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Results 401 - 450 of 1655
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Kim Duck-Woo - - 2008
To evaluate the effect of galectin-3 in cell cycle regulation of colon cancer cells, we looked for binding molecules interacting with galectin-3 and examined the changes in cell cycle by suppressing galectin-3 and the binding molecule. To identify target molecules interacting with galectin-3, we analyzed immunoprecipitate of the anti-galectin-3 antibody ...
Ueta Eisaku - - 2008
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) repair systems are thought to be associated with the susceptibility of cancer cells to anticancer agents. The present study investigated the relationship between the susceptibility to gamma-rays and the mtDNA repair ability of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSC) cell lines. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and mtDNA ...
Marsy Sophie - - 2008
Pleiotropic effects in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (OXPHOS) were investigated in yeast respiratory mutants and in cells from patients with OXPHOS genetic alterations. The main differences between yeast and human cells were (1) the site of the primary defect that was associated with pleiotropic effects, yeast complex V and human ...
Seguí-Simarro José M - - 2008
Plant cells exhibit a high rate of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) recombination. This implies that before cytokinesis, the different mitochondrial compartments must fuse to allow for mtDNA intermixing. When and how the conditions for mtDNA intermixing are established are largely unknown. We have investigated the cell cycle-dependent changes in mitochondrial architecture ...
Klassen Shaun S - - 2009
The objective of this study was to determine whether the metalloporphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrinato iron (III) chloride (FeTPPS), antagonized the effect of peroxynitrite, oxygen-free radicals, and the combination of the two, on cardiomyocyte cell viability. We further sought to compare the effects of FeTPPS to an inhibitor of the mitochondrial transmembrane ...
Han Yong Hwan - - 2008
Antimycin A (AMA) inhibits mitochondrial electron transport between cytochromes b and c. We evaluated the effects of AMA on the growth of human pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 cells in relation to cell cycle and apoptosis. Treatment with 2-100 microM AMA significantly inhibited the cell growth of A549 for 72 h. DNA ...
Longpre Jennifer M - - 2008
The bile salt, deoxycholate (DOC), can harm cells and cause disease. Hence, there is interest in identifying compounds capable of protecting cells against DOC. In HCT-116 colon epithelial cells, DOC increased generation of reactive oxygen species and caused DNA damage and apoptosis. These effects of DOC were inhibited by rottlerin, ...
Diao Jingyu - - 2008
In pancreatic beta-cells, uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) influences mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and insulin secretion. Here, we show that alpha-cells express significantly higher levels of UCP2 than do beta-cells. Greater mitochondrial UCP2-related uncoupling was observed in alpha-cells compared with beta-cells and was accompanied by a lower oxidative phosphorylation efficiency (ATP/O). Conversely, ...
Zhu Xiaoping - - 2008
To elucidate the mechanism by which L-carnitine and related metabolites inhibited mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, we used conditional TRX2-knockout DT40 cells (TRX2(-/-)) and compared the properties of signaling pathways leading to apoptosis in the wild and TRX2(-/-) cells. Caspase-3 and 9, but not caspase-8, were strongly activated in TRX2(-/-) cells but not ...
Sánchez Claudia A - - 2008
Statins have antiproliferative and anti-tumoral effects in MCF-7 cells. We determined the effect of statins upon MCF-7 cell cycle, toxicity, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential. Fluvastatin, simvastatin and atorvastatin inhibited cell proliferation. Antiproliferation was associated with a decrease in the DNA synthesis and a ...
Matarrese Paola - - 2008
Participation of diverse organelles in the intracellular signalling that follows CD95/Fas receptor ligation encompasses a series of subcellular changes that are mandatory for, or even bolster, the apoptotic cascade. In the present study, we analysed the role of endocytosis in the propagation of cell death signalling after CD95/Fas engagement in ...
Schiffmann Yoram - - 2008
The equivalence of the early mammalian cells, of importance in assisted reproductive technologies (ART), is considered. It is suggested that this controversial topic can be settled by finding whether the cells are distinguished by the Turing-Child (TC) field, as expressed for example by patterns of mitochondrial activity. The division of ...
