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Austriaco Nicanor - - 2012
Yeast cells undergo programed cell death (PCD) with characteristic markers associated with apoptosis in mammalian cells including chromatin breakage, nuclear fragmentation, reactive oxygen species generation, and metacaspase activation. Though significant research has focused on mitochondrial involvement in this phenomenon, more recent work with both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe has ...
Gregori Silvia - - 2012
The immuno-regulatory mechanisms of IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells have been widely studied over the years. However, several recent discoveries have shed new light on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that human Tr1 cells use to control immune responses and induce tolerance. In this review we outline the ...
Tsai Min-An - - 2011
The enhanced conversion efficiency of the InGaP/GaAs dual-junction solar cell was demonstrated utilizing broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection nanorod arrays. The nanorod arrays were fabricated by self-assembled Ni clusters, followed by inductively-coupled-plasma reactive ion etching. The conversion efficiency measured under one-sun air mass 1.5 global illuminations at room temperature was improved ...
Khanim F L - - 2011
Despite recent therapeutic advancements, multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable and new therapies are needed, especially for the treatment of elderly and relapsed/refractory patients. We have screened a panel of 100 off-patent licensed oral drugs for anti-myeloma activity and identified niclosamide, an anti-helminthic. Niclosamide, at clinically achievable non-toxic concentrations, killed MM ...
Simão Sónia - - 2011
Cl(-) /HCO 3- exchanger and Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 3 are the main transporters responsible for NaCl reabsorption in kidney proximal tubules. It is well accepted that membrane exchangers can be regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the kidney, ROS are known to contribute to decreases in Na(+) excretion and consequently ...
Deutsch Gregor B - - 2011
Comment on: Deutsch GB, et al. Cell 2011; 144:566-76.
Stendardi A - - 2011
The role of mitochondria in sperm motility was the subject of several investigations. However, different views on this topic emerged among scientists. In particular, very little is known on the mechanisms of energy production occurring during human sperm capacitation and related processes. In this study, we have investigated the mitochondrial ...
Tham Daniel Kai Long - - 2011
The proper targeting of ion channels to specialized domains is crucial for cell function. Kir4.1, the inwardly rectifying potassium channel, and aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the type 4 water-permeable channel, are localized at the basolateral domain of polarized epithelial cells; however, the mechanisms involved in their localization have yet to be determined. ...
Selvais Charlotte - - 2011
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) is a plasma membrane scavenger and signaling receptor, composed of a large ligand-binding subunit (515-kDa α-chain) linked to a shorter transmembrane subunit (85-kDa β-chain). LRP-1 cell-surface level and function are controlled by proteolytic shedding of its ectodomain. Here, we identified ectodomain sheddases in human HT1080 ...
Rayo Josep - - 2011
Live cell fluorescent labeling of proteins has become a seminal tool in biology and has led to hallmark discoveries in diverse research areas such as protein trafficking, cell-to-cell interactions, and intracellular network dynamics. One of the main challenges, however, remains the ability to label intracellular proteins using fluorescent ligands with ...
Oncel Semih - - 2011
Using a molecular genetic approach, we try to confirm the molecular alterations of inverted papilloma and clarify its status as a putative precursor lesion of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma. To better understand its genetics, we investigated the immunohistochemical protein expression patterns of cell-cycle-regulators p53, p63, p21, p27 and proliferation marker ...
Png Evelyn - - 2011
Hyperosmolar-induced ocular surface cell death is a key mitochondria-mediated event in inflammatory eye diseases. Transglutaminase (TGM)-2, a cross-linking enzyme, is purported to mediate cell death, but its link to mitochondria is unclear. In the cornea, the integrity of the epithelial cells is important for maintaining transparency of the cornea and ...
Kaur Sukhbir - - 2011
Cell surface proteoglycans on T cells contribute to retroviral infection, binding of chemokines and other proteins, and are necessary for some T cell responses to the matricellular glycoprotein thrombospondin-1. The major cell surface proteoglycans expressed by primary T cells and Jurkat T cells have an apparent M(r) > 200,000 and ...
