Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1668
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >
Acsadi Gyula - - 2009
Mutations of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) lead to anterior horn cell death. The cause is unknown, but motor neurons depend substantially on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) for normal function. Therefore, mitochondrial parameters were analyzed in an SMA cell culture model using small interfering ...
Wiederkehr Andreas A Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University Medical Center, Geneva Switzerland. - - 2009
Recently, we have identified matrix pH as a key regulator of mitochondrial energy metabolism in the β-cell (Wiederkehr et al. EMBO J. (2009) 28(4):417-28). Under resting glucose conditions matrix pH in β-cell mitochondria is unusually low (pH 7.25). Following nutrient stimulation of rat islets matrix alkalinisation occurs raising matrix pH ...
Imamura Hiromi - - 2009
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy currency of cells and is involved in many cellular processes. However, there is no method for real-time monitoring of ATP levels inside individual living cells. To visualize ATP levels, we generated a series of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based indicators for ATP that ...
Cannino Giuseppe - - 2009
The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) a pollutant associated with several modern industrial processes, is absorbed in significant quantities from cigarette smoke, water, food and air contaminations. It is known to have numerous undesirable effects on health in both experimental animals and humans, targeting kidney, liver and vascular system. The molecular ...
Bi YuHua - - 2009
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic heavy metal that causes changes in plant metabolism through inhibiting photosynthesis and respiration. The effects of Cd on the morphology and function of the chloroplast and mitochondria, as well as on the production and localization of ROS (reactive oxygen species), were studied ...
Behera Millie A - - 2009
The effects of progesterone on breast epithelial cells remain poorly defined with observations showing both proliferative and antiproliferative effects. As an example, progesterone levels correlate with increased epithelial cell proliferation, but there is discordance between the dividing cells and the cells with nuclear progesterone receptor expression. The release of paracrine ...
Mao Li - - 2009
HMGA chromatin proteins, a family of gene regulatory factors found at only low concentrations in normal cells, are almost universally overexpressed in cancer cells. HMGA proteins are located in the nuclei of normal cells except during the late S/G(2) phases of the cell cycle, when HMGA1, one of the members ...
Sripriya Paranthaman - - 2009
Expression of a proteinaceous elicitor harpin(Pss,) encoded by hrpZ of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 61, under GAL1 promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y187 resulted in galactose-inducible yeast cell death (YCD). Extracellular treatment of harpin did not affect the growth of yeast. The observed YCD was independent of the stage of cell ...
Guescini Michele - - 2010
Cells can exchange information not only by means of chemical and/or electrical signals, but also via microvesicles released into the intercellular space. The present paper, for the first time, provides evidence that Glioblastoma and Astrocyte cells release microvesicles, which carry mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). These microvesicles have been characterised as exosomes ...
Kvetny Jan - - 2009
Background: Mitochondrial function may be impaired in a number of diseases including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and endocrine disorders. Therefore it is important to be able to measure mitochondrial function in human cells. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate a method to measure mitochondrial function in ...
Matsumoto Takumi - - 2009
Cancer cells often display defects in mitochondrial respiration, thus the identification of pathways that promote cell survival under this metabolic state may have therapeutic implications. Here, we report that the targeted ablation of mitochondrial respiration markedly increases expression of Polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2) and that it is required for the ...
Kita Toshiyuki - - 2009
Mitochondrial fusion and fission processes play a role in a variety of cell functions, including energy metabolism, cell differentiation and programmed cell death. Still, it is not clear how these processes contribute to the cell functions. Here, we investigated the role of mitochondrial remodelling on lipid metabolism in adipocytes. In ...
Jourdain Isabelle - - 2009
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo cycles of fission and fusion. In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, mitochondria align with microtubules and mitochondrial integrity is dependent upon an intact microtubule cytoskeleton. Here we show that mitochondria re-organize during the cell cycle and that this process is both dynamin- and microtubule-dependent. ...
