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Results 301 - 350 of 1681
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Du Changbin C Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, - - 2009
Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is a nuclear encoded and mitochondria localized antioxidant enzyme that converts mitochondria derived superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. This study investigates the hypothesis that mitochondria derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate ionizing radiation (IR) induced transformation in normal cells. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with wild type SOD2 ...
Nilakantan Vani - - 2010
The role of mitochondrial K(ATP) (mitoK(ATP)) channels in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is controversial with studies showing both protective and deleterious effects. In this study, we compared the effects of the putative mitoK(ATP) opener, diazoxide, and the mitoK(ATP) blocker, 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) on cytotoxicity and apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells derived from ...
Kurtoglu Metin M Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy and Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1550 NW 10th Ave, PAP Bldg, Room# 115, Miami, FL 33136, - - 2010
Multiple myeloma (MM) cells continuously secrete large amounts of immunoglobulins that are folded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whose function depend on the Ca(2+) concentration inside its lumen. Recently, it was shown that the ER membrane leaks Ca(2+) that is captured and delivered back by mitochondria in order to prevent ...
Ronowska Anna - - 2010
Excessive accumulation of zinc in the brain is one of putative factors involved in pathomechanism of cholinergic encephalopathies. The aim of this work was to investigate whether short-term increase of zinc concentration in the extracellular space may affect energy and acetylcholine metabolism in SN56 cholinergic cells of septal origin. Short ...
Stonebloom Solomon - - 2009
Plants have intercellular channels, plasmodesmata (PD), that span the cell wall to enable cell-to-cell transport of micro- and macromolecules. We identified an Arabidopsis thaliana embryo lethal mutant increased size exclusion limit 1 (ise1) that results in increased PD-mediated transport of fluorescent tracers. The ise1 mutants have a higher frequency of ...
Prasad Surya Bali - - 2010
Cisplatin treatment of tumor-bearing mice and analysis of ultrastructural features of mitochondria in the kidney and Dalton's lymphoma cells showed the appearance of more roundish mitochondria with thickened membranes. It also caused the reduction in the number and irregularity in the shape of cristae and formation of vacuoles in the ...
Badisa Ramesh B - - 2010
Investigations with astroglial cells carry more prominence in drug abuse studies. However, due to earlier perception that astroglial cells were only passive bystanders in neural signal transmission, not many investigations were conducted on the toxicity of various abused drugs, like cocaine. The present study was aimed to discern the effect ...
Dolai Subhankar - - 2009
Ascorbate peroxidase from Leishmania major (LmAPX) is one of the key enzymes for scavenging of reactive oxygen species generated from the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We have investigated whether mitochondrial LmAPX has any role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. The measurement of reduced glutathione (GSH) and protein carbonyl contents in cellular homogenates ...
Jahani-Asl Arezu - - 2010
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that undergo constant cycles of fusion and fission. An additional level of regulation of mitochondrial function, which is particularly important in neurons, is their active transport along microtubules. Recent evidence suggests that the mitochondrial fusion/fission machinery as well as the molecular motors responsible for their ...
Quesada Arnulfo - - 2009
To assess potential efficacy of mechano growth factor (MGF) for chronic neurodegenerative disorders, we studied whether MGF protects dopamine (DA) neurons subjected to neurotoxic stress. We show that a short 24-amino acid C-terminal peptide of MGF (MGF24) upregulates heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and protects SH-SY5Y cells against apoptosis and cell ...
Linard Dominique - - 2009
Mitochondria are metabolically highly active cell organelles that are also implicated in reactive oxygen species production and in cell death regulation. Cyclophilin D, the only human mitochondrial isoform of cyclophilins, plays an essential role in the formation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore leading to cell necrosis. Recently, it has ...
Kabashima Yoshiki - - 2009
Corynebacterium glutamicum contains at least two terminal oxidases in the respiratory chain; cytochrome aa(3)-type cytochrome c oxidase and bd-type menaquinol oxidase. Thus, the chain has two branches of electron flow. The bcc-aa(3) branch translocates three protons per electron transferred, while the bd branch translocates only one. In this study, we ...