Friday Ellen - - 2011
We studied the roles of glycolysis and glutaminolysis following an acute reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψ(m)) induced by the thiazolidinedione troglitazone (TRO) and compared the responses with CCCP-induced depolarization in breast cancer derived MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells as well as in the MCF-10A normal breast cell line. TRO and ...
Hu Bo B Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0374, - - 2011
Many motile eukaryotic cells determine their direction by measuring external chemical gradients through the binding of ligands to membrane bound receptors. This process is limited by fluctuations arising from the binding process and from the diffusion of the ligand molecules. Here, we apply estimation-theoretic methods to determine the physical limits ...
Boisson-Dernier Aurélien - - 2011
In plants, organ formation and cell elongation require the constant adjustment of the dynamic and adaptable cell wall in response to environmental cues as well as internal regulators, such as light, mechanical stresses, pathogen attacks, phytohormones, and other signaling molecules. The molecular mechanisms that perceive these cues and translate them ...
Li Xi X Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, - - 2011
A dual-ligand gold nanoparticle (DLGNP) was designed and synthesized to explore the therapeutic benefits of multivalent interactions between gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and cancer cells. DLGNP was tested on human epidermal cancer cells (KB), which had high expression of folate receptor. The cellular uptake of DLGNP was increased by 3.9 and ...
del Álamo David - - 2011
Notch receptors in a given cell are activated by cell surface ligands in neighbouring cells but can also be inhibited by the ligands present within the same cell. This process is known as cis-inhibition of Notch. Additionally, reciprocal cis-inhibition of the ligands by Notch has also been observed, albeit to ...
Guan Feng - - 2011
We investigated interaction of GM3 with N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) termini of N-linked glycans of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), as the underlying mechanism for inhibitory effect of GM3 on EGFR activation, using ldlD cells transfected with EGFR gene. These cells, defective in UDP-Gal/UDP-GalNAc 4-epimerase, are incapable of synthesizing galactose (Gal)-containing glycans, ...
Joti Prakash - - 2011
Stem cell progeny often undergo transit amplifying divisions before differentiation. In Drosophila, a spermatogonial precursor divides four times within an enclosure formed by two somatic-origin cyst cells, before differentiating into spermatocytes. Although germline and cyst cell-intrinsic factors are known to regulate these divisions, the mechanistic details are unclear. Here, we ...
Li Q - - 2011
In order to elucidate the relationship between androgens and the function of the muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) scented glands during the breeding season, we investigated immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes P450scc, 3βHSD and P450c17 in the muskrat testes and scented glands. Nine adult muskrats were obtained in March (n=3), May (n=3) and ...
Qu Feng - - 2011
The glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) plays a key role in maintaining whole body glucose homeostasis. Tracking GLUT4 in space and time can provide new insights for understanding the mechanisms of insulin-regulated GLUT4 translocation. Organic dyes and fluorescent proteins were used in previous studies for investigating the traffic of GLUT4 in ...
McGee Allison M AM Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri, 65211, - - 2011
Opening of the MPT (mitochondrial permeability transition) pore is a critical event in mitochondrial-mediated cell death. However, with the exception of CypD (cyclophilin D), the exact molecular composition of the MPT pore remains uncertain. C1qbp (complement 1q-binding protein) has recently been hypothesized to be an essential component of the MPT ...
Salyer Sarah - - 2011
Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity in renal proximal tubule is regulated by several hormones including parathyroid hormone (PTH) and dopamine. The current experiments explore the role of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF-1) in dopamine-mediated regulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. We measured dopamine regulation of ouabain-sensitive (86)Rb uptake and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α1 subunit phosphorylation in wild-type ...
Lindström Sivert - - 2011
Principal cells in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus receive both feedforward and recurrent inhibition. Despite many years of study, the receptive field structure of these inhibitory mechanisms has not been determined. Here, we have used intracellular recordings in vivo to differentiate between the two types of inhibition and map their ...