Loiseau Dominique - - 2009
Cancer cells mainly rely on glycolysis for energetic needs, and mitochondrial ATP production is almost inactive. However, cancer cells require the integrity of mitochondrial functions for their survival, such as the maintenance of the internal membrane potential gradient (DeltaPsim). It thus may be predicted that DeltaPsim regeneration should depend on ...
Keeney Paula M - - 2009
Neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) affects mainly dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, where age-related, increasing percentages of cells lose detectable respiratory activity associated with depletion of intact mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Replenishment of mtDNA might improve neuronal bioenergetic function and prevent further cell death. We developed a technology ("ProtoFection") that ...
Baarine Mauhamad - - 2009
In some neurodegenerative disorders (leukodystrophies) characterized by myelin alterations, the defect of peroxisomal functions on myelin-producing cells (oligodendrocytes) are poorly understood. The development of in vitro models is fundamental to understanding the physiopathogenesis of these diseases. We characterized two immortalized murine oligodendrocyte cell lines: a normal (158N) and a jimpy ...
Villa Anna Maria - - 2009
The interaction of ethidium bromide (EB) with mitochondria in human breast and lung carcinoma cells was investigated under living conditions, employing a laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy (LSCFM) with a photon counting detection to reduce drastically the laser power excitation and the fluorescent probe concentration. In sensitive and multidrug-resistant MCF-7 ...
Quintanilla Rodrigo A RA Department of Anesthesiology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642-0002, - - 2009
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by a pathological expansion of CAG repeats within the gene encoding for a 350 kD protein called huntingtin. This polyglutamine expansion within huntingtin is the causative factor in the pathogenesis of HD, however the underlying mechanisms have not ...
Hettema Ewald H - - 2009
With every cell division, peroxisomes duplicate and are segregated between progeny cells. Here, we discuss the different modes of peroxisome multiplication and the machinery that is involved in each case. Peroxisomes have been considered by many to be peripheral to mainstream cell biology. However, this is changing in response to ...
Mitra Kasturi - - 2009
Mitochondria undergo fission-fusion events that render these organelles highly dynamic in cells. We report a relationship between mitochondrial form and cell cycle control at the G(1)-S boundary. Mitochondria convert from isolated, fragmented elements into a hyperfused, giant network at G(1)-S transition. The network is electrically continuous and has greater ATP ...
Yang Zhong-Hua - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of capsaicin (CAP) on proliferation of bladder cancer T24 cells in vitro as well as on xenografts in nude mice in vivo. METHODS: T24 cells were assessed for cell viability and apoptosis by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry analysis after incubation with ...
Lukandu Ochiba M - - 2009
Previous studies suggest the use of khat, a psychostimulant plant used by millions of people in Middle East and Africa, as risk factor for oral cancer. We previously reported that khat is able to induce adverse affects, as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, in normal human oral cells cultured in ...
Molina Anthony J A AJ Department of Molecular Medicine, Obesity Research Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2009
Previous studies have reported that beta-cell mitochondria exist as discrete organelles that exhibit heterogeneous bioenergetic capacity. To date, networking activity, and its role in mediating beta-cell mitochondrial morphology and function, remains unclear. In this article, we investigate beta-cell mitochondrial fusion and fission in detail and report alterations in response to ...
Galluzzi Lorenzo - - 2009
Acute neurological conditions such as cerebrovascular diseases and trauma are associated with irreversible loss of neurons and glial cells. Severe or prolonged injury results in uncontrollable cell death within the core of lesions. Conversely, cells that are less severely damaged succumb in a relatively slow fashion, frequently via the intrinsic ...
Ishihara Naotada - - 2009
Mitochondria play central roles in cell survival by producing energy, and in cell death by regulating apoptosis. Conversely, the life and death of mitochondria, including growth, fission, and autophagic degradation, is controlled by the host cell. Using yeast genetics, a mitochondrial surface receptor involved in mitochondrial autophagy has recently been ...
