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Yamaoka Shohei - - 2011
Regulating the morphology and intracellular distribution of mitochondria is essential for embryo development in animals. However, the importance of such regulation is not clearly defined in plants. The evolutionarily conserved Miro proteins are known to be involved in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology and motility. We previously demonstrated that MIRO1, ...
Li Ang - - 2010
ATP release by nonpigmented (NPE) and pigmented (PE) ciliary epithelial cells is the enabling step in purinergic regulation of aqueous humor formation, but the release pathways are unknown. We measured ATP release from primary cultures of bovine mixed NPE and PE (bCE) cells and transformed bovine NPE and PE cells, ...
Hur K Y - - 2010
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by decreased insulin secretion and action. Decreased insulin secretion results from a reduction in pancreatic β-cell mass and/or function. Apoptosis, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses including JNK activation have been suggested as mechanisms for the changes of pancreatic β-cells ...
Peraza-Reyes Leonardo - - 2010
Movement and positional control of mitochondria and other organelles are coordinated with cell cycle progression in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recent studies have revealed a checkpoint that inhibits cytokinesis when there are severe defects in mitochondrial inheritance. An established checkpoint signaling pathway, the mitotic exit network (MEN), participates in ...
Busso Cleverson - - 2010
Deletion of COQ10 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae elicits a respiratory defect characterized by the absence of cytochrome c reduction, which is correctable by the addition of exogenous diffusible coenzyme Q(2). Unlike other coq mutants with hampered coenzyme Q(6) (Q(6) ) synthesis, coq10 mutants have near wild-type concentrations of Q(6). In the ...
Murphy Elizabeth - - 2011
Cardioprotection, such as preconditioning and postconditioning, has been shown to result in a significant reduction in cell death. Many of the signaling pathways activated by cardioprotection have been elucidated, but there is still a lack of understanding of the mechanisms by which these signaling pathways reduce cell death. Mitochondria have ...
Xie Xiaoyan X Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine , Stanford, CA, - - 2011
In recent years, human embryonic stem (hES) cells have become a promising cell source for regenerative medicine. Although hES cells have the ability for unlimited self-renewal, potential adverse effects of long-term cell culture upon hES cells must be investigated before therapeutic applications of hES cells can be realized. Here we ...
Ong S B - - 2010
Background Mitochondria change their morphology by undergoing 'fusion' and 'fission' to generate elongated and fragmented mitochondria, respectively. We hypothesised that inducing mitochondrial fusion protects the heart against ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), and that this mechanism underlies the cardioprotection elicited by the pro-survival kinase, Akt. Methods/results Inducing mitochondrial fusion in HL-1 cells ...
Brion L - - 2011
Several reports suggest putative interactions between valproic acid (VPA) treatment and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Given that VPA alters mitochondrial functions, an action of this drug on a mitochondrial process such as steroid synthesis in adrenal cells should be expected. In order to disclose a putative action of VPA on the ...
Shen Kaili - - 2011
Two PCB congeners were assessed for their cytotoxicity on Vero cells, in the attempt to compare their structure-activity relationship and to investigate the role of mitochondria involved in toxicity. Flow cytometry was used to monitor the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m)), cell size and apoptosis rate. Treatments of Vero ...
Xu Jing-Yi - - 2010
To examine the protective effect of green tea polyphenols against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced damage to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Green tea polyphenols (GTP) was used to treat RPE cells before or after exposure to UVB. Viability of RPE cells was tested by 3,(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Survivin gene expression ...
Nakayama Hiroshi - - 2012
Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, reduced the viability of MH7A cells, a human rheumatoid arthritis synovial cell line. In the apoptosis assay, resveratrol increased TUNEL-positive cells and stimulated H2A.X phosphorylation. Resveratrol disrupted mitochondrial membrane potentials in MH7A cells and stimulated cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Resveratrol activated caspase-3 ...
Santandreu Francisca M - - 2011
Mitochondria vary in their number and function, but how these variations are associated with intestinal cell differentiation remains elusive. The object of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of inosine-mediated intestinal cell maturation, analysing the effects of this nutrient on metabolic functionality, mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial function in ...
