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Results 201 - 250 of 1632
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Fukui Masayuki - - 2010
Oxidative cell death is an important contributing factor in neurodegenerative diseases. Using HT22 mouse hippocampal neuronal cells as a model, we sought to demonstrate that mitochondria are crucial early targets of glutamate-induced oxidative cell death. We show that when HT22 cells were transfected with shRNA for knockdown of the mitochondrial ...
Kieper Nicole - - 2010
Loss of Omi/HtrA2 function leads to nerve cell loss in mouse models and has been linked to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. Omi/HtrA2 is a serine protease released as a pro-apoptotic factor from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the cytosol. Under physiological conditions, Omi/HtrA2 is thought to be involved ...
Agudo-L?pez Alba - - 2010
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been demonstrated to be an important regulator of cell death and survival. Although it has been suggested that the sphingolipid may act as a neuroprotector in the cell apoptosis induced by traumatic brain injury, the mechanisms involved in this action are unknown. In this study, the relationship ...
Whyte Donna A - - 2010
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The primary cannabinoids, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and Delta(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(8)-THC) are known to disturb the mitochondrial function and possess antitumor activities. These observations prompted us to investigate their effects on the mitochondrial O(2) consumption in human oral cancer cells (Tu183). This epithelial cell line overexpresses bcl-2 and is highly ...
Wong Judy Wei-Yan - - 2010
Antiquitin is an aldehyde dehydrogenase involved in the catabolism of lysine. Mutations of antiquitin have been linked with the disease pyridoxine-dependent seizures. While it is well established that lysine metabolism takes place in the mitochondrial matrix, evidence for the mitochondrial localization of antiquitin has been lacking. In the present study, ...
Jahnke Vanessa E - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria can sense signals linked to variations in energy demand to regulate nuclear gene expression. This retrograde signaling pathway is presumed to be involved in the regulation of myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Rhabdomyosarcoma cells are characterized by their failure to both irreversibly exit the cell cycle and complete myogenic ...
Ribeiro Geise - - 2010
The present study reports the synthesis of a novel compound with the formula [Ru(2)(aGLA)4Cl] according to elemental analyses data, referred to as Ru(2)GLA. The electronic spectra of Ru(2)GLA is typical of a mixed valent diruthenium(II,III) carboxylate. Ru(2)GLA was synthesized with the aim of combining and possibly improving the anti-tumour properties ...
Downs Craig A - - 2010
The logistics involved in obtaining and maintaining large numbers of corals hampers research on the toxicological effects of environmental contaminants for this ecologically and economically important taxon. A method for creating and culturing single-cell suspensions of viable coral cells was developed. Cell segregation/separation was based on specific cell densities and ...
Butler Jonathan - - 2010
The mitochondrial ATP-dependent K channel (mitoKATP) has been shown to play a role in cellular protection against apoptosis, or programmed cell death. This channel has been identified and characterized in a number of cell and tissue types but to date the possible existence of mitoKATP in osteoblastic cells has not ...
Monteiro Sandra Mariza - - 2010
This study reports the first complete mapping of the gill epithelium in a tilapia species. Different gill epithelial cell types of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. have been identified and located using different antisera against mammalian proteins and various histochemical techniques: Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS), Alcian Blue pH 1.0, ...
Takahashi Eiji - - 2010
In vivo, diffusional O(2) gradients from the capillary blood to the intracellular space determine O(2) availability at the O(2) sensing molecules in the cell. With a novel technique for imaging intracellular O(2) levels using green fluorescent protein (GFP), we examined the possibility that diffusional O(2) concentration gradients might be involved ...
Costa Rui O - - 2010
Amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously we found that Abeta induces both mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction leading to apoptosis, and now we address the relevance of ER-mitochondria crosstalk in apoptotic cell death triggered by Abeta peptide. Using mitochondrial DNA-depleted ...
Chang Steven S - - 2010
Cigarette smoke demonstrates a carcinogenic effect through chronic exposure, not acute exposures. However, current cell line models study only the acute effects of cigarette smoke. Using a cell line model, we compared the effects of acute versus chronic cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on mitochondria in minimally transformed oral keratinocytes (OKF6). ...
