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Results 251 - 300 of 1655
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Rasola Andrea - - 2010
We studied human cancer cell models in which we detected constitutive activation of ERK. A fraction of active ERK was found to be located in mitochondria in RWPE-2 cells, obtained by v-Ki-Ras transformation of the epithelial prostate RWPE-1 cell line; in metastatic prostate cancer DU145 cells; and in osteosarcoma SAOS-2 ...
Mart?nez-Abundis E - - 2010
Although alpha-mangostin prevents from toxicity associated to oxidative stress, it also promotes apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. Such effects have been associated with mitochondrial membrane depolarization and cytochrome c release. Therefore, the aim of this work was to analyze the potentially harmful effect of this natural compound on relevant ...
Zhang Linxia L Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, - - 2010
Saturated free fatty acids (FFAs), e.g. palmitate, have long been shown to induce toxicity and cell death in various types of cells. In this study, we demonstrate that cAMP synergistically amplifies the effect of palmitate on the induction of cell death in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2 cells. Elevation ...
Westermann Benedikt - - 2010
Mitochondrial fusion and fission are important for a great variety of cellular functions, including energy metabolism, development, aging and cell death. Many of the core components mediating mitochondrial dynamics in human cells have been first identified and mechanistically analyzed in model organisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila ...
VoboĊ™ilová Jana J Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Ruská 87, 10000, Prague 10, Czech - - 2011
The aim of this study is to compare the effects of new fluorinated taxanes SB-T-12851, SB-T-12852, SB-T-12853, and SB-T-12854 with those of the classical taxane paclitaxel and novel non-fluorinated taxane SB-T-1216 on cancer cells. Paclitaxel-sensitive MDA-MB-435 and paclitaxel-resistant NCI/ADR-RES human cancer cell lines were used. Cell growth and survival evaluation, ...
Malouitre Sylvanie - - 2010
CsA (cyclosporin A) is a hydrophobic undecapeptide that inhibits CyPs (cyclophilins), a family of PPIases (peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerases). In some experimental models, CsA offers partial protection against lethal cell injury brought about by transient ischaemia; this is believed to reflect inhibition of CyP-D, a mitochondrial isoform that facilitates formation of ...
Takeda Kumiko - - 2010
Microinjection of isolated mitochondria into oocytes is an effective method to introduce exogenous mitochondrial DNA. In nuclear transfer procedures in which donor cell mitochondria are transferred with nuclei into recipient oocytes; development and survival rates of reconstructed embryos may be also directly influenced by mitochondrial viability. Mitochondrial viability is dramatically ...
Takanashi Hideki - - 2010
In plant vegetative cells, mitochondria are usually small and grain-shaped. In contrast, unusually shaped giant mitochondria (large cup-shaped or long stretched-rod-shaped) appear in the egg cells of geranium, maize, Ipomoea nil, and bracken. In this study, to characterize egg cell mitochondria in rice, we used nonenzymatic manual dissection to isolate ...
Cao Liqin - - 2009
In mammals, observations of rapid shifts in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants between generations have led to the creation of the bottleneck theory for the transmission of mtDNA. The bottleneck could be attributed to a marked decline of mtDNA content in germ cells giving rise to the next generation, to a ...
Dayal Disha D Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, - - 2009
Ionizing radiation induces chronic metabolic oxidative stress and a mutator phenotype in hamster fibroblasts that is mediated by H(2)O(2), but the intracellular source of H(2)O(2) is not well defined. To determine the role of mitochondria in the radiation-induced mutator phenotype, end points of mitochondrial function were determined in unstable (CS-9 ...
Echave Pedro P MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, The Cancer Institute, University College London, London, - - 2009
Cells generate new organelles when stimulated by extracellular factors to grow and divide; however, little is known about how growth and mitogenic signalling pathways regulate organelle biogenesis. Using mitochondria as a model organelle, we have investigated this problem in primary Schwann cells, for which distinct factors act solely as mitogens ...
