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Results 701 - 750 of 1658
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Vidal Francesc - - 2006
We assessed the in vitro toxicity of tenofovir (TFV) and compared it with those of zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (ddI), ritonavir (RTV), and lopinavir (LPV) alone and in combination in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTECs). The cells were treated with various concentrations and combinations of the tested antiretrovirals for ...
Jantova Sona - - 2007
Berberine, an isoquinoline plant alkaloid, is known to generate a wide variety of biochemical and pharmacological effects. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of berberine-induced antiproliferative activities, the human promonocytic U937 cells were used. Berberine exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferative effects. Morphological evidence of apoptosis, including apoptotic DNA fragmentation, were observed in cells ...
Marchetti Maria A MA Department of Biomedical Science, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, PO Box 3091, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991, - - 2006
Accumulation of methionine sulfoxide (Met(O)) is a significant feature of human cataract and previous studies have shown that methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), which acts to repair Met(O), can defend human lens cells against oxidative stress induced cell death. A key feature of oxidative stress is increased reactive oxygen species ...
Haque Anwarul - - 2006
To elucidate the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in determination of growth of hepatocellular carcinoma, we examined wild-type Hepa1-6 cells and their rho(0) cells with depleted mtDNA in vitro and in vivo. Cultured rho(0) cells grew more rapidly than did wild-type cells. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was higher ...
Murugavel Ponnusamy - - 2007
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury has been implicated in cadmium-induced apoptosis. In this study, we examined the protective effect of diallyl tetrasulfide from garlic on cadmium induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in vero cells. Exposure of vero cells to cadmium (10 microM) for 18 h showed the apoptotic events such ...
Fontenay M - - 2006
Mitochondria are involved in hematopoietic cell homeostasis through multiple ways such as oxidative phosphorylation, various metabolic processes and the release of cytochrome c in the cytosol to trigger caspase activation and cell death. In erythroid cells, the mitochondrial steps in heme synthesis, iron (Fe) metabolism and Fe-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biogenesis ...
Kuroda Yukiko - - 2006
We investigated the effect of parkin on mitochondrial function and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y, L6, RD, and COS-1 cells. Wild-type parkin attenuated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in SH-SY5Y cells and mutant parkin enhanced ROS production in SH-SY5Y and L6 cells. Reactive oxygen intermediates, that were detected in mitochondria, were decreased ...
Mormone Elisabetta - - 2006
In the present work, we studied the mitochondrial function and cell death pathway(s) in heterozygous and homozygous immortalized cell lines from patients with Huntington's disease (HD). Heterozygosis was characterized by specific alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential, a constitutive hyperpolarization state of mitochondria, and was correlated with an increased susceptibility to ...
Allegra E - - 2006
Changes in mitochondrial DNA have been reported in cancer cells. Since little information exists regarding mt DNA mutations in head and neck, the present study focused on ten head and neck cancer cell lines in the attempt to detect alterations in the ND4 gene sequence. DNA was extracted from 10 ...
Petri Susanne - - 2006
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. They are important contributors to necrotic and apoptotic cell death. A major proportion of cellular ROS is generated at the inner mitochondrial membrane by the respiratory chain. In the present study, we investigated a novel peptide ...
Liang Ju - - 2007
Autofluorescence has an advantage over the extrinsic fluorescence of an unperturbed environment during investigation, especially in complex system such as biological cells and tissues. NADH is an important fluorescent substance in living cells. The time courses of intracellular NADH autofluorescence in the process of yeast cells exposed to H(2)O(2) and ...
McBride Heidi M - - 2006
Pioneering biochemical studies have long forged the concept that the mitochondria are the 'energy powerhouse of the cell'. These studies, combined with the unique evolutionary origin of the mitochondria, led the way to decades of research focusing on the organelle as an essential, yet independent, functional component of the cell. ...
Chen Jing - - 2006
Mitochondrial respiratory function in a patient with maternally inherited type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) C3310T mutation, which replaces the second amino acid of NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) from a hydrophobic Proline to a hydrophilic Serine, was investigated. Mitochondrial respiratory function solely due ...