Cozzolino Mauro - - 2009
Increasing evidence indicates that the accumulation and aggregation of mutant Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (mutSOD1) in spinal cord mitochondria is implicated in the pathogenesis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Although the mechanisms underlying this effect are only partially understood, a deficit in the import mechanism of mutSOD1 and/or in its ...
Lynch John J Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105-3678, - - 2009
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB6 localizes to the mitochondria, where it imports porphyrins and up-regulates de novo porphyrin synthesis. If ABCB6 also increases the intracellular heme concentration, it may broadly affect the regulation and physiology of cellular hemoproteins. We tested whether the ability of ABCB6 to accelerate de novo ...
Glushakova Lyudmyla G LG Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, College of Medicine, University of Florida, FL, - - 2009
Most cancers rely disproportionately on glycolysis for energy even in the presence of adequate oxygen supply, a condition known as "aerobic glycolysis", or the Warburg effect. Pharmacological reversal of the Warburg effect has been shown to cause selective apoptosis of tumor cells, presumably by stimulating mitochondrial respiratory chain activity and ...
Li Ning - - 2009
Transient exposure of beta-cells to oxidative stress interrupts the transduction of signals normally coupling glucose metabolism to insulin secretion. We investigated putative persistence of effects induced by one transient oxidative stress (200 microm H(2)O(2), 10 min) on insulin secreting cells following recovery periods of days and weeks. Three days after ...
Gorman Sheeona - - 2009
The bridge breakage fusion cycle is a chromosomal instability mechanism responsible for genomic changes. Radiation bystander effects induce genomic instability; however, the mechanism driving this instability is unknown. We examined if radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events such as telomere shortening and bridge formation using a ...
Moiseeva Olga - - 2009
The expression of oncogenic ras in normal human cells quickly induces an aberrant proliferation response that later is curtailed by a cell cycle arrest known as cellular senescence. Here, we show that cells expressing oncogenic ras display an increase in the mitochondrial mass, the mitochondrial DNA, and the mitochondrial production ...
Li Yufeng - - 2009
It has been reported that mitochondria-independent or mitochondria-dependent (type I/II) Fas signaling pathways in leukemia cells depend on the amount of active caspase-8. However, Bid molecules, which could not be cleaved in type I cells, could be effectively cleaved by recombinant active caspase-8 in vitro. The cleavage of recombinant Bid ...
González Raúl - - 2009
D-Galactosamine (D-GalN) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cell death in cultured hepatocytes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the cytoprotective properties of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic against the mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in D-GalN-treated hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated ...
Jeng Jaan-Yeh - - 2009
Linoleic acid (LA) improves insulin resistance and prevents diabetes. To investigate whether linoleic acid could protect against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced cell death, rat RIN-m5F cells were exposed to STZ. SL and SO groups consisted of cells treated with STZ and then LA or oleic acid (OA) respectively. STZ treatment decreased the ...
Curbo Sophie - - 2009
The nucleoside analogs 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylguanine (araG) and 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylthymine (araT) are substrates of mitochondrial nucleoside kinases and have previously been shown to be predominantly incorporated into mtDNA of cells, but the pharmacological importance of their accumulation in mtDNA is not known. Here, we examined the role of mtDNA in the response to ...
Tian Tao - - 2009
Renal damage caused by cold preservation and warm reperfusion has been well documented and involves tissue edema, cell swelling, ATP depletion, calcium toxicity, and oxidative stress. However, more common proximal mechanisms have not been identified, which may limit the development of effective clinical treatment strategies. Previous work indicates that many ...
Zunino Rodolfo - - 2009
The mechanisms that ensure an equal inheritance of cellular organelles during mitosis are an important area of study in cell biology. For the mitochondria fragment during mitosis, however, the cellular links that signal these changes are largely unknown. We recently identified a SUMO protease, SenP5, that deSUMOylates a number of ...
Lemire J - - 2009
Although aluminum (Al), a known environmental toxin, has been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders, the molecular mechanism responsible for these conditions is not fully understood. In this report, we demonstrate the ability of Al to trigger mitochondrial dysfunction and ineffective adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. This situation severely affected ...