Zanchetta Luciene M - - 2010
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the principal etiological factor in skin carcinogenesis. In vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated previously that oxidative DNA damage, mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) changes are associated with skin cell response to UVR stress. Spontaneously immortalized human skin keratinocytes were irradiated with ...
Wang Wei - - 2010
Differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) involves the activation of aerobic metabolism, which is dependent on mitochondrial function. Here, we show that the differentiation of NSCs involves robust increases in mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, and respiration capacity. The increased respiration activity renders mtDNA vulnerable to oxidative damage, ...
Bhatia-Kiššová Ingrid - - 2010
Mitochondria are essential for oxidative energy production in aerobic eukaryotic cells, where they are also required for multiple biosynthetic pathways to take place. Mitochondria also monitor and evaluate complex information from the environment and intracellular milieu, including the presence or absence of growth factors, oxygen, reactive oxygen species, and DNA ...
Stockwin Luke H - - 2010
The "Warburg effect," also termed aerobic glycolysis, describes the increased reliance of cancer cells on glycolysis for ATP production, even in the presence of oxygen. Consequently, there is continued interest in inhibitors of glycolysis as cancer therapeutics. One example is dichloroacetate (DCA), a pyruvate mimetic that stimulates oxidative phosphorylation through ...
Ziabreva Iryna I The Mitochondrial Research Group, Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, United - - 2010
Oligodendrocyte lineage cells are susceptible to a variety of insults including hypoxia, excitotoxicity, and reactive oxygen species. Demyelination is a well-recognized feature of several CNS disorders including multiple sclerosis, white matter strokes, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and disorders due to mitochondrial DNA mutations. Although mitochondria have been implicated in the demise ...
Bhatnagar Dushyant - - 2011
Although mitochondria have long been considered the powerhouse of the living cell, it is only recently that we have been able to employ these organelles for electrocatalysis in electrochemical energy conversion devices. The concept of using biological entities for energy conversion, commonly referred to as a biofuel cell, has been ...
Esposito Michela - - 2011
The proteasomal lid subunit Rpn11 is essential for maintaining a correct cell cycle and mitochondrial morphology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this paper, we show that the rpn11-m1 mutant has a peculiar cell cycle defect reminiscent of mutants defective in the FEAR pathway that delay the release of the Cdc14 protein ...
Liu Yan Y Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0609, - - 2011
Ehrlichia are obligately intracellular bacteria that reside in a vacuole in the cytoplasm of phagocytes. We determined by confocal microscopy the interaction between Ehrlichia and mitochondria in DH82 cells to investigate the mechanism of Ehrlichia survival inside the phagocyte. The most remarkable finding of our study was that Ehrlichia morulae ...
Hubbard Vanessa M VM Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, - - 2010
Macroautophagy is a highly conserved mechanism of lysosomal-mediated protein degradation that plays a key role in maintaining cellular homeostasis by recycling amino acids, reducing the amount of damaged proteins, and regulating protein levels in response to extracellular signals. We have found that macroautophagy is induced after effector T cell activation. ...
Mairuae Nootchanat - - 2010
Numerous epidemiological studies suggest that the expression of the HFE allelic variant H63D may be a risk factor or genetic modifier for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The H63D variant alters cellular iron homeostasis and increases baseline oxidative stress. The elevated cellular stress milieu, we have proposed, may alter cellular responses to ...
Li Hai-bo - - 2010
The aim of this article is to investigate the mechanism of vitexin-4''-O-glucoside (VOG) protecting ECV-304 cells against tertbutyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)-induced injury. ECV-304 cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay. Cellular morphological changes were observed using phase contrast microscopy. ...
Pang Y - - 2010
The δ subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase serves as a linker between the F(0) and F(1) sectors. Here, through microarray and quantitative RT-PCR, we found that the δ1 subunit was significantly up-regulated during cotton fibre cell elongation. Both the relative level and duration of GhATPδ1 transcripts correlated positively with the ...
