquire increased aluminium (Al) resistance from 50 microM to more than 5 mM by repetitive culturing with stepwise increases in Al concentration at pH 4.0. To investigate the mechanism underlying this novel phenomenon, wild-type and Al-resistant cells were compared. Neither cell type accumulated the ...
Pucci Bruna - - 2008
Induction of cell death in HeLa cells with TNF and cycloheximide (CHX) required an adequate ATP supply and was accompanied by decrease in intracellular pH, translocation of Bax, perinuclear clustering of the mitochondria, and cytochrome c release. The chloride channel inhibitor furosemide prevented the intracellular acidification, the translocation of Bax ...
Cheah Yew Hoong - - 2008
Xanthorrhizol is a natural sesquiterpenoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhizza Roxb (Zingerberaceae). Recent studies of xanthorrhizol in cell cultures strongly support the role of xanthorrhizol as an antiproliferative agent. In our study, we tested the antiproliferative effect of xanthorrhizol using different breast cancer cell lines. The invasive ...
Tirosh Oren - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatocyte cell death have been reported in fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Our aim in this study was to evaluate whether direct exposure of hepatocytes to extracellular fat could facilitate such deleterious effects. METHODS: FaO hepatic cells treated with fat was used as an in vitro ...
Rolo Anabela P AP Center for Neurosciences and Cell Biology, Department of Zoology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra, - - 2009
The measurement of mitochondrial activity in living cells is usually not straightforward, even though it is quite important in physiological and pathophysiological processes. We describe a high-throughput method for measurement of mitochondrial oxygen consumption in living cells, based on the Becton-Dickinson Biosensor plates.
Park Kyu-Sang - - 2008
Mitochondria form filamentous networks that undergo continuous fission/fusion. In the pancreatic beta-cells, mitochondria are essential for the transduction of signals linking nutrient metabolism to insulin granule exocytosis. Here we have studied mitochondrial networks in the insulinoma cell line INS-1E, primary rat and human beta-cells. We have further investigated the impact ...
Khryapenkova T G - - 2008
Typical signs of cardiomyoblasts were determined: high mitochondrial membrane potential and high number of mitochondria in these cells compared to fibroblasts. These signs can be used for identification of these cells. Energy-dependent accumulation of highly specific mitochondrial fluorescent probes applied for visual detection of energized mitochondria allows clear-cut separation of ...
Zhong Zhisheng - - 2008
We previously reported that translocation of mitochondria from the oocyte cortex to the perinuclear area indicates positive developmental potential that was reduced in porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos compared to in vitro220.). The present study is focused on distribution of donor cell mitochondria in intraspecies (pig oocytes; pig ...
Kim Duck-Woo - - 2008
To evaluate the effect of galectin-3 in cell cycle regulation of colon cancer cells, we looked for binding molecules interacting with galectin-3 and examined the changes in cell cycle by suppressing galectin-3 and the binding molecule. To identify target molecules interacting with galectin-3, we analyzed immunoprecipitate of the anti-galectin-3 antibody ...
Ueta Eisaku - - 2008
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) repair systems are thought to be associated with the susceptibility of cancer cells to anticancer agents. The present study investigated the relationship between the susceptibility to gamma-rays and the mtDNA repair ability of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSC) cell lines. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and mtDNA ...
Marsy Sophie - - 2008
Pleiotropic effects in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (OXPHOS) were investigated in yeast respiratory mutants and in cells from patients with OXPHOS genetic alterations. The main differences between yeast and human cells were (1) the site of the primary defect that was associated with pleiotropic effects, yeast complex V and human ...
Seguí-Simarro José M - - 2008
Plant cells exhibit a high rate of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) recombination. This implies that before cytokinesis, the different mitochondrial compartments must fuse to allow for mtDNA intermixing. When and how the conditions for mtDNA intermixing are established are largely unknown. We have investigated the cell cycle-dependent changes in mitochondrial architecture ...
Klassen Shaun S - - 2009
The objective of this study was to determine whether the metalloporphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrinato iron (III) chloride (FeTPPS), antagonized the effect of peroxynitrite, oxygen-free radicals, and the combination of the two, on cardiomyocyte cell viability. We further sought to compare the effects of FeTPPS to an inhibitor of the mitochondrial transmembrane ...
Han Yong Hwan - - 2008
Antimycin A (AMA) inhibits mitochondrial electron transport between cytochromes b and c. We evaluated the effects of AMA on the growth of human pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 cells in relation to cell cycle and apoptosis. Treatment with 2-100 microM AMA significantly inhibited the cell growth of A549 for 72 h. DNA ...
Longpre Jennifer M - - 2008
The bile salt, deoxycholate (DOC), can harm cells and cause disease. Hence, there is interest in identifying compounds capable of protecting cells against DOC. In HCT-116 colon epithelial cells, DOC increased generation of reactive oxygen species and caused DNA damage and apoptosis. These effects of DOC were inhibited by rottlerin, ...
Diao Jingyu - - 2008
In pancreatic beta-cells, uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) influences mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and insulin secretion. Here, we show that alpha-cells express significantly higher levels of UCP2 than do beta-cells. Greater mitochondrial UCP2-related uncoupling was observed in alpha-cells compared with beta-cells and was accompanied by a lower oxidative phosphorylation efficiency (ATP/O). Conversely, ...