Jianping Du - - 2010
Nearly 80 years ago, scientist Otto Warburg originated a hypothesis that the cause of cancer is primarily a defect in energy metabolism. Following studies showed that mitochondria impact carcinogenesis to remodel somatic cells to cancer cells through modifying the genome, through maintenance the tumorigenic phenotype, and through apoptosis. And the ...
Zhang Shouting - - 2010
Dimebon, a drug currently being evaluated in multiple Phase III Alzheimer's disease trials, has previously been shown to have effects on isolated mitochondria at muM concentrations. Here the effects of nM concentrations of Dimebon on mitochondrial function were investigated both in primary mouse cortical neurons and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). ...
Matsuda Tomoko - - 2010
We have reported that the differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) DIF-1 and DIF-3, morphogens secreted from Dictyostelium discoideum, inhibit proliferation of several cancer cells via suppression of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. However, the target molecules of DIFs involved in the anti-proliferative effects are still unknown. In the present study, DIF-1-tethered resins were ...
Sievers Claudia - - 2010
Prohibitin 1 (PHB1) is a highly conserved protein that together with its homologue prohibitin 2 (PHB2) mainly localizes to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Although it was originally identified by its ability to inhibit G1/S progression in human fibroblasts, its role as tumor suppressor is debated. To determine the function of ...
Schauss Astrid C - - 2010
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles whose morphology and position within the cell is tightly coupled to metabolic function. There is a limited list of essential proteins that regulate mitochondrial morphology and the mechanisms that govern mitochondrial dynamics are poorly understood. However, recent evidence indicates that the core machinery that governs ...
Rhein Virginie - - 2010
Energy deficiency and mitochondrial failure have been recognized as a prominent, early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, we demonstrated that chronic exposure to amyloid-beta (Abeta) in human neuroblastoma cells over-expressing human wild-type amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulted in (i) activity changes of complexes III and IV of the oxidative ...
Kim Myoung Sook - - 2010
Aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial dysfunction are common features of aggressive cancer growth. We observed promoter methylation and loss of expression in neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NEFH) in a significant proportion of primary esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) samples that were of a high tumor grade and advanced stage. RNA interference-mediated knockdown ...
Yang Dianer - - 2010
A common metabolic change in cancer is the acquisition of glycolytic phenotypes. Increased expression of glycolytic enzymes is considered as one contributing factor. The role of mitochondrial defects in acquisition of glycolytic phenotypes has been postulated but remains controversial. Here we show that functional defects in mitochondrial respiration could be ...
Lai James C K - - 2010
Recent evidence suggests silicon dioxide micro- and nanoparticles induce cytotoxic effects on lung cells. Thus, there is an increasing concern regarding their potential health hazard. Nevertheless, the putative toxicity of nanoparticles in mammalian cells has not yet been systematically investigated. We previously noted that several metallic oxide nanoparticles exert differential ...
Lu Xiaofeng - - 2010
Some polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), if not all, have been shown to have tumoricidal action, but their exact mechanism(s) of action is not clear. In the present study, we observed that n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (LA) inhibited tumor cell growth at high concentrations (above 300 μM); while low concentrations (100-200 ...
Duchen Michael R MR Department of Cell and Developmental Biology and Consortium for Mitochondrial Research, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. - - 2010
The chapters throughout this volume illustrate the many contributions of mitochondria to the maintenance of normal cell and tissue function, experienced as the health of the individual. Mitochondria are essential for maintaining aspects of physiology as fundamental as cellular energy balance, the modulation of calcium signalling, in defining cellular redox ...
Jonckheere An I - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Muscle biopsy analysis is regarded as the gold standard in diagnostic workups of patients with suspected mitochondrial disorders. Analysis of cultured fibroblasts can provide important additional diagnostic information. The measurement of individual OXPHOS complexes does not always provide sufficient information about the functional state of the complete mitochondrial energy-generating ...