Cogswell Andrew T - - 2006
Species of the family Mytilidae have 2 mitochondrial genomes, one that is transmitted through the egg and one that is transmitted through the sperm. In the Mytilus edulis species complex (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and M. trossulus) there is also a strong mother-dependent sex-ratio bias in favor of one or ...
Czarnecka Anna M - - 2006
Mitochondria are cell organelles involved in processes of cell life and death, and therefore also in tumoral transformation. Indeed, mitochondria dysfunction is a prominent feature of cancer cells. Mitochondrial proteins and DNA have also been previously studied as markers of tumorigenesis. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are ubiquitous evolutionary conserved proteins. ...
Raimondi Andrea - - 2006
Mitochondrial damage induced by superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutants has been proposed to have a causative role in the selective degeneration of motoneurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In order to investigate the basis of the tissue specificity of mutant SOD1 we compared the effect of the continuous expression of wild-type ...
Embley T Martin - - 2006
Classical ideas for early eukaryotic evolution often posited a period of anaerobic evolution producing a nucleated phagocytic cell to engulf the mitochondrial endosymbiont, whose presence allowed the host to colonize emerging aerobic environments. This idea was given credence by the existence of contemporary anaerobic eukaryotes that were thought to primitively ...
Chanez Anne-Laure - - 2006
Mitochondrial fission is mediated by dynamin-like proteins (DLPs). Trypanosoma brucei contains a single DLP, which is the only member of the dynamin superfamily. We have previously shown that expression of the human proapoptotic Bax in T. brucei induces extensive mitochondrial fragmentation. Here we report that Baxinduced mitochondrial fission is abolished ...
Tillement Laurent - - 2006
Abeta(1-42) has been shown to uncouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain and promote the opening of the membrane permeability transition (MPT) pore, leading to cell death. We have previously reported that the spirostenol derivative (22R, 25R)-20alpha-spirost-5-en-3beta-yl hexanoate (SP-233) protects neuronal cells against Abeta(1-42) toxicity by binding to and inactivating the peptide. ...
Bonora Elena - - 2006
Oncocytic tumors are characterized by cells with an aberrant accumulation of mitochondria. To assess mitochondrial function in neoplastic oncocytic cells, we studied the thyroid oncocytic cell line XTC.UC1 and compared it with other thyroid non-oncocytic cell lines. Only XTC.UC1 cells were unable to survive in galactose, a condition forcing cells ...
Singh Bhag - - 2006
Studies on yeast fumarase provide the main evidence for dual localization of a protein in mitochondria and cytosol by means of retrograde translocation. We have examined the subcellular targeting of yeast and human fumarase in live cells to identify factors responsible for this. The cDNAs for mature yeast or human ...
Campos Claudia B L - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol is a hallmark of apoptosis and is used to characterize the mitochondria-dependent pathway of this type of cell death. Techniques currently used to measure cytochrome c release, Western blot and fluorescence microscopy of immunolabeled cells, are time-consuming and inaccurate, and the latter ...
D'Aurelio Marilena - - 2006
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations cause heterogeneous disorders in humans. MtDNA exists in multiple copies per cell, and mutations need to accumulate beyond a critical threshold to cause disease, because coexisting wild-type mtDNA can complement the genetic defect. A better understanding of the molecular determinants of functional complementation among mtDNA molecules ...
Huang Li - - 2006
The relationships among reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid compositional changes, antioxidant power, and mitochondrial membrane potential were determined in a human lens epithelial cell line, HLE-B3. Cells grown in a hyperoxic atmosphere grew linearly for about 3 days, and then progressively died. Total antioxidant power and ROS generation increased ...
Kim Y J - - 2006
The present study investigated the promoting effect of oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol against the cytotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) in differentiated PC12 cells. 7-Ketocholesterol significantly enhanced the MPP(+)-induced nuclear damage, decrease in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cytosolic accumulation of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-3, increase in the formation of reactive oxygen species and ...