Zhu Xiaoping - - 2008
To elucidate the mechanism by which L-carnitine and related metabolites inhibited mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, we used conditional TRX2-knockout DT40 cells (TRX2(-/-)) and compared the properties of signaling pathways leading to apoptosis in the wild and TRX2(-/-) cells. Caspase-3 and 9, but not caspase-8, were strongly activated in TRX2(-/-) cells but not ...
Sánchez Claudia A - - 2008
Statins have antiproliferative and anti-tumoral effects in MCF-7 cells. We determined the effect of statins upon MCF-7 cell cycle, toxicity, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential. Fluvastatin, simvastatin and atorvastatin inhibited cell proliferation. Antiproliferation was associated with a decrease in the DNA synthesis and a ...
Matarrese Paola - - 2008
Participation of diverse organelles in the intracellular signalling that follows CD95/Fas receptor ligation encompasses a series of subcellular changes that are mandatory for, or even bolster, the apoptotic cascade. In the present study, we analysed the role of endocytosis in the propagation of cell death signalling after CD95/Fas engagement in ...
Schiffmann Yoram - - 2008
The equivalence of the early mammalian cells, of importance in assisted reproductive technologies (ART), is considered. It is suggested that this controversial topic can be settled by finding whether the cells are distinguished by the Turing-Child (TC) field, as expressed for example by patterns of mitochondrial activity. The division of ...
Nunes Carla - - 2008
It has been postulated that dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), a major dopamine metabolite, and nitric oxide (NO) induce mitochondrial dysfunction in a synergistic manner. We examined the combined effects of NO and DOPAC on PC-12 cells in terms of cell viability, nuclear morphology, mitochondrial parameters and cell death mechanisms. The apoptotic ...
Chanoit Guillaume - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to determine whether exogenous zinc prevents cardiac reperfusion injury by targeting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) via glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). The treatment of cardiac H9c2 cells with ZnCl2 (10 microM) in the presence of zinc ionophore pyrithione for 20 min significantly enhanced ...
Wang Wang W Laboratories of Cardiovascular Sciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. - - 2008
In quiescent cells, mitochondria are the primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are generated by leakiness of the electron transport chain (ETC). High levels of ROS can trigger cell death, whereas lower levels drive diverse and important cellular functions. We show here by employing a newly developed mitochondrial ...
Serafim Teresa L - - 2008
Sanguinarine (SANG) is an alkaloid recognized to have anti-proliferative activity against various human tumour cell lines. No data is available on the susceptibility of advanced malignant melanoma to SANG, although this disease has a very poor prognosis if not detected in time due to the resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The ...
Galetti Sandrine - - 2009
UCP2 is expressed in pancreatic beta cells where its postulated uncoupling activity will modulate glucose-induced changes in ATP/ADP ratio and insulin secretion. The consequences of UCP2 over/underexpression on beta-cell function has mainly been studied in the basal state; however, a UCP has no uncoupling activity unless stimulated by fatty acids ...
Fallon Ann M AM Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA. - - 2008
The Aedes albopictus Aa23 cell line, which is persistently infected with Wolbachia pipientis strain wAlbB, tends to grow as aggregated clusters of cells that are difficult to disperse for conventional quantification based on cell number. We used A. albopictus C7-10 cells to validate conversion of methylthiazole tetrazolium (MTT) to a ...
Vives-Bauza Cristofol C Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10065, - - 2008
Accumulation of indigestible lipofuscin and decreased mitochondrial energy production are characteristic age-related changes of post-mitotic retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in the human eye. To test whether these two forms of age-related impairment have interdependent effects, we quantified the ATP-dependent phagocytic function of RPE cells loaded or not with the ...
Choi Eun Joo - - 2008
Defects in mitochondrial function have been shown to participate in the induction of neuronal cell injury. The present study assessed the preventive effect of a prostaglandin E(1) analogue misoprostol against the toxicity of parkinsonian neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) with respect to the mitochondria-mediated cell death process and oxidative stress. MPP(+) induced ...
Chen Ku-Chung - - 2008
Modification of catalytic residue His-47 with p-bromophenacyl bromide (BPB) abolished the enzymatic activity of Naja naja atra phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Additionally, alterations in the global structure and the spatial positions of Trp residues were noted in His-modified PLA2. The cell viability of human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells was decreased by approximately ...
Dickinson Bryan C BC Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, - - 2008
We present the design, synthesis, and biological applications of mitochondria peroxy yellow 1 (MitoPY1), a new type of bifunctional fluorescent probe for imaging hydrogen peroxide levels within the mitochondria of living cells. MitoPY1 combines a chemoselective boronate-based switch and a mitochondrial-targeting phosphonium moiety for detection of hydrogen peroxide localized to ...
Samudio Ismael I Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, Section of Molecular Hematology and Therapy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, - - 2008
In 1956, Otto Warburg proposed that the origin of cancer cells was closely linked to a permanent respiratory defect that bypassed the Pasteur effect (i.e., the inhibition of anaerobic fermentation by oxygen). Since then, permanent defects in oxygen consumption that could explain the dependence of cancer cells on aerobic glycolysis ...
Kosta Artemis - - 2008
Dictyostelium HMX44A cells can withstand starvation under monolayer conditions for a few days without dying. They die only when the differentiation factor DIF-1 is exogenously added. Still, when HMX44A were subjected to starvation without addition of DIF-1 they showed, by electron microscopy and electron tomography, gross mitochondrial lesions including marked ...
< 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 >