Nunes Carla - - 2008
It has been postulated that dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), a major dopamine metabolite, and nitric oxide (NO) induce mitochondrial dysfunction in a synergistic manner. We examined the combined effects of NO and DOPAC on PC-12 cells in terms of cell viability, nuclear morphology, mitochondrial parameters and cell death mechanisms. The apoptotic ...
Chanoit Guillaume - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to determine whether exogenous zinc prevents cardiac reperfusion injury by targeting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) via glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). The treatment of cardiac H9c2 cells with ZnCl2 (10 microM) in the presence of zinc ionophore pyrithione for 20 min significantly enhanced ...
Wang Wang W Laboratories of Cardiovascular Sciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. - - 2008
In quiescent cells, mitochondria are the primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are generated by leakiness of the electron transport chain (ETC). High levels of ROS can trigger cell death, whereas lower levels drive diverse and important cellular functions. We show here by employing a newly developed mitochondrial ...
Serafim Teresa L - - 2008
Sanguinarine (SANG) is an alkaloid recognized to have anti-proliferative activity against various human tumour cell lines. No data is available on the susceptibility of advanced malignant melanoma to SANG, although this disease has a very poor prognosis if not detected in time due to the resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The ...
Galetti Sandrine - - 2009
UCP2 is expressed in pancreatic beta cells where its postulated uncoupling activity will modulate glucose-induced changes in ATP/ADP ratio and insulin secretion. The consequences of UCP2 over/underexpression on beta-cell function has mainly been studied in the basal state; however, a UCP has no uncoupling activity unless stimulated by fatty acids ...
Fallon Ann M AM Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA. - - 2008
The Aedes albopictus Aa23 cell line, which is persistently infected with Wolbachia pipientis strain wAlbB, tends to grow as aggregated clusters of cells that are difficult to disperse for conventional quantification based on cell number. We used A. albopictus C7-10 cells to validate conversion of methylthiazole tetrazolium (MTT) to a ...
Vives-Bauza Cristofol C Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10065, - - 2008
Accumulation of indigestible lipofuscin and decreased mitochondrial energy production are characteristic age-related changes of post-mitotic retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in the human eye. To test whether these two forms of age-related impairment have interdependent effects, we quantified the ATP-dependent phagocytic function of RPE cells loaded or not with the ...
Choi Eun Joo - - 2008
Defects in mitochondrial function have been shown to participate in the induction of neuronal cell injury. The present study assessed the preventive effect of a prostaglandin E(1) analogue misoprostol against the toxicity of parkinsonian neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) with respect to the mitochondria-mediated cell death process and oxidative stress. MPP(+) induced ...
Chen Ku-Chung - - 2008
Modification of catalytic residue His-47 with p-bromophenacyl bromide (BPB) abolished the enzymatic activity of Naja naja atra phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Additionally, alterations in the global structure and the spatial positions of Trp residues were noted in His-modified PLA2. The cell viability of human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells was decreased by approximately ...
Dickinson Bryan C BC Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, - - 2008
We present the design, synthesis, and biological applications of mitochondria peroxy yellow 1 (MitoPY1), a new type of bifunctional fluorescent probe for imaging hydrogen peroxide levels within the mitochondria of living cells. MitoPY1 combines a chemoselective boronate-based switch and a mitochondrial-targeting phosphonium moiety for detection of hydrogen peroxide localized to ...
Samudio Ismael I Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, Section of Molecular Hematology and Therapy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, - - 2008
In 1956, Otto Warburg proposed that the origin of cancer cells was closely linked to a permanent respiratory defect that bypassed the Pasteur effect (i.e., the inhibition of anaerobic fermentation by oxygen). Since then, permanent defects in oxygen consumption that could explain the dependence of cancer cells on aerobic glycolysis ...
Kosta Artemis - - 2008
Dictyostelium HMX44A cells can withstand starvation under monolayer conditions for a few days without dying. They die only when the differentiation factor DIF-1 is exogenously added. Still, when HMX44A were subjected to starvation without addition of DIF-1 they showed, by electron microscopy and electron tomography, gross mitochondrial lesions including marked ...
Mohammad Fahad Haroon
Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is a retinal ganglionic neurodegenerative disorder caused by a maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA point mutation. The dysfunction of complex I of the respiratory chain, affected by the mutation, results in an increased production of reactive oxygen species and a decreased synthesis of ATP. This biochemical ...