Guan S - - 2006
Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic compound isolated from the kernels of Alpinia (A.) oxyphylla, showed antioxidant neuroprotective effect in our previous study. Here, we investigated the effect of PCA on the MPP(+)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells. The apoptosis in MPP(+)-induced PC12 cells was associated with ...
Kropotov Andrey - - 2006
Sensitivity of tumor cells to treatment with anticancer drugs depends on expression and function of antiapoptotic and antioxidant proteins. The goal of our study was to determine the functional role of the novel antioxidant protein Peroxiredoxin V (PrxV), in protection of human lung carcinoma cell lines against apoptosis. Analysis of ...
Bakkali F - - 2006
Essential oils (EOs) extracted from medicinal plants such as Origanum compactum, Artemisia herba alba and Cinnamomum camphora are known for their beneficial effects in humans. The present study was undertaken to investigate their possible antigenotoxic effects in an eukaryotic cell system, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The EOs alone showed some ...
Gao Xin - - 2006
We observed previously that huperzine A (HupA), a selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, can counteract neuronal apoptosis and cell damage induced by several neurotoxic substances, and that this neuroprotective action somehow involves the mitochondria. We investigated the ability of HupA to reduce mitochondrial dysfunction in neuron-like rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells exposed in ...
Shahsavarani A - - 2006
The entry of calcium (Ca2+) through an apical membrane epithelial calcium channel (ECaC) is thought to a key step in piscine branchial Ca2+ uptake. In mammals, ECaC is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) gene family of which two sub-families have been identified, TRPV5 and TPRV6. In the ...
Pletjushkina O Yu - - 2006
Fission of the mitochondrial reticulum (the thread-grain transition) and following gathering of mitochondria in the perinuclear area are induced by oxidative stress. It is shown that inhibitors of the respiratory chain (piericidin and myxothiazol) cause fission of mitochondria in HeLa cells and fibroblasts, whereas a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (MitoQ) inhibits this ...
Singh Keshav K - - 2006
There is growing evidence supporting the progressing decline in mitochondrial function with age. Mitochondria are the major site of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the cell; therefore it is likely that progressive decline in mitochondrial function is due to the accumulation of oxidative damage with age. Despite this notion, ...
Gogvadze Vladimir - - 2006
Mitochondria play a decisive role in the regulation of both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane and subsequent release of intermembrane space proteins are important features of both models of cell death. The mechanisms by which these proteins are released depend presumably on cell type ...
Dyachenko V - - 2006
RATIONALE: Heterogeneity of ventricular myocytes from old murine hearts was tested in regard to cell volume and tolerance to stress induced by ROS generated by photoactivation of tetramethylrhodamine methylester. RESULTS: During repetitive linescans, ROS generated 'scars' of depolarized mitochondria. All young and 60% of old myocytes had type1 scars that ...
Lim Maria L R - - 2006
Redistribution of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria occurs during apoptosis, although the relative timing of their release is not well characterized. Double immunocytochemistry was utilized here to study quantitatively the patterns of release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria in single cells. Human osteosarcoma cells and murine embryonic ...
Berson Alain - - 2006
Like other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, nimesulide (4-nitro-2-phenoxymethane-sulfoanilide) triggers hepatitis in a few recipients. Although nimesulide has been shown to uncouple mitochondrial respiration and cause hepatocyte necrosis in the absence of albumin, mechanisms for cell death are incompletely understood, and comparisons with human concentrations are difficult because 99% of nimesulide is ...
Belousov Vsevolod V - - 2006
We developed a genetically encoded, highly specific fluorescent probe for detecting hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) inside living cells. This probe, named HyPer, consists of circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein (cpYFP) inserted into the regulatory domain of the prokaryotic H(2)O(2)-sensing protein, OxyR. Using HyPer we monitored H(2)O(2) production at the single-cell level ...
Rizzardini Milena - - 2006
G93A Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), a human mutant SOD1 associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, increased the toxicity of the mitochondrial toxin rotenone in the NSC-34 motoneuronal cell line. G93ASOD1 cells died more than untransfected and wild-type SOD1 cells after 6 and 24h exposure to 12.5 microM rotenone. Biparametric flow ...
