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Results 301 - 350 of 1632
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Zunino Rodolfo - - 2009
The mechanisms that ensure an equal inheritance of cellular organelles during mitosis are an important area of study in cell biology. For the mitochondria fragment during mitosis, however, the cellular links that signal these changes are largely unknown. We recently identified a SUMO protease, SenP5, that deSUMOylates a number of ...
Lemire J - - 2009
Although aluminum (Al), a known environmental toxin, has been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders, the molecular mechanism responsible for these conditions is not fully understood. In this report, we demonstrate the ability of Al to trigger mitochondrial dysfunction and ineffective adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. This situation severely affected ...
Chang C-J - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction to chemoresistance and migration of hepatoma cells. We found that inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion resulted in induction of amphiregulin (AR) expression in HepG2 cells. Upon oligomycin treatment of HepG2 cells, the cytosolic ...
Seppet Enn - - 2009
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of almost all diseases. Acquired or inherited mutations of the mitochondrial genome DNA may give rise to mitochondrial diseases. Another class of disorders, in which mitochondrial impairments are initiated by extramitochondrial factors, includes neurodegenerative diseases and syndromes resulting from typical pathological processes, such as hypoxia/ischemia, ...
Epperly Michael W - - 2009
To determine whether increased mitochondrially localized catalase was radioprotective, a human catalase transgene was cloned into a small pSVZeo plasmid and localized to the mitochondria of 32D cl 3 cells by adding the mitochondrial localization sequence of MnSOD (mt-catalase). The cell lines 32D-Cat and 32D-mt-Cat had increased catalase biochemical activity ...
Cloos Carla R - - 2009
We hypothesized that mitochondrial function regulates cell cycle checkpoint activation and radiosensitivity. Human pancreatic tumor cells (MiaPaCa-2, rho(+)) were depleted of mitochondrial DNA (rho degrees ) by culturing cells in the presence of ethidium bromide. Depletion of mitochondrial DNA was verified by PCR amplification of total DNA using primer pairs ...
Benard Giovanni - - 2009
Discovery of various molecular components regulating dynamics and organization of the mitochondria in cells, together with novel insights into the role of mitochondrial fusion and division in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, have provided some of the most exciting breakthroughs in the last decade of mitochondrial research. The focus of ...
Dassa Emmanuel P - - 2009
In plants as well as in a number of micro-organisms, and in several animal phyla, but not in mammals, the alternative oxidase (AOX) possibly by-passes the cytochrome segment of the respiratory chain. The AOX is located at the inner surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane, being activated by over-reduction of ...
Shkil Halyna - - 2009
In general, L-lactate respiration is difficult to detect in living yeast cells due to the small activity of L-lactate oxidizing enzymes within the mitochondria. Genetically modified cells of methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha overproducing L-lactate:cytochrome c-oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.2.3, also known as flavocytochrome b(2), FC b(2)) were physically immobilized by means of ...
Xiao Dong - - 2009
Present study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of cellular responses to D,L-sulforaphane (SFN), a highly promising cancer chemopreventive agent. Mitochondrial DNA deficient Rho-0 variants of LNCaP and PC-3 cells were generated by culture in the presence of ethidium bromide. Apoptosis was assessed by analysis of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation ...
Diogo Cátia V - - 2009
Daphnetoxin is a daphnane type orthoester diterpene found exclusively in plants of the family Thymelaeaceae while daphnoretin, a bis-coumarin derivative that is the major constituent of the bark of some plants of this family, can also be found in Leguminosae and Rutaceae. These two compounds are recognized to have different ...
Rhein V - - 2009
Evidence suggests that amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it has been recently proposed that mitochondria are involved in the biochemical pathway by which Abeta can lead to neuronal dysfunction. Here we investigated the specific effects of Abeta on mitochondrial function ...
Osenbroch Pia Ø - - 2009
Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a complex, progressive disease that involves neurological and developmental impairment and premature aging. The majority of CS patients have mutations in the CSB gene. The CSB protein is involved in multiple DNA repair pathways and CSB mutated cells are sensitive to a broad spectrum of genotoxic ...