Ma R - - 2010
Bupivacaine is one of the amide type local anesthetics and is widely used for epidural anesthesia and blockade of nerves. Bupivacaine administration locally could result in neuron injury showing transient neurologic symptoms. Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid and may exert cytoprotective properties against damage induced by some stimuli. In the ...
Jeng Jaan-Yeh - - 2009
Mitochondrial dysfunction and associated apoptosis have been reported in the pathogenesis of neuron degeneration. The effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (AA) on the mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial function of rat C6 glioma cells were determined in this study. Increased cytochrome c release and activated ...
Rasola Andrea - - 2010
We studied human cancer cell models in which we detected constitutive activation of ERK. A fraction of active ERK was found to be located in mitochondria in RWPE-2 cells, obtained by v-Ki-Ras transformation of the epithelial prostate RWPE-1 cell line; in metastatic prostate cancer DU145 cells; and in osteosarcoma SAOS-2 ...
Mart?nez-Abundis E - - 2010
Although alpha-mangostin prevents from toxicity associated to oxidative stress, it also promotes apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. Such effects have been associated with mitochondrial membrane depolarization and cytochrome c release. Therefore, the aim of this work was to analyze the potentially harmful effect of this natural compound on relevant ...
Zhang Linxia - - 2010
Saturated free fatty acids (FFAs), e.g. palmitate, have long been shown to induce toxicity and cell death in various types of cells. In this study, we demonstrate that cAMP synergistically amplifies the effect of palmitate on the induction of cell death in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2 cells. Elevation ...
Westermann Benedikt - - 2010
Mitochondrial fusion and fission are important for a great variety of cellular functions, including energy metabolism, development, aging and cell death. Many of the core components mediating mitochondrial dynamics in human cells have been first identified and mechanistically analyzed in model organisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila ...
VoboĊ™ilová Jana - - 2011
The aim of this study is to compare the effects of new fluorinated taxanes SB-T-12851, SB-T-12852, SB-T-12853, and SB-T-12854 with those of the classical taxane paclitaxel and novel non-fluorinated taxane SB-T-1216 on cancer cells. Paclitaxel-sensitive MDA-MB-435 and paclitaxel-resistant NCI/ADR-RES human cancer cell lines were used. Cell growth and survival evaluation, ...
Malouitre Sylvanie - - 2010
CsA (cyclosporin A) is a hydrophobic undecapeptide that inhibits CyPs (cyclophilins), a family of PPIases (peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerases). In some experimental models, CsA offers partial protection against lethal cell injury brought about by transient ischaemia; this is believed to reflect inhibition of CyP-D, a mitochondrial isoform that facilitates formation of ...
Takeda Kumiko - - 2010
Microinjection of isolated mitochondria into oocytes is an effective method to introduce exogenous mitochondrial DNA. In nuclear transfer procedures in which donor cell mitochondria are transferred with nuclei into recipient oocytes; development and survival rates of reconstructed embryos may be also directly influenced by mitochondrial viability. Mitochondrial viability is dramatically ...
Takanashi Hideki - - 2010
In plant vegetative cells, mitochondria are usually small and grain-shaped. In contrast, unusually shaped giant mitochondria (large cup-shaped or long stretched-rod-shaped) appear in the egg cells of geranium, maize, Ipomoea nil, and bracken. In this study, to characterize egg cell mitochondria in rice, we used nonenzymatic manual dissection to isolate ...
Cao Liqin - - 2009
In mammals, observations of rapid shifts in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants between generations have led to the creation of the bottleneck theory for the transmission of mtDNA. The bottleneck could be attributed to a marked decline of mtDNA content in germ cells giving rise to the next generation, to a ...
Dayal Disha - - 2009
Ionizing radiation induces chronic metabolic oxidative stress and a mutator phenotype in hamster fibroblasts that is mediated by H(2)O(2), but the intracellular source of H(2)O(2) is not well defined. To determine the role of mitochondria in the radiation-induced mutator phenotype, end points of mitochondrial function were determined in unstable (CS-9 ...