Renner Christof - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: Recently, it was revealed that carnosine inhibits growth of cells isolated from human malignant glioma. In order to understand how this effect is mediated, experiments were performed that addressed a possible influence of carnosine on energy metabolism. METHODS: Cells from the glioma line T98G and primary cultured cells from ...
Callegari Sylvie - - 2010
Statins, used to treat hypercholesterolemia, are one of the most frequently prescribed drug classes in the developed world. However, a significant proportion of users suffer symptoms of myotoxicity, and currently, the molecular mechanisms underlying myotoxicity remain ambiguous. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was exploited as a model system to gain ...
Deng Jhu-Yun - - 2009
Dehydroeburicoic acid (DeEA) is a triterpene purified from medicinal fungi such as Antrodia camphorate, the crude extract of which is known to exert cytotoxic effects against several types of cancer cells. We aim to test the hypothesis that DeEA possesses significant cytotoxic effects against glioblastomas, one of the most frequent ...
Chang Sung-Eun - - 2009
The characterization of progenitor/keratinocyte stem cells (KSC) remains an unachieved goal. A previous study showed that rapid adhering cells to collagen IV had the characteristics of putative progenitor/KSCs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic expression of rapid adhering cells compared to non adhering cells to determine ...
D'Eletto Manuela M Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, - - 2009
Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins and organelles. Autophagy occurs at low levels under normal conditions, but it is enhanced in response to stress, e.g. nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, mitochondrial dysfunction and infection. "Tissue" transglutaminase (TG2) accumulates, both in vivo and in vitro, ...
Kubota Chisato - - 2010
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in several cell death processes, including cerebral ischemic injury. We found that glutamate-induced ROS accumulation and the associated cell death in mouse hippocampal cell lines were delayed by pharmacological inhibition of autophagy or lysosomal activity. Glutamate, however, did not stimulate autophagy, which was assessed ...
Arciello Mario - - 2010
The copper-enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (Cytox) has been indicated as a primary molecular target of mutant copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS); however, the mechanism underlying its inactivation is still unclear. As the toxicity of mutant SOD1s could arise from their selective recruitment to mitochondria, ...
Koczor Christopher A - - 2009
Previous work from our laboratory has focused on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) repair and cellular viability. However, other events occur prior to the initiation of apoptosis in cells. Because of the importance of mtDNA in ATP production and of ATP in fuel cell cycle progression, we asked whether mtDNA damage was ...
Petrussa Elisa - - 2009
The present work reports changes in bioenergetic parameters and mitochondrial activities during the manifestation of two events of programmed cell death (PCD), linked to Abies alba somatic embryogenesis. PCD, evidenced by in situ nuclear DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay), DNA laddering and cytochrome c release, was decreased in maturing embryogenic tissue ...
Seo Young-Woo - - 2009
DNA damage stabilizes the p53 tumor suppressor protein that determines the cell fate by either cell cycle arrest or cell death induction. Noxa, the BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein, was shown to be a key player in p53-induced cell death through the mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the molecular mechanism by which Noxa ...
García-Rodríguez Luis J LJ Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, - - 2009
Mitochondrial inheritance, the transfer of mitochondria from mother to daughter cell during cell division, is essential for daughter cell viability. The mitochore, a mitochondrial protein complex containing Mdm10p, Mdm12p, and Mmm1p, is required for mitochondrial motility leading to inheritance in budding yeast. We observe a defect in cytokinesis in mitochore ...
Keeney Paula M PM Morris K. Udall Parkinson's Research Center of Excellence, University of Virginia, PO Box 800394, Charlottesville, VA 22908, - - 2009
Sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD) is a nervous system-wide disease that presents with a bradykinetic movement disorder and frequently progresses to include depression and cognitive impairment. Cybrid models of sPD are based on expression of sPD platelet mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in neural cells and demonstrate some similarities to sPD brains. In ...
Brooks George A - - 2009
Once thought to be the consequence of oxygen lack in contracting skeletal muscle, the glycolytic product lactate is formed and utilized continuously in diverse cells under fully aerobic conditions. 'Cell-cell' and 'intracellular lactate shuttle' concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as ...