Yin Wu - - 2009
Na,K-ATPase is a ubiquitous transmembrane protein that regulates and maintains the intracellular Na(+) and K(+) gradient necessary for cell homeostasis. Recently, the importance of this pump in external stimuli-induced leukemia cell apoptosis has been increasingly appreciated, however, the exact role of Na,K-ATPase in mitochondrial apoptotic pathway still remains little understood. ...
Facucho-Oliveira J M - - 2009
Pluripotent blastomeres of mammalian pre-implantation embryos and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are characterized by limited oxidative capacity and great reliance on anaerobic respiration. Early pre-implantation embryos and undifferentiated ESCs possess small and immature mitochondria located around the nucleus, have low oxygen consumption and express high levels of glycolytic enzymes. However, ...
Dumas Jean François - - 2009
To study the effect of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) opening on NAD(P)H localization, intact cells were exposed to the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187. PTP opening, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial volume, and NAD(P)H localization were assessed by time-lapse laser confocal microscopy using the calcein-cobalt technique, tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester, MitoTracker, and NAD(P)H ...
Monge Claire - - 2009
Comparative analysis of the bioenergetic parameters of adult rat cardiomyocytes (CM) and HL-1 cells with very different structure but similar cardiac phenotype was carried out with the aim of revealing the importance of the cell structure for regulation of its energy fluxes. Confocal microscopic analysis showed very different mitochondrial arrangement ...
Melo Patricia S - - 2009
Violacein is a compound obtained from Chromobacterium violaceum, a bacterium found in the Amazonian region. Violacein-loaded poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles has a similar inhibitory effect evaluated by trypan blue assay on leukemic HL60 cells than the free form. However, the cytotoxic effects evaluated by phosphatase activity and MTT reduction assays ...
Shi Honghui - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To investigate somatic mitochondrial DNA mutation in primary and recurrent ovarian carcinoma tissues as well as that in drug-resistant cell lines to illuminate the impact of chemotherapeutic drugs on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). METHODS: Complete mtDNA genomes of 20 pairs of ovarian carcinomas and their matched normal tissues together with ...
Dassa Emmanuel P - - 2009
Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical conditions, ranging from early onset devastating encephalomyopathy and cardiomyopathy, to neurological diseases in adulthood and in the elderly. No method of compensating successfully for COX deficiency has been reported so far. In vitro, COX-deficient human cells require ...
Kuznetsov Andrey V - - 2009
Beyond their fundamental role in energy metabolism, mitochondria perform a great variety of other important cellular functions. However, the interplay among these various roles of mitochondria is still poorly understood, and the underlying mechanisms can be related to system level properties. Importantly, mitochondria localized in different regions of a cell ...
Ha Sang Won - - 2009
Functional defects in mitochondria are involved in the induction of cell death in cancer cells. We assessed the toxic effect of camptothecin against the human cervical and uterine tumor cell line SiHa with respect to the mitochondria-mediated cell death process, and examined the combined effect of camptothecin and anticancer drugs. ...
Kuznetsov Andrey V - - 2009
Recent advances in mitochondrial imaging have revealed that in many cells mitochondria can be highly dynamic. They can undergo fission/fusion processes modulated by various mitochondria-associated proteins and also by conformational transitions in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Moreover, precise mitochondrial distribution can be achieved by their movement along the cytoskeleton, recruiting ...
Fiorani Mara - - 2010
Quercetin uptake in Jurkat cells is extremely rapid and associated with a remarkable accumulation of the flavonoid, dependent on its binding to intracellular components. Cell-associated quercetin is biologically active, quantitatively consumed to promote survival in the presence of reactive species, such as peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), or reduction of extracellular oxidants via ...
Duan S - - 2009
Intermediate filaments (IFs) provide crucial structural support in higher eukaryotic cells. Accumulating evidences show that IFs also participate in various cellular activities including stress responses, cell growth, cell death and cell migration through dynamic interactions with various non-structure proteins. Here we report the identification of Pirh2, a RING-H2-type ubiquitin E3 ...