Wang Yueqi - - 2009
Results from tissue microarray in this study and our previous reports revealed that stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2) is notably associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. Many members of stomatin family are involved in tumor as mitochondrial component, and recent study has revealed that SLP-2 may also function in mitochondria. To further ...
Acsadi Gyula - - 2009
Mutations of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) lead to anterior horn cell death. The cause is unknown, but motor neurons depend substantially on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) for normal function. Therefore, mitochondrial parameters were analyzed in an SMA cell culture model using small interfering ...
Wiederkehr Andreas A Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University Medical Center, Geneva Switzerland. - - 2009
Recently, we have identified matrix pH as a key regulator of mitochondrial energy metabolism in the β-cell (Wiederkehr et al. EMBO J. (2009) 28(4):417-28). Under resting glucose conditions matrix pH in β-cell mitochondria is unusually low (pH 7.25). Following nutrient stimulation of rat islets matrix alkalinisation occurs raising matrix pH ...
Imamura Hiromi - - 2009
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy currency of cells and is involved in many cellular processes. However, there is no method for real-time monitoring of ATP levels inside individual living cells. To visualize ATP levels, we generated a series of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based indicators for ATP that ...
Cannino Giuseppe - - 2009
The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) a pollutant associated with several modern industrial processes, is absorbed in significant quantities from cigarette smoke, water, food and air contaminations. It is known to have numerous undesirable effects on health in both experimental animals and humans, targeting kidney, liver and vascular system. The molecular ...
Bi YuHua - - 2009
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic heavy metal that causes changes in plant metabolism through inhibiting photosynthesis and respiration. The effects of Cd on the morphology and function of the chloroplast and mitochondria, as well as on the production and localization of ROS (reactive oxygen species), were studied ...
Behera Millie A - - 2009
The effects of progesterone on breast epithelial cells remain poorly defined with observations showing both proliferative and antiproliferative effects. As an example, progesterone levels correlate with increased epithelial cell proliferation, but there is discordance between the dividing cells and the cells with nuclear progesterone receptor expression. The release of paracrine ...
Mao Li - - 2009
HMGA chromatin proteins, a family of gene regulatory factors found at only low concentrations in normal cells, are almost universally overexpressed in cancer cells. HMGA proteins are located in the nuclei of normal cells except during the late S/G(2) phases of the cell cycle, when HMGA1, one of the members ...
Sripriya Paranthaman - - 2009
Expression of a proteinaceous elicitor harpin(Pss,) encoded by hrpZ of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 61, under GAL1 promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y187 resulted in galactose-inducible yeast cell death (YCD). Extracellular treatment of harpin did not affect the growth of yeast. The observed YCD was independent of the stage of cell ...
Guescini Michele - - 2010
Cells can exchange information not only by means of chemical and/or electrical signals, but also via microvesicles released into the intercellular space. The present paper, for the first time, provides evidence that Glioblastoma and Astrocyte cells release microvesicles, which carry mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). These microvesicles have been characterised as exosomes ...
Kvetny Jan - - 2009
Background: Mitochondrial function may be impaired in a number of diseases including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and endocrine disorders. Therefore it is important to be able to measure mitochondrial function in human cells. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate a method to measure mitochondrial function in ...
Matsumoto Takumi - - 2009
Cancer cells often display defects in mitochondrial respiration, thus the identification of pathways that promote cell survival under this metabolic state may have therapeutic implications. Here, we report that the targeted ablation of mitochondrial respiration markedly increases expression of Polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2) and that it is required for the ...
Kita Toshiyuki - - 2009
Mitochondrial fusion and fission processes play a role in a variety of cell functions, including energy metabolism, cell differentiation and programmed cell death. Still, it is not clear how these processes contribute to the cell functions. Here, we investigated the role of mitochondrial remodelling on lipid metabolism in adipocytes. In ...