Echave Pedro P MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, The Cancer Institute, University College London, London, - - 2009
Cells generate new organelles when stimulated by extracellular factors to grow and divide; however, little is known about how growth and mitogenic signalling pathways regulate organelle biogenesis. Using mitochondria as a model organelle, we have investigated this problem in primary Schwann cells, for which distinct factors act solely as mitogens ...
Renner Christof - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: Recently, it was revealed that carnosine inhibits growth of cells isolated from human malignant glioma. In order to understand how this effect is mediated, experiments were performed that addressed a possible influence of carnosine on energy metabolism. METHODS: Cells from the glioma line T98G and primary cultured cells from ...
Callegari Sylvie - - 2010
Statins, used to treat hypercholesterolemia, are one of the most frequently prescribed drug classes in the developed world. However, a significant proportion of users suffer symptoms of myotoxicity, and currently, the molecular mechanisms underlying myotoxicity remain ambiguous. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was exploited as a model system to gain ...
Deng Jhu-Yun - - 2009
Dehydroeburicoic acid (DeEA) is a triterpene purified from medicinal fungi such as Antrodia camphorate, the crude extract of which is known to exert cytotoxic effects against several types of cancer cells. We aim to test the hypothesis that DeEA possesses significant cytotoxic effects against glioblastomas, one of the most frequent ...
Chang Sung-Eun - - 2009
The characterization of progenitor/keratinocyte stem cells (KSC) remains an unachieved goal. A previous study showed that rapid adhering cells to collagen IV had the characteristics of putative progenitor/KSCs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic expression of rapid adhering cells compared to non adhering cells to determine ...
D'Eletto Manuela M Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, - - 2009
Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins and organelles. Autophagy occurs at low levels under normal conditions, but it is enhanced in response to stress, e.g. nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, mitochondrial dysfunction and infection. "Tissue" transglutaminase (TG2) accumulates, both in vivo and in vitro, ...
Kubota Chisato - - 2010
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in several cell death processes, including cerebral ischemic injury. We found that glutamate-induced ROS accumulation and the associated cell death in mouse hippocampal cell lines were delayed by pharmacological inhibition of autophagy or lysosomal activity. Glutamate, however, did not stimulate autophagy, which was assessed ...
Arciello Mario - - 2010
The copper-enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (Cytox) has been indicated as a primary molecular target of mutant copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS); however, the mechanism underlying its inactivation is still unclear. As the toxicity of mutant SOD1s could arise from their selective recruitment to mitochondria, ...
Koczor Christopher A - - 2009
Previous work from our laboratory has focused on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) repair and cellular viability. However, other events occur prior to the initiation of apoptosis in cells. Because of the importance of mtDNA in ATP production and of ATP in fuel cell cycle progression, we asked whether mtDNA damage was ...
Petrussa Elisa - - 2009
The present work reports changes in bioenergetic parameters and mitochondrial activities during the manifestation of two events of programmed cell death (PCD), linked to Abies alba somatic embryogenesis. PCD, evidenced by in situ nuclear DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay), DNA laddering and cytochrome c release, was decreased in maturing embryogenic tissue ...
Seo Young-Woo - - 2009
DNA damage stabilizes the p53 tumor suppressor protein that determines the cell fate by either cell cycle arrest or cell death induction. Noxa, the BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein, was shown to be a key player in p53-induced cell death through the mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the molecular mechanism by which Noxa ...
García-Rodríguez Luis J LJ Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, - - 2009
Mitochondrial inheritance, the transfer of mitochondria from mother to daughter cell during cell division, is essential for daughter cell viability. The mitochore, a mitochondrial protein complex containing Mdm10p, Mdm12p, and Mmm1p, is required for mitochondrial motility leading to inheritance in budding yeast. We observe a defect in cytokinesis in mitochore ...
Keeney Paula M PM Morris K. Udall Parkinson's Research Center of Excellence, University of Virginia, PO Box 800394, Charlottesville, VA 22908, - - 2009
Sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD) is a nervous system-wide disease that presents with a bradykinetic movement disorder and frequently progresses to include depression and cognitive impairment. Cybrid models of sPD are based on expression of sPD platelet mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in neural cells and demonstrate some similarities to sPD brains. In ...
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