Ferraro Elisabetta - - 2008
Cytochrome c release from mitochondria promotes apoptosome formation and caspase activation. The question as to whether mitochondrial permeabilization kills cells via a caspase-independent pathway when caspase activation is prevented is still open. Here we report that proneural cells of embryonic origin, when induced to die but rescued by apoptosome inactivation ...
He Min - - 2008
Thioredoxin-2 (Trx2) is a multifunctional, mitochondria-specific protein, which inhibits cell death. The mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is a distinct mechanism for cell death activated by oxidants and linked to both necrotic and apoptotic morphologies. We studied mitochondria from Trx2 transgenic mice to determine whether Trx2 protects against oxidant-induced MPT. All ...
Landshamer S S Pharmaceutical Biology-Biotechnology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, - - 2008
Mitochondrial dysfunction and release of pro-apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c or apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria are key features of neuronal cell death. The precise mechanisms of how these proteins are released from mitochondria and their particular role in neuronal cell death signaling are however largely unknown. Here, we ...
Zhang Lingrui - - 2008
Methyl jasmonate (MeJa) is a well-known plant stress hormone. Upon exposure to stress, MeJa is produced and causes activation of programmed cell death (PCD) and defense mechanisms in plants. However, the early events and the signaling mechanisms of MeJa-induced cell death have yet to be fully elucidated. To obtain some ...
Matsushima Ryo - - 2008
Visualization of organelles in living cells is a powerful method for studying their dynamic behavior. Here we attempted to visualize mitochondria in angiosperm male gametophyte (pollen grain from Arabidopsis thaliana) that are composed of one vegetative cell (VC) and two sperm cells (SCs). Combination of mitochondria-targeted fluorescent proteins with VC- ...
Panda Sanjib Kumar - - 2008
The present investigation was undertaken to verify whether mitochondria play a significant role in aluminium (Al) toxicity, using the mitochondria isolated from tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum, non-chlorophyllic cell line SL) under Al stress. An inhibition of respiration was observed in terms of state-III, state-IV, succinate-dependent, alternative oxidase (AOX)-pathway capacity and ...
Schieke Stefan M - - 2008
Relatively little is known regarding how energetic demand during cell proliferation is sensed or coordinated with mitochondrial metabolism. Here we demonstrate that cell cycle progression through G(1) is associated with a significant increase in mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) and respiration. We used this change in metabolic rate to isolate cells ...
Ncango Desmond M - - 2008
When oxylipin and mitochondrion probes, i.e., fluorescing antibodies specific for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH oxylipins) and rhodamine 123 (Rh123), were added to yeast cells, these probes accumulated mainly in the sexual cells (i.e., both associated with ascospores) and not in the vegetative cells. This suggests increased mitochondrial activity in asci, ...
Ferraresi Roberta - - 2008
Cells lacking mitochondrial genome (defined as rho(0)) are useful models in studies on cancer, aging, mitochondrial diseases and apoptosis, but several of their functional aspects have been poorly characterized. Using different clones of rho(0) cells derived from the human osteosarcoma line 143B, we have tested the effects of different apoptogenic ...
Yamazaki Hideya - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on radiation sensitivity under hypoxic conditions. The cell lines used were rho+ and rho0, which carry wild-type mtDNA and no mtDNA, respectively. The rho0 cells do not utilize oxygen because they lack the capacity to carry ...
Miller J H - - 2008
Previous work by Morgan and coworkers on radiation-induced genome instability in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines showed that unstable LS-12 cells had persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that were likely due to dysfunctional mitochondria. To further investigate the correlation between radiation-induced genome instability and dysfunctional mitochondria, ...
Dragone Roberto - - 2009
Several functional and biochemical parameters have been proposed as biomarkers of effect of environmental pollutants. A rapid biosensor working with immobilized human U-937 cells was developed and applied to environmentally relevant chemicals with different structures and toxicological pathways, i.e. benzalkonium chloride, clofibric acid, diclofenac, mercury nitrate, ofloxacin, and sodium dodecyl ...