Woo Dong Kyun - - 2009
The absence of mtDNA in rho0 yeast cells affects both respiration and mitochondrial-nuclear communication (e.g., retrograde regulation, intergenomic signaling, or pleiotropic drug resistance). Previously, it has been reported that some rho0 strains have increased replicative lifespans, attributable to the lack of respiration and retrograde regulation. Here, we have been able ...
Chen Zhao - - 2009
It has long been observed that cancer cells rely more on glycolysis to generate ATP and actively use certain glycolytic metabolic intermediates for biosynthesis. Hexokinase II (HKII) is a key glycolytic enzyme that plays a role in the regulation of the mitochondria-initiated apoptotic cell death. As a potent inhibitor of ...
Pelicano Helene - - 2009
Although mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress have long been observed in cancer cells, their role in promoting malignant cell behavior remains unclear. Here, we show that perturbation of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in breast cancer cells leads to a generation of subclones of cells with increased ROS, ...
Paris Irmgard - - 2009
Parkinsonism is one of the major neurological symptoms in Wilson disease, and young workers who worked in the copper smelting industry also developed Parkinsonism. We have reported the specific neurotoxic action of copper dopamine complex in neurons with dopamine uptake. Copper dopamine complex (100 microm) induces cell death in RCSN-3 ...
Campanella Michelangelo M Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, UK. - - 2009
The protein IF1 limits mitochondrial ATP consumption when mitochondrial respiration is impaired by inhibiting the 'reverse' activity of the F(1)F(o)-ATPsynthase. We have found that IF1 also increases F(1)F(o)-ATPsynthase activity in respiring mitochondria, promoting its dimerization and increasing the density of mitochondrial cristae. We also noted that IF1 overexpression was associated ...
Aon M A MA Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, 720 Rutland Ave., 1059 Ross Bldg., Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. - - 2009
The reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent mitochondrial oscillator described in cardiac cells exhibits at least two modes of function under physiological conditions or in response to metabolic and oxidative stress. Both modes depend upon network behavior of mitochondria. Under physiological conditions cardiac mitochondria behave as a network of coupled oscillators with ...
Seguí-Simarro José M - - 2009
Plant mitochondria are typically portrayed as being small, oval organelles. However, a recent study has demonstrated that the chondriome of shoot apical meristem (SAM) cells of Arabidopsis thaliana is unique in having two types of mitochondria, a large, central, tentaculate mitochondrion and variable numbers of small, oval mitochondria in the ...
Prabhakaran Krishnan - - 2009
The central nervous system (CNS) appears to be the critical target of manganese (Mn), and neurotoxicity has been the focus of most of the health effects of manganese. In brain, the mechanism underlying the Mn-induced cell death is not clear. We have previously demonstrated that NFkappabeta induction and the activation ...
Mi Na - - 2009
Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a potential cancer therapy based on the synergistic interactions of ultrasound and certain chemical compounds (sono-sensitizers). It has become evident that the direct sonochemical and subsequent redox reactions induced by SDT treatment can lead to apoptotic cell death. However, the detailed mechanisms are not well understood. ...
Kim Doo Eung - - 2009
Defects in mitochondrial function participate in the induction of neuronal cell injury. In neurodegenerative conditions, oxidative products of cholesterol are elevated and oxysterols seem to be implicated in neuronal cell death. The present work was designed to study the inhibitory effect of licorice compounds glycyrrhizin and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid against the ...
Kulkarni Rohan - - 2009
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an important contributor to the ATP-generating oxidative phosphorylation complex. Single nucleotide mutations in mitochondrial genes involved in ATP synthesis result in a broad range of diseases. Leber optic atrophy and Leigh's syndrome are two such diseases arising from point mutations in the mitochondrial genome. Here, ionizing ...
Sierra-Campos E - - 2009
The effects of octyl gallate on Ustilago maydis yeast cells were analysed in relation to its capacity to oxidize compounds (pro-oxidant actions). All phenolic compounds tested inhibited the alternative oxidase (AOX). However, only octyl gallate induced a morphological change in yeast cells and collapsed the mitochondrial membrane potential. In contrast ...