Chang C-J - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction to chemoresistance and migration of hepatoma cells. We found that inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion resulted in induction of amphiregulin (AR) expression in HepG2 cells. Upon oligomycin treatment of HepG2 cells, the cytosolic ...
Seppet Enn - - 2009
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of almost all diseases. Acquired or inherited mutations of the mitochondrial genome DNA may give rise to mitochondrial diseases. Another class of disorders, in which mitochondrial impairments are initiated by extramitochondrial factors, includes neurodegenerative diseases and syndromes resulting from typical pathological processes, such as hypoxia/ischemia, ...
Benard Giovanni - - 2009
Discovery of various molecular components regulating dynamics and organization of the mitochondria in cells, together with novel insights into the role of mitochondrial fusion and division in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, have provided some of the most exciting breakthroughs in the last decade of mitochondrial research. The focus of ...
Cloos Carla R CR Departments of Surgery, Iowa City, Iowa, - - 2009
We hypothesized that mitochondrial function regulates cell cycle checkpoint activation and radiosensitivity. Human pancreatic tumor cells (MiaPaCa-2, rho(+)) were depleted of mitochondrial DNA (rho degrees ) by culturing cells in the presence of ethidium bromide. Depletion of mitochondrial DNA was verified by PCR amplification of total DNA using primer pairs ...
Epperly Michael W MW Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, - - 2009
To determine whether increased mitochondrially localized catalase was radioprotective, a human catalase transgene was cloned into a small pSVZeo plasmid and localized to the mitochondria of 32D cl 3 cells by adding the mitochondrial localization sequence of MnSOD (mt-catalase). The cell lines 32D-Cat and 32D-mt-Cat had increased catalase biochemical activity ...
Dassa Emmanuel P - - 2009
In plants as well as in a number of micro-organisms, and in several animal phyla, but not in mammals, the alternative oxidase (AOX) possibly by-passes the cytochrome segment of the respiratory chain. The AOX is located at the inner surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane, being activated by over-reduction of ...
Shkil Halyna - - 2009
In general, L-lactate respiration is difficult to detect in living yeast cells due to the small activity of L-lactate oxidizing enzymes within the mitochondria. Genetically modified cells of methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha overproducing L-lactate:cytochrome c-oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.2.3, also known as flavocytochrome b(2), FC b(2)) were physically immobilized by means of ...
Xiao Dong D Department of Pharmacology & Chemical Biology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, - - 2009
Present study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of cellular responses to D,L-sulforaphane (SFN), a highly promising cancer chemopreventive agent. Mitochondrial DNA deficient Rho-0 variants of LNCaP and PC-3 cells were generated by culture in the presence of ethidium bromide. Apoptosis was assessed by analysis of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation ...
Diogo Cátia V - - 2009
Daphnetoxin is a daphnane type orthoester diterpene found exclusively in plants of the family Thymelaeaceae while daphnoretin, a bis-coumarin derivative that is the major constituent of the bark of some plants of this family, can also be found in Leguminosae and Rutaceae. These two compounds are recognized to have different ...
Rhein V - - 2009
Evidence suggests that amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it has been recently proposed that mitochondria are involved in the biochemical pathway by which Abeta can lead to neuronal dysfunction. Here we investigated the specific effects of Abeta on mitochondrial function ...
Osenbroch Pia Ø - - 2009
Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a complex, progressive disease that involves neurological and developmental impairment and premature aging. The majority of CS patients have mutations in the CSB gene. The CSB protein is involved in multiple DNA repair pathways and CSB mutated cells are sensitive to a broad spectrum of genotoxic ...
Yin Wu - - 2009
Na,K-ATPase is a ubiquitous transmembrane protein that regulates and maintains the intracellular Na(+) and K(+) gradient necessary for cell homeostasis. Recently, the importance of this pump in external stimuli-induced leukemia cell apoptosis has been increasingly appreciated, however, the exact role of Na,K-ATPase in mitochondrial apoptotic pathway still remains little understood. ...
< 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 >