Du Changbin C Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, - - 2009
Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is a nuclear encoded and mitochondria localized antioxidant enzyme that converts mitochondria derived superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. This study investigates the hypothesis that mitochondria derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate ionizing radiation (IR) induced transformation in normal cells. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with wild type SOD2 ...
Nilakantan Vani - - 2010
The role of mitochondrial K(ATP) (mitoK(ATP)) channels in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury is controversial with studies showing both protective and deleterious effects. In this study, we compared the effects of the putative mitoK(ATP) opener, diazoxide, and the mitoK(ATP) blocker, 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) on cytotoxicity and apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells derived from ...
Kurtoglu Metin M Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy and Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1550 NW 10th Ave, PAP Bldg, Room# 115, Miami, FL 33136, - - 2010
Multiple myeloma (MM) cells continuously secrete large amounts of immunoglobulins that are folded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whose function depend on the Ca(2+) concentration inside its lumen. Recently, it was shown that the ER membrane leaks Ca(2+) that is captured and delivered back by mitochondria in order to prevent ...
Ronowska Anna - - 2010
Excessive accumulation of zinc in the brain is one of putative factors involved in pathomechanism of cholinergic encephalopathies. The aim of this work was to investigate whether short-term increase of zinc concentration in the extracellular space may affect energy and acetylcholine metabolism in SN56 cholinergic cells of septal origin. Short ...
Stonebloom Solomon - - 2009
Plants have intercellular channels, plasmodesmata (PD), that span the cell wall to enable cell-to-cell transport of micro- and macromolecules. We identified an Arabidopsis thaliana embryo lethal mutant increased size exclusion limit 1 (ise1) that results in increased PD-mediated transport of fluorescent tracers. The ise1 mutants have a higher frequency of ...
Prasad Surya Bali - - 2010
Cisplatin treatment of tumor-bearing mice and analysis of ultrastructural features of mitochondria in the kidney and Dalton's lymphoma cells showed the appearance of more roundish mitochondria with thickened membranes. It also caused the reduction in the number and irregularity in the shape of cristae and formation of vacuoles in the ...
Badisa Ramesh B - - 2010
Investigations with astroglial cells carry more prominence in drug abuse studies. However, due to earlier perception that astroglial cells were only passive bystanders in neural signal transmission, not many investigations were conducted on the toxicity of various abused drugs, like cocaine. The present study was aimed to discern the effect ...
Dolai Subhankar - - 2009
Ascorbate peroxidase from Leishmania major (LmAPX) is one of the key enzymes for scavenging of reactive oxygen species generated from the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We have investigated whether mitochondrial LmAPX has any role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. The measurement of reduced glutathione (GSH) and protein carbonyl contents in cellular homogenates ...
Jahani-Asl Arezu - - 2010
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that undergo constant cycles of fusion and fission. An additional level of regulation of mitochondrial function, which is particularly important in neurons, is their active transport along microtubules. Recent evidence suggests that the mitochondrial fusion/fission machinery as well as the molecular motors responsible for their ...
Quesada Arnulfo - - 2009
To assess potential efficacy of mechano growth factor (MGF) for chronic neurodegenerative disorders, we studied whether MGF protects dopamine (DA) neurons subjected to neurotoxic stress. We show that a short 24-amino acid C-terminal peptide of MGF (MGF24) upregulates heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and protects SH-SY5Y cells against apoptosis and cell ...
Linard Dominique - - 2009
Mitochondria are metabolically highly active cell organelles that are also implicated in reactive oxygen species production and in cell death regulation. Cyclophilin D, the only human mitochondrial isoform of cyclophilins, plays an essential role in the formation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore leading to cell necrosis. Recently, it has ...
Kabashima Yoshiki - - 2009
Corynebacterium glutamicum contains at least two terminal oxidases in the respiratory chain; cytochrome aa(3)-type cytochrome c oxidase and bd-type menaquinol oxidase. Thus, the chain has two branches of electron flow. The bcc-aa(3) branch translocates three protons per electron transferred, while the bd branch translocates only one. In this study, we ...