Wiederkehr Andreas - - 2009
Nutrient secretagogues activate mitochondria of the pancreatic beta-cell through the provision of substrate, hyperpolarisation of the inner mitochondrial membrane and mitochondrial calcium rises. We report that mitochondrial matrix pH, a parameter not previously studied in the beta-cell, also exerts an important control function in mitochondrial metabolism. During nutrient stimulation matrix ...
Govindarajan Rajgopal - - 2009
Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-3 (hENT3) was recently reported as a pH-dependent, intracellular (lysosomal) transporter capable of transporting anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dideoxynucleosides (ddNs). Because most anti-HIV ddNs (e.g., zidovudine, AZT) exhibit clinical mitochondrial toxicity, we investigated whether hENT3 facilitates transport of anti-HIV ddNs into the mitochondria. Cellular fractionation and immunofluorescence ...
Zhao Wenping - - 2009
Aspirin is chemopreventive against colon and probably other cancers, but this effect is relatively weak and its chronic administration to humans is associated with significant side effects. Because of these limitations, extensive effort has been exerted to improve the pharmacological properties of aspirin. We have determined the anticancer activity and ...
Panickar Kiran S - - 2009
Astrocyte swelling is an integral component of cytotoxic brain edema in ischemic injury. While mechanisms underlying astrocyte swelling are likely multifactorial, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are hypothesized to contribute to such swelling. We investigated the protective effects of cinnamon polyphenol extract (CPE) that has anti-oxidant and insulin-potentiating effects on ...
Toorn, Marco van der
In this thesis we studied the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in epithelial cells and discussed the potential of these phenomena in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). In the first three chapters we demonstrated that CS disturbs mitochondrial function, increase reactive ...
Santandreu Francisca M - - 2009
Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) and uncoupling protein-5 (UCP5) are ion carriers located in the inner mitochondrial membrane that mediate a regulated discharge of the proton gradient generated by the respiratory chain and are possibly involved in the protection against free radical production. Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of colon ...
Zhang Lingrui - - 2009
Heat shock transcription factor A2 (HsfA2) participates in multiple stress responses. To provide new insights into the role of HsfA2 in the heat stress (HS) response, in vivo production and localization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dynamics were investigated during the onset of cell death induced by an ...
Chang Yuh-Fang - - 2009
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer mortality in Asia. This study evaluated the growth inhibition effect of quercetin and 2-methoxyestradiol in vitro in human HCC cell lines. Combination treatment enhanced the cytotoxic effect in HA22T/VGH and HepG2 cell lines as compared with quercetin or 2-methoxyestradiol alone. The ...
Li Qin - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence has shown that menthol has potent anticancer activity in various human cancers via the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8)-dependent pathway or in a TRPM8-independent manner. However, its effect on bladder cancer remains obscure. In the present investigation, we examined the expression of TRPM8 and the role ...
Seyedabadi M - - 2009
Tamoxifen causes a mitochondrial transmembrane potential dysfunction and ATP depletion, which may play a role in tamoxifen cytotoxicity. Administration of oligomycin-2 deoxy glucose (2DG) enhanced tamoxifen antiproliferative effects, which may be due to exacerbated ATP depletion following tamoxifen and oligomycin-2DG coadministration. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) did not significantly change tamoxifen responsiveness ...
Kvetny Jan - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial function may be impaired in a number of diseases including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and endocrine disorders. Therefore it is important to be able to measure mitochondrial function in human cells. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate a method to measure mitochondrial function in ...
Hamer Isabelle - - 2009
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) mutations that impair oxidative phosphorylation can contribute to carcinogenesis through the increased production of reactive oxygen species and through the release of proteins involved in cell motility and invasion. On the other hand, many human cancers are associated with both the up-regulation and the increased ...
Calmels Nadège - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological high-throughput screening (HTS) represents a powerful strategy for drug discovery in genetic diseases, particularly when the full spectrum of pathological dysfunctions remains unclear, such as in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA). FRDA, the most common recessive ataxia, results from a generalized deficiency of mitochondrial and cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) proteins ...
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