Jourdain Isabelle - - 2009
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo cycles of fission and fusion. In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, mitochondria align with microtubules and mitochondrial integrity is dependent upon an intact microtubule cytoskeleton. Here we show that mitochondria re-organize during the cell cycle and that this process is both dynamin- and microtubule-dependent. ...
Loiseau Dominique - - 2009
Cancer cells mainly rely on glycolysis for energetic needs, and mitochondrial ATP production is almost inactive. However, cancer cells require the integrity of mitochondrial functions for their survival, such as the maintenance of the internal membrane potential gradient (DeltaPsim). It thus may be predicted that DeltaPsim regeneration should depend on ...
Keeney Paula M - - 2009
Neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) affects mainly dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, where age-related, increasing percentages of cells lose detectable respiratory activity associated with depletion of intact mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Replenishment of mtDNA might improve neuronal bioenergetic function and prevent further cell death. We developed a technology ("ProtoFection") that ...
Baarine Mauhamad - - 2009
In some neurodegenerative disorders (leukodystrophies) characterized by myelin alterations, the defect of peroxisomal functions on myelin-producing cells (oligodendrocytes) are poorly understood. The development of in vitro models is fundamental to understanding the physiopathogenesis of these diseases. We characterized two immortalized murine oligodendrocyte cell lines: a normal (158N) and a jimpy ...
Villa Anna Maria - - 2009
The interaction of ethidium bromide (EB) with mitochondria in human breast and lung carcinoma cells was investigated under living conditions, employing a laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy (LSCFM) with a photon counting detection to reduce drastically the laser power excitation and the fluorescent probe concentration. In sensitive and multidrug-resistant MCF-7 ...
Quintanilla Rodrigo A RA Department of Anesthesiology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642-0002, - - 2009
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by a pathological expansion of CAG repeats within the gene encoding for a 350 kD protein called huntingtin. This polyglutamine expansion within huntingtin is the causative factor in the pathogenesis of HD, however the underlying mechanisms have not ...
Hettema Ewald H - - 2009
With every cell division, peroxisomes duplicate and are segregated between progeny cells. Here, we discuss the different modes of peroxisome multiplication and the machinery that is involved in each case. Peroxisomes have been considered by many to be peripheral to mainstream cell biology. However, this is changing in response to ...
Mitra Kasturi - - 2009
Mitochondria undergo fission-fusion events that render these organelles highly dynamic in cells. We report a relationship between mitochondrial form and cell cycle control at the G(1)-S boundary. Mitochondria convert from isolated, fragmented elements into a hyperfused, giant network at G(1)-S transition. The network is electrically continuous and has greater ATP ...
Yang Zhong-Hua - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of capsaicin (CAP) on proliferation of bladder cancer T24 cells in vitro as well as on xenografts in nude mice in vivo. METHODS: T24 cells were assessed for cell viability and apoptosis by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry analysis after incubation with ...
Lukandu Ochiba M - - 2009
Previous studies suggest the use of khat, a psychostimulant plant used by millions of people in Middle East and Africa, as risk factor for oral cancer. We previously reported that khat is able to induce adverse affects, as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, in normal human oral cells cultured in ...
Molina Anthony J A AJ Department of Molecular Medicine, Obesity Research Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, - - 2009
Previous studies have reported that beta-cell mitochondria exist as discrete organelles that exhibit heterogeneous bioenergetic capacity. To date, networking activity, and its role in mediating beta-cell mitochondrial morphology and function, remains unclear. In this article, we investigate beta-cell mitochondrial fusion and fission in detail and report alterations in response to ...
Galluzzi Lorenzo - - 2009
Acute neurological conditions such as cerebrovascular diseases and trauma are associated with irreversible loss of neurons and glial cells. Severe or prolonged injury results in uncontrollable cell death within the core of lesions. Conversely, cells that are less severely damaged succumb in a relatively slow fashion, frequently via the intrinsic ...
Ishihara Naotada - - 2009
Mitochondria play central roles in cell survival by producing energy, and in cell death by regulating apoptosis. Conversely, the life and death of mitochondria, including growth, fission, and autophagic degradation, is controlled by the host cell. Using yeast genetics, a mitochondrial surface receptor involved in mitochondrial autophagy has recently been ...