Wang Yueqi - - 2009
Results from tissue microarray in this study and our previous reports revealed that stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2) is notably associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. Many members of stomatin family are involved in tumor as mitochondrial component, and recent study has revealed that SLP-2 may also function in mitochondria. To further ...
Wiederkehr Andreas - - 2009
Recently, we have identified matrix pH as a key regulator of mitochondrial energy metabolism in the β-cell (Wiederkehr et al. EMBO J. (2009) 28(4):417-28). Under resting glucose conditions matrix pH in β-cell mitochondria is unusually low (pH 7.25). Following nutrient stimulation of rat islets matrix alkalinisation occurs raising matrix pH ...
Acsadi Gyula - - 2009
Mutations of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) lead to anterior horn cell death. The cause is unknown, but motor neurons depend substantially on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) for normal function. Therefore, mitochondrial parameters were analyzed in an SMA cell culture model using small interfering ...
Imamura Hiromi - - 2009
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the major energy currency of cells and is involved in many cellular processes. However, there is no method for real-time monitoring of ATP levels inside individual living cells. To visualize ATP levels, we generated a series of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based indicators for ATP that ...
Cannino Giuseppe - - 2009
The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) a pollutant associated with several modern industrial processes, is absorbed in significant quantities from cigarette smoke, water, food and air contaminations. It is known to have numerous undesirable effects on health in both experimental animals and humans, targeting kidney, liver and vascular system. The molecular ...
Bi YuHua - - 2009
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic heavy metal that causes changes in plant metabolism through inhibiting photosynthesis and respiration. The effects of Cd on the morphology and function of the chloroplast and mitochondria, as well as on the production and localization of ROS (reactive oxygen species), were studied ...
Behera Millie A - - 2009
The effects of progesterone on breast epithelial cells remain poorly defined with observations showing both proliferative and antiproliferative effects. As an example, progesterone levels correlate with increased epithelial cell proliferation, but there is discordance between the dividing cells and the cells with nuclear progesterone receptor expression. The release of paracrine ...
Mao Li - - 2009
HMGA chromatin proteins, a family of gene regulatory factors found at only low concentrations in normal cells, are almost universally overexpressed in cancer cells. HMGA proteins are located in the nuclei of normal cells except during the late S/G(2) phases of the cell cycle, when HMGA1, one of the members ...
Sripriya Paranthaman - - 2009
Expression of a proteinaceous elicitor harpin(Pss,) encoded by hrpZ of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 61, under GAL1 promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y187 resulted in galactose-inducible yeast cell death (YCD). Extracellular treatment of harpin did not affect the growth of yeast. The observed YCD was independent of the stage of cell ...
Guescini Michele - - 2010
Cells can exchange information not only by means of chemical and/or electrical signals, but also via microvesicles released into the intercellular space. The present paper, for the first time, provides evidence that Glioblastoma and Astrocyte cells release microvesicles, which carry mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). These microvesicles have been characterised as exosomes ...
Kvetny Jan - - 2009
Background: Mitochondrial function may be impaired in a number of diseases including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and endocrine disorders. Therefore it is important to be able to measure mitochondrial function in human cells. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate a method to measure mitochondrial function in ...
Matsumoto Takumi - - 2009
Cancer cells often display defects in mitochondrial respiration, thus the identification of pathways that promote cell survival under this metabolic state may have therapeutic implications. Here, we report that the targeted ablation of mitochondrial respiration markedly increases expression of Polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2) and that it is required for the ...
Kita Toshiyuki - - 2009
Mitochondrial fusion and fission processes play a role in a variety of cell functions, including energy metabolism, cell differentiation and programmed cell death. Still, it is not clear how these processes contribute to the cell functions. Here, we investigated the role of mitochondrial remodelling on lipid metabolism in adipocytes. In ...
Jourdain Isabelle - - 2009
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo cycles of fission and fusion. In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, mitochondria align with microtubules and mitochondrial integrity is dependent upon an intact microtubule cytoskeleton. Here we show that mitochondria re-organize during the cell cycle and that this process is both dynamin- and microtubule-dependent. ...
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