Martinvalet Denis D Immune Disease Institute and Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2008
The killer lymphocyte protease granzyme A (GzmA) triggers caspase-independent target cell death with morphological features of apoptosis. We previously showed that GzmA acts directly on mitochondria to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disrupt the transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) but does not permeabilize the mitochondrial outer membrane. Mitochondrial damage is critical ...
Shavali Shaik - - 2008
Alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in alpha-syn gene or alpha-syn locus (SNCA) triplication are associated with mitochondrial abnormalities and early onset of familial PD. The goals of the present study were to examine whether alpha-syn is localized in the mitochondria of alpha-syn overexpressing ...
Sakai Shinji - - 2008
The swelling behavior of the structural material of cell-enclosing capsules is a key factor for the successful transplantation of these capsules in the treatment of diseases. The present study aimed to develop cell-enclosing capsules displaying minimal swelling under physiological conditions. We investigated the use of an alginate-tyramine conjugate synthesized by ...
Ross Meredith F MF Medical Research Council Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, - - 2008
Mitochondria-targeted molecules comprising the lipophilic TPP (triphenylphosphonium) cation covalently linked to a hydrophobic bioactive moiety are used to modify and probe mitochondria in cells and in vivo. However, it is unclear how hydrophobicity affects the rate and extent of their uptake into mitochondria within cells, making it difficult to interpret ...
Yu Tianzheng T Department of Anesthesiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, - - 2008
One of the main causes of cardiovascular complications in diabetes is the hyperglycaemia-induced cell injury, and mitochondrial fission has been implicated in the apoptotic process. We investigated the role of mitochondrial fission in high glucose-induced cardiovascular cell injury. We used several types of cultured mouse, rat, and bovine cells from ...
Takahashi Eiji - - 2008
The physical law of diffusion imposes O2 concentration gradients from the plasma membrane to the center of the cell. The present study was undertaken to determine how such intracellular radial gradients of O2 affect the fate of isolated single cardiomyocytes. In single rat cardiomyocytes, mitochondrial respiration was moderately elevated by ...
Plecitá-Hlavatá Lydie - - 2008
Mitochondria in numerous cell types, especially in cultured cells, form a reticular network undergoing constant fusion and fission. The three dimensional (3D) morphology of these networks however has not been studied in detail to our knowledge. We have investigated insulinoma INS-1E and hepatocellular carcinoma HEP-G2 cells transfected with mitochondria-addressed GFP. ...
Li Yan - - 2008
We investigated the potential role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in colorectal carcinogenesis by constructing a eukaryotic expression vector of the mitochondrial D-loop gene from colorectal cancer cell SW480 and transfected NIH3T3 cells. The NIH3T3/SW480 cells exhibited a significantly increased growth rate and colony formation rate, and also had a decreased ...
Bottone M G - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Cisplatin (cisPt) is used as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of a variety of human tumours; more recently, it has been demonstrated that tumour cell exposure to cisPt ultimately results in apoptosis, but the mechanism by which nuclear cisPt/DNA generates the cytoplasmic cascade of events involved has not ...
Valiathan Rajeshwari R RR Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2008
In budding yeast, the actin-based class V myosin motors, Myo2 and Myo4, transport virtually all organelles from mother to bud during cell division. Until recently, it appeared that mitochondria may be an exception, with studies showing that the Arp2/3 complex is required for their movement. However, several recent studies have ...
Shi Li-Min - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the toxicity of copper on MES23.5 dopaminergic cells and the probable mechanisms involved in this process. METHODS: MES23.5 dopaminergic cells were selected as our experimental model. [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay was used to detect the influence of copper on the cell viability. The semi-quantitative ...
Hashimoto Fumie - - 2008
Using morphological and biochemical (Western blot and cell fractionation) methods, we investigated whether peroxisomes are present in human extravillous trophoblast cells. Immortalized extravillous trophoblast cells (TCL-1) were incubated in the presence or absence of 0.5 mM clofibric acid for 3 d. In immunofluorescence staining of trophoblast cells with antibodies anti-catalase ...
Zhou Hongning - - 2008
Although radiation-induced bystander effects have been well described over the past decade, the mechanisms of the signaling processes involved in the bystander phenomenon remain unclear. In the present study, using the Columbia University charged particle microbeam, we found that mitochondrial DNA-depleted human skin fibroblasts (rho(o)) showed a higher bystander mutagenic ...
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