Cozzolino Mauro - - 2009
Increasing evidence indicates that the accumulation and aggregation of mutant Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (mutSOD1) in spinal cord mitochondria is implicated in the pathogenesis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). Although the mechanisms underlying this effect are only partially understood, a deficit in the import mechanism of mutSOD1 and/or in its ...
Lynch John J Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105-3678, - - 2009
The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB6 localizes to the mitochondria, where it imports porphyrins and up-regulates de novo porphyrin synthesis. If ABCB6 also increases the intracellular heme concentration, it may broadly affect the regulation and physiology of cellular hemoproteins. We tested whether the ability of ABCB6 to accelerate de novo ...
Glushakova Lyudmyla G LG Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, College of Medicine, University of Florida, FL, - - 2009
Most cancers rely disproportionately on glycolysis for energy even in the presence of adequate oxygen supply, a condition known as "aerobic glycolysis", or the Warburg effect. Pharmacological reversal of the Warburg effect has been shown to cause selective apoptosis of tumor cells, presumably by stimulating mitochondrial respiratory chain activity and ...
Li Ning - - 2009
Transient exposure of beta-cells to oxidative stress interrupts the transduction of signals normally coupling glucose metabolism to insulin secretion. We investigated putative persistence of effects induced by one transient oxidative stress (200 microm H(2)O(2), 10 min) on insulin secreting cells following recovery periods of days and weeks. Three days after ...
Gorman Sheeona - - 2009
The bridge breakage fusion cycle is a chromosomal instability mechanism responsible for genomic changes. Radiation bystander effects induce genomic instability; however, the mechanism driving this instability is unknown. We examined if radiation and chemotherapy bystander effects induce early genomic instability events such as telomere shortening and bridge formation using a ...
Moiseeva Olga - - 2009
The expression of oncogenic ras in normal human cells quickly induces an aberrant proliferation response that later is curtailed by a cell cycle arrest known as cellular senescence. Here, we show that cells expressing oncogenic ras display an increase in the mitochondrial mass, the mitochondrial DNA, and the mitochondrial production ...
Li Yufeng - - 2009
It has been reported that mitochondria-independent or mitochondria-dependent (type I/II) Fas signaling pathways in leukemia cells depend on the amount of active caspase-8. However, Bid molecules, which could not be cleaved in type I cells, could be effectively cleaved by recombinant active caspase-8 in vitro. The cleavage of recombinant Bid ...
González Raúl - - 2009
D-Galactosamine (D-GalN) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cell death in cultured hepatocytes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the cytoprotective properties of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), coenzyme Q(10) (Q(10)) and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic against the mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in D-GalN-treated hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated ...
Jeng Jaan-Yeh - - 2009
Linoleic acid (LA) improves insulin resistance and prevents diabetes. To investigate whether linoleic acid could protect against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced cell death, rat RIN-m5F cells were exposed to STZ. SL and SO groups consisted of cells treated with STZ and then LA or oleic acid (OA) respectively. STZ treatment decreased the ...
Curbo Sophie - - 2009
The nucleoside analogs 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosylguanine (araG) and 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylthymine (araT) are substrates of mitochondrial nucleoside kinases and have previously been shown to be predominantly incorporated into mtDNA of cells, but the pharmacological importance of their accumulation in mtDNA is not known. Here, we examined the role of mtDNA in the response to ...
Tian Tao - - 2009
Renal damage caused by cold preservation and warm reperfusion has been well documented and involves tissue edema, cell swelling, ATP depletion, calcium toxicity, and oxidative stress. However, more common proximal mechanisms have not been identified, which may limit the development of effective clinical treatment strategies. Previous work indicates that many ...
Zunino Rodolfo - - 2009
The mechanisms that ensure an equal inheritance of cellular organelles during mitosis are an important area of study in cell biology. For the mitochondria fragment during mitosis, however, the cellular links that signal these changes are largely unknown. We recently identified a SUMO protease, SenP5, that deSUMOylates a number of ...
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