Birringer Marc - - 2010
Although the metabolism of vitamin E has been extensively studied in cell culture, animals, and humans, biochemical analyses of intermediate metabolites are scarce. We here describe the synthesis and proapoptotic properties of long-chain metabolites of α- and δ-tocopherol. Several long-chain vitamin E metabolites, namely 13'-hydroxy- and 13'-carboxychromanols, were synthesized from ...
Wang Xinna - - 2011
Curcumin, a natural pigment from the traditional Chinese herb, has shown promise as an efficient enhancer of ultrasound. The present study aims to investigate ultrasound-induced cellular destruction of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in the presence of curcumin in vitro. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE2 cells were incubated by 10μm curcumin and ...
Perez-Alvarez Sergio - - 2010
Methadone is a widely used therapeutic opioid in narcotic addiction and neuropathic pain syndromes. Oncologists regularly use methadone as a long-lasting analgesic. Recently it has also been proposed as a promising agent in leukemia therapy, especially when conventional therapies are not effective. Nevertheless, numerous reports indicate a negative impact on ...
Machado Aline Helena Araujo - - 2010
This study investigated the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) by using the new photosensitizer Octal-Bromide Zinc Phthalocyanine (ZnPcBr(8)) on the nucleus, mitochondria, and cytoskeleton of HEp-2 cells. PDT has been widely used as a therapeutic method for tumor-selective treatment and for other diseases. The therapy requires a photosensitizer, molecular oxygen, ...
O'Flaherty Linda L Henry Wellcome Building for Molecular Physiology, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, - - 2010
Mutations in the gene encoding the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) predispose to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer in affected individuals. FH-associated neoplasia is characterized by defective mitochondrial function and by upregulation of transcriptional pathways mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), although whether and by what means these processes ...
Hsieh Yun-Chih - - 2010
We investigated the effects of antcin A, antcin C, and methyl antcinate A (MAA) isolated from Antrodia camphorata on the proliferation of human liver cancer cell lines Huh7, HepG2, and Hep3B and the normal cell rat hepatocytes. The three compounds selectively inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells rather than normal ...
Sun Lingmei - - 2010
Solamargine (SM), a steroidal alkaloid glycoside from Solanum nigrum L., displayed a superior cytotoxicity to many human tumor cells. Further investigation with human K562 leukemia cells found that SM could induce an early lysosomal rupture within 2h as assessed by acridine-orange relocation and alkalinization of lysosomes. Intracellular lysosomal rupture is ...
Sharma Praveen Kumar - - 2011
Calorie restriction (CR) is the only proven regimen, which confers lifespan extension benefits across the various phyla right from unicellular organisms like yeast to primates. In a bid to elucidate the mechanism of calorie-restriction-mediated life span extension, the role of mitochondria in the process was investigated. In this study, we ...
Lee Yi-Ching - - 2010
Mutations in glucose transporter 10 (GLUT10) alter angiogenesis and cause arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS); however, the mechanisms by which these mutations cause disease remain unclear. It has been reported that in most cells, mitochondria are the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, mitochondria are known to incorporate as ...
Luo Meng - - 2010
Cajanol (5-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenyl)-7-methoxychroman-4-one) is an isoflavanone from Pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] roots. As the most effective phytoalexin in pigeonpea, the cytotoxic activity of cajanol towards cancer cells has not been report as yet. In the present study, the anticancer activity of cajanol towards MCF-7 human breast cancer cells was investigated. ...
Irrcher I - - 2010
Growing evidence highlights a role for mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress as underlying contributors to Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. DJ-1 (PARK7) is a recently identified recessive familial PD gene. Its loss leads to increased susceptibility of neurons to oxidative stress and death. However, its mechanism of action is not fully ...
Wakamatsu Kairo - - 2010
Mitochondria in plant cells undergo fusion and fission frequently. Although the mechanisms and proteins of mitochondrial fusion are well known in yeast and mammalian cells, they remain poorly understood in plant cells. To clarify the physiological requirements for plant mitochondrial fusion, we investigated the fusion frequency of mitochondria in tobacco ...