Suzuki Toru - - 2010
The aim of this study wsa to evaluate the additive effect of valproic acid (VPA) to γδ T-cell cytotoxicity against bladder cancer cells. Human bladder cancer cell lines TCCSUP and 253J were treated with VPA and mRNA expression of natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) ligands was determined. The antitumour effect ...
Wang T T Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, - - 2010
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in several changes in mitochondrial function including increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and greater sensitivity to oxidant, Ca(2+) and cytokine-induced cell death. Prior studies in protein over-expression systems have shown that this effect can be induced by the core protein, but other viral ...
Kim Ki Cheon - - 2010
The protective effects of catechin 7-O-β-D glucopyranoside (C7G) against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mitochondrial damage in rat pancreatic β-cells (RINm5F) were investigated. A marked increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in STZ-treated cells; this increase was restricted by C7G treatment. C7G also scavenged superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals generated ...
Kim Ki Cheon - - 2010
The protective effects of catechin 7-O-β-D glucopyranoside (C7G) against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mitochondrial damage in rat pancreatic β-cells (RINm5F) were investigated. A marked increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in STZ-treated cells; this increase was restricted by C7G treatment. C7G also scavenged superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals generated ...
Froman D P - - 2011
Sperm mobility is defined as sperm movement against resistance at body temperature. Although all mobile sperm are motile, not all motile sperm are mobile. Sperm mobility is a primary determinant of male fertility in the chicken. Previous work explained phenotypic variation at the level of the sperm cell and the ...
Gdynia Georg - - 2010
Cells dying by necrosis release the high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, which has immunostimulatory effects. However, little is known about the direct actions of extracellular HMGB1 protein on cancer cells. Here, we show that recombinant human HMGB1 (rhHMGB1) exerts strong cytotoxic effects on malignant tumor cells. The rhHMGB1-induced cytotoxicity ...
Erikstein Bjarte S BS Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Haukeland University Hospital, N-5021 Bergen, - - 2010
Mitochondrial bioenergetics and reactive oxygen species (ROS) often play important roles in cellular stress mechanisms. In this study we investigated how these factors are involved in the stress response triggered by resazurin (Alamar Blue) in cultured cancer cells. Resazurin is a redox reactive compound widely used as reporter agent in ...
Yamaoka Shohei - - 2011
Regulating the morphology and intracellular distribution of mitochondria is essential for embryo development in animals. However, the importance of such regulation is not clearly defined in plants. The evolutionarily conserved Miro proteins are known to be involved in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology and motility. We previously demonstrated that MIRO1, ...
Li Ang - - 2010
ATP release by nonpigmented (NPE) and pigmented (PE) ciliary epithelial cells is the enabling step in purinergic regulation of aqueous humor formation, but the release pathways are unknown. We measured ATP release from primary cultures of bovine mixed NPE and PE (bCE) cells and transformed bovine NPE and PE cells, ...
Hur K Y - - 2010
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by decreased insulin secretion and action. Decreased insulin secretion results from a reduction in pancreatic β-cell mass and/or function. Apoptosis, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses including JNK activation have been suggested as mechanisms for the changes of pancreatic β-cells ...
Peraza-Reyes Leonardo - - 2010
Movement and positional control of mitochondria and other organelles are coordinated with cell cycle progression in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recent studies have revealed a checkpoint that inhibits cytokinesis when there are severe defects in mitochondrial inheritance. An established checkpoint signaling pathway, the mitotic exit network (MEN), participates in ...
Busso Cleverson - - 2010
Deletion of COQ10 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae elicits a respiratory defect characterized by the absence of cytochrome c reduction, which is correctable by the addition of exogenous diffusible coenzyme Q(2). Unlike other coq mutants with hampered coenzyme Q(6) (Q(6) ) synthesis, coq10 mutants have near wild-type concentrations of Q(6). In the ...
Murphy Elizabeth - - 2011
Cardioprotection, such as preconditioning and postconditioning, has been shown to result in a significant reduction in cell death. Many of the signaling pathways activated by cardioprotection have been elucidated, but there is still a lack of understanding of the mechanisms by which these signaling pathways reduce cell death. Mitochondria have ...
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