Simon M Celeste - - 2006
Hypoxic cells induce glycolytic enzymes; this HIF-1-mediated metabolic adaptation increases glucose flux to pyruvate and produces glycolytic ATP. Two papers in this issue of Cell Metabolism (Kim et al., 2006; Papandreou et al., 2006) demonstrate that HIF-1 also influences mitochondrial function, suppressing both the TCA cycle and respiration by inducing ...
Landar Aimee - - 2006
The electrophilic lipid 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is known to allow adaptation to oxidative stress in cells at low concentrations and apoptosis at high levels. The mechanisms leading to adaptation involve the covalent modification of regulatory proteins, such as Keap1, and augmentation of antioxidant defences in the cell. The targets leading ...
Nemoto Shino - - 2006
Previous studies have determined that mice with a homozygous deletion in the adapter protein p66(shc) have an extended life span and that cells derived from these mice exhibit lower levels of reactive oxygen species. Here we demonstrate that a fraction of p66(shc) localizes to the mitochondria and that p66(shc-/-) fibroblasts ...
Mashimo Keiko - - 2006
Cultured mouse heart-derived myocardial and non-muscle cells were exposed to ethanol, stained with cell-permeant fluorescent vital probes, JC-1 (5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide) and oxidation-sensitive dihydrorhodamine 123, and analyzed by flow cytometry to elucidate ethanol-induced time-wise alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ethanol (50 ...
Santucci Luca - - 2006
The use of the anthracycline epirubicin (EPI) is limited by the risk of a dilatory congestive heart failure that develops as a consequence of induction of a mitochondrial-dependent cardiomyocyte and endothelial cell apoptosis. Nitric oxide (NO) increases the antitumoral activity of several chemotherapics, while it provides protection against apoptosis induced ...
Frank Stephan - - 2006
Mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly being recognized as an important factor contributing to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. However, at present, the molecular basis underlying the decline in mitochondrial function is not really understood, but recent experimental evidence has shed some light on the pivotal role of mitochondrial morphology control in ...
Batista Wagner L - - 2006
J-domain (DnaJ) proteins, of the Hsp40 family, are essential cofactors of their cognate Hsp70 chaperones, besides acting as independent chaperones. In the present study, we have demonstrated the presence of Mdj1, a mitochondrial DnaJ member, not only in the mitochondria, where it is apparently sorted, but also in the cell ...
Kuroda Yukiko - - 2006
We describe a novel function of parkin, a RING protein, which is elaborately involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Parkin was located within the mitochondrial organelle of proliferating cells. Anti-proliferative treatments released parkin from mitochondria to cytosol. Results of pharmacological treatments indicate that parkin was released from mitochondria when permeability transition pore ...
Minin Alexander A AA Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119988, Russia. - - 2006
The distribution of mitochondria is strictly controlled by the cell because of their vital role in energy supply, regulation of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and apoptosis. We employed cultured mammalian CV-1 cells and Drosophila BG2-C2 neuronal cells with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged mitochondria to investigate the regulation of their movement ...
Spees Jeffrey L - - 2006
Current theory indicates that mitochondria were obtained 1.5 billion years ago from an ancient prokaryote. The mitochondria provided the capacity for aerobic respiration, the creation of the eukaryotic cell, and eventually complex multicellular organisms. Recent reports have found that mitochondria play essential roles in aging and determining lifespan. A variety ...
Panzarini Elisa - - 2006
The aim of this work was to investigate the apoptosis induction and mitochondria alteration after photodamage exerted by incubation of HeLa cells with Rose Bengal acetate-derivative (RBAc) followed by irradiation for a total dose of 1.6 J/cm2. This treatment was previously demonstrated to reduce cell viability under mild treatment conditions, ...
Sionov Ronit Vogt - - 2006
The mechanisms by which glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediates glucocorticoid (GC)-induced apoptosis are unknown. We studied the role of mitochondrial GR in this process. Dexamethasone induces GR translocation to the mitochondria in GC-sensitive, but not in GC-resistant, T cell lines. In contrast, nuclear GR translocation occurs in all cell types. Thymic ...
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