Hocsak E - - 2010
We found that overexpression of tail interacting protein of 47 kDa (TIP47), but not its truncated form (t-TIP47) protected NIH3T3 cells from hydrogen-peroxide-induced cell death, prevented the hydrogen-peroxide-induced mitochondrial depolarization determined by 5,50,6,60-tetrachloro-1,10,3,30-tetraethyl-benzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC1), while suppression of TIP47 in HeLa cells facilitated oxidative-stress-induced cell death. TIP47 was located to ...
Lo Mei-Chen - - 2010
Diabetes mellitus (DM), a state of chronic hyperglycemia, is associated with a variety of serious complications. Hyperglycemia-induced advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play an important role in the development of diabetic complications. In vivo, we demonstrated that disrupted mitochondria and autophagy was elevated in type II DM db/db mice. Mitophagy ...
Li Yang - - 2010
We examined whether betulin, a naturally abundant compound, has anticancer functions in human cancer cells. The results showed that betulin significantly inhibited cell viability in cervix carcinoma HeLa cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells, lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, and breast cancer MCF-7 cells with IC(50) values ranging from 10 to 15 microg/mL. ...
Holy Jon - - 2010
Development of mitochondrially-targeted drugs is receiving increasing attention because of the central roles these organelles play in energy production, reactive oxygen generation, and regulation of cell death pathways. Previous studies have demonstrated that both natural and synthetic triterpenoids can disrupt mitochondrial structure and function. In this study, we tested the ...
Wang Dan-Yang - - 2010
The mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial inheritance are not yet clear, even though it is 100 years since the first description of non-Mendelian genetics. Here, we quantified the copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the gametic cells of angiosperm species. We demonstrate that each egg cell from Arabidopsis thaliana, Antirrhinum ...
Nassr Mohamed - - 2010
PURPOSE. To investigate the effectiveness of a novel isoquinoline derivative, EDL-155, in killing retinoblastoma in vitro and in vivo. METHODS. Dose-response curves were generated in which Y79 retinoblastoma cells tagged with luciferase (Y79-Luc) were treated with serial concentrations of EDL-155. Electron microscopy was used to evaluate the ultrastructural morphology of ...
Chen Victor T K - - 2010
The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion (MPP(+)), an active metabolite of the neurotoxin, N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), induces death in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, suggesting a cell model of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, most of the toxic mechanisms remain illusive. In this study, we have found that MPP(+) induced apoptotic cell death in PC12 ...
Cataldo Anne M - - 2010
Postmortem, genetic, brain imaging, and peripheral cell studies all support decreased mitochondrial activity as a factor in the manifestation of Bipolar Disorder (BD). Because abnormal mitochondrial morphology is often linked to altered energy metabolism, we investigated whether changes in mitochondrial structure were present in brain and peripheral cells of patients ...
Pietilä Mika - - 2010
Advanced therapies medicinal products (ATMPs) have introduced innovative cell-based products. However, the regulatory demands for characterization of ATMPs are currently unable to adequately address the safety of such products. As recent studies have emphasized the role of mitochondria in the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), we have ...
Borutaite Vilmante - - 2010
Mitochondria play an essential role in both cell health and death. Increasing experimental evidence suggests that mitochondria are involved in active control of cell death processes at several levels including (1) mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and release of proapoptotic proteins, (2) post-cytochrome c regulation of caspase activation, and (3) supply of ...
Agnati L F - - 2010
On the basis of not only the endosymbiotic theory of eukaryotic cell organization and evolution but also of observations of transcellular communication via Tunneling NanoTubes (TNTs), the hypothesis is put forward that when mitochondria, which were once independently living prokaryote-like organisms, are subjected to detrimental genetic, toxic, or environmental conditions, ...
Hocsak E - - 2010
We found that overexpression of tail interacting protein of 47kDa (TIP47), but not its truncated form (t-TIP47) protected NIH3T3 cells from hydrogen-peroxide-induced cell death, prevented the hydrogen-peroxide-induced mitochondrial depolarization determined by 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-benzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC1), while suppression of TIP47 in HeLa cells facilitated oxidative-stress-induced cell death. TIP47 was located to the ...
Zhang Wenbin - - 2010
Mitochondrial impairment is hypothesized to contribute to cell injury during cold stress. Mitochondria fission and fusion are closely related in the function of the mitochondria, but the precise mechanisms whereby these processes regulate cell injury during cold stress remain to be determined. HEK293 cells were cultured in a cold environment ...
Perez Jessica - - 2010
Abnormal smooth muscle cell proliferation is a hallmark of vascular disease. Although growth factors are known to contribute to cell hyperplasia, the changes in metabolism associated with this response, particularly mitochondrial respiration, remain unclear. Given the increased energy requirements for proliferation, we hypothesized that PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) would stimulate ...
Michelakis E D - - 2010
Solid tumors, including the aggressive primary brain cancer glioblastoma multiforme, develop resistance to cell death, in part as a result of a switch from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to cytoplasmic glycolysis. This metabolic remodeling is accompanied by mitochondrial hyperpolarization. We tested whether the small-molecule and orphan drug dichloroacetate (DCA) can reverse ...
Zhou Feifan - - 2010
Translocation and localization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in normal and cancerous cells have significant biomedical implications. In this study, SWNTs functionalized with different biomolecules in cells were observed with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Functionalized with PL-PEG, SWNTs were found to localize exclusively in mitochondria of both tumor and normal ...
Beeson Craig C CC Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, 29425, - - 2010
Mitochondria are a common target of toxicity for drugs and other chemicals and result in decreased aerobic metabolism and cell death. In contrast, mitochondrial biogenesis restores cell vitality, and there is a need for new agents to induce biogenesis. Current cell-based models of mitochondrial biogenesis or toxicity are inadequate because ...
Favre C - - 2010
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) signalling pathway is essential for metabolism, cell growth and survival. It induces expression of the mitochondrial pyrimidine nucleotide carrier 1 (PNC1) in transformed cells, but the consequences of this for cell phenotype are unknown. Here we show that PNC1 is necessary to maintain mitochondrial function ...
Nowak Robert - - 2010
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) and 1-methyl-3-nitropyridine (MNP) on mitochondria activity and proliferation of endothelial EA.hy926 cells. The activity of MNA was also referred to nicotinamide (NAM) being MNA metabolic precursor. NAM and MNA used at high concentrations (up to 1 mM) ...
Burkhart Jessica - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: Mistletoe extracts have been shown to provide deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-stabilizing effects in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. We investigated the effect of a mistletoe extract on PBMC with and without concomitant treatment with cyclophosphamide and compared mitochondrial activity and replication of normal PBMC with that of ...
Takeda Kojiro - - 2010
Regulation of proliferation and quiescence in response to intra- or extracellular environmental signals are important for medicine and basic biology. Quiescence is relevant to tumorigenesis and tissue regeneration, and the maintenance of post-mitotic cells is important with regard to a number of senescence-related diseases such as neurodegeneration. We employ fission ...
Carreira Raquel S - - 2010
Autophagy is a highly regulated intracellular degradation process by which cells remove cytosolic long-lived proteins and damaged organelles. The mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) results in mitochondrial depolarization and increased reactive oxygen species production, which can trigger autophagy. Therefore, we hypothesized that the MPT may have a role in signaling autophagy ...
Ong Sang-Bing - - 2010
Whether alterations in mitochondrial morphology affect the susceptibility of the heart to ischemia/reperfusion injury is unknown. We hypothesized that modulating mitochondrial morphology protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury. In response to ischemia, mitochondria in HL-1 cells (a cardiac-derived cell line) undergo fragmentation, a process that is dependent on the mitochondrial ...
Wang Hui - - 2010
AbstractInhibition of sperm motility has recently become a promising target for male contraceptive development. AF-2364, an analogue of Lonidamine (LND), had a contraceptive effect when orally administered to adult Sprague-Dawley rats. LND can also target mitochondria to inhibit oxygen consumption and block energy metabolism in tumour cells. However, there are ...
Cheng Wan-Yun - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of action of many environmental agents commonly involve oxidative stress resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction. Zinc is a common environmental metallic contaminant that has been implicated in a variety of oxidant-dependent toxicological responses. Unlike ions of other transition metals such as iron, copper, and vanadium, Zn(2+) does not ...
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