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Trounce Ian A - - 2007
Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is the only mammalian biochemical pathway dependent on the coordinated assembly of protein subunits encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes. Cytoplasmic hybrid cells, cybrids, are created by introducing mtDNAs of interest into cells depleted of endogenous mtDNAs, and have been a central tool in ...
Kim Sun J - - 2007
The neuroprotective effect of mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPm), an enzyme involved in the reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH and the supply of glutathione (GSH) in mitochondria, was examined using SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing IDPm (S1). S1 cells showed higher NADPH and GSH levels than vector transfectant (V) cells and were more ...
Levin Leonard A - - 2007
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) results from point mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) present in all cells but is only manifested in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Given that RGCs use superoxide for intracellular signaling after axotomy, and that LHON mutations increase superoxide levels in non-RGC transmitochondrial cybrids, I hypothesized that ...
Mijaljica Dalibor - - 2007
Cellular degradative processes including proteasomal and vacuolar/lysosomal (autophagic) degradation, as well as the activity of proteases (both cytosolic and mitochondrial), provide for a continuous turnover of damaged and obsolete macromolecules and organelles. Mitochondria are organelles essential for respiration and oxidative energy production in aerobic cells; they are also required for ...
Criollo Alfredo - - 2007
HeLa and HCT116 cells respond differentially to sorbitol, an osmolyte able to induce hypertonic stress. In these models, sorbitol promoted the phenotypic manifestations of early apoptosis followed by complete loss of viability in a time-, dose-, and cell type-specific fashion, by eliciting distinct yet partially overlapping molecular pathways. In HCT116 ...
Wang Lina - - 2007
PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of Pro370Leu mutant myocilin on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and mitochondria function in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells. METHODS: HTM cells were transfected with wild-type Pro370Leu mutant myocilin or pcDNA3.1 (+) expression plasmids. The effect of the mutant myocilin on ER stress response was ...
Du Pasquier D - - 2007
Xenopus is a well proven model for a wide variety of developmental studies, including cell lineage. Cell lineage in Xenopus has largely been addressed by injection of tracer molecules or by micro-dissection elimination of blastomeres. Here we describe a genetic method for cell ablation based on the use of tBid, ...
Choi Soon-Young - - 2007
Sensitization of cancer cells to TRAIL could improve the effectiveness of TRAIL as an anticancer agent. We explored whether TRAIL in combination with phytosphingosine could sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL. The combined treatment enhanced synergistic apoptotic cell death of Jurkat T cells, compared to TRAIL or phytosphingosine alone. Enhanced apoptosis ...
Halabe Bucay Alberto - - 2007
In this article, I present the hypothesis that cancer presents due to the domination of the cell by mitochondria, which, from an evolution viewpoint, appeared in multi-cellular living being with the incorporation of a bacteria into a primitive cell, the bacteria sustained itself as mitochondria and these conserved their identity ...
Pevala V - - 2007
The effect of the yeast cell-death inducing agents, Bax and acetic acid, on mitochondrial structure of Schizosaccharomyces pombe was studied. Comparison of mitochondrial structures in cells grown on different substrates and visualized with different probes revealed variations in their morphology. Cells grown on respiratory C sources as well as in ...
Monsalve María - - 2007
The integrity of mitochondrial function is fundamental to cell life. The cell demands for mitochondria and their complex integration into cell biology, extends far beyond the provision of ATP. It follows that disturbances of mitochondrial function lead to disruption of cell function, expressed as disease or even death. Mitochondria are ...
Orrenius Sten - - 2007
In addition to the established role of the mitochondria in energy metabolism, regulation of cell death has emerged as a second major function of these organelles. This seems to be intimately linked to their generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been implicated in mtDNA mutations, aging, and cell ...
Xiao Qin - - 2007
ABSTRACT The findings in this study were that the exposure of FG cells to nonylphenol (NP) caused decreases in the cell growth rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, and ATP content; an increase in intracellular O(2)(-) content; and alteration of the organelles such as mitochondria and the RER. It is proposed that ...
Saczko J - - 2007
Compared to current treatments including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, PDT offers the advantage of an effective and selective method of destroying diseased tissues without damaging surrounding healthy tissues. One of the aspects of antitumour effectiveness of PDT is related to the distribution of photosensitizing drugs. The localization of photosensitizers ...
Park Woo-Hyun - - 2007
Antimycin A, an inhibitor of electron transport in mitochondria, has been used as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator in the biological system. Here, we investigated the in vitro effect of antimycin A on apoptosis in As4.1 juxtaglomerular cells. Antimycin A efficiently induced apoptosis in As4.1 cells as evidenced by flow ...
Krzeminski Patryk - - 2007
We have previously shown that P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y12 nucleotide receptors are functionally expressed and active on the cell surface of rat glioma C6 cells. In the present study, we have immunocytochemically shown their sub-cellular colocalization with mitochondria in these cells. The same colocalization of above receptors has been found ...
Poe Bobby G BG Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, - - 2007
Quantitation of wild-type and deleted mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) coexisting within the same cell (a.k.a., heteroplasmy) is important in mitochondrial disease and aging. We report the development of a multiplex three-primer PCR assay that is capable of absolute quantitation of wild-type and deleted mtDNA simultaneously. Molecular beacons were designed to hybridize ...
Indo Hiroko P - - 2007
Mitochondrial damage is a well known cause of mitochondria-related diseases. A major mechanism underlying the development of mitochondria-related diseases is thought to be an increase in intracellular oxidative stress produced by impairment of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). However, clear evidence of intracellular free radical generation has not been ...
Tal Ruth - - 2007
Autophagy is a catabolic membrane-trafficking process that occurs in all eukaryotic cells and leads to the hydrolytic degradation of cytosolic material in the vacuolar or lysosomal lumen. Mitophagy, a selective form of autophagy targeting mitochondria, is poorly understood at present. Several recent reports suggest that mitophagy is a selective process ...
Palacios-Callender Miriam - - 2007
Nitric oxide (NO), generated endogenously in NO-synthase-transfected cells, increases the reduction of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) at O2 concentrations ([O2]) above those at which it inhibits cell respiration. Thus, in cells respiring to anoxia, the addition of 2.5 microM L-arginine at 70 microM O2 resulted in reduction of CcO ...
Yoon Young Geol YG Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Institute of Human Genetics, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Moos Tower 5-214, MMC 206, 420 Delaware Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455, - - 2007
A detailed molecular understanding of mitochondrial fusion and fission in mammalian cells is rapidly emerging. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time cross-species mitochondrial fusion between distantly related species using green and red fluorescent proteins targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. We found that mouse mitochondria were able to ...
Qian Yongchang - - 2007
The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative non-cholinergic neurotoxic effects of paraoxon, which is acutely neurotoxic, and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), which induces OPIDN, in the human neuroblastoma SY5Y and the human astrocytoma cell line CCF-STTG1. SY5Y cells have been studied extensively as a model for OP-induced neurotoxicity, ...
Aon Miguel A - - 2007
Two-photon scanning laser and confocal microscopies were used to image metabolic dynamics of single or cell populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 28033. Autofluorescence of reduced nicotinamide nucleotides, and mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim), were simultaneously monitored. Spontaneous, large-scale synchronized oscillations of NAD(P)H and DeltaPsim throughout the entire population of yeasts occurred ...
Goto Yuya - - 2006
Here, we sought to clarify the comprehensive cellular response to transcription factor E2F1 expression using short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing to examine the roles of E2F1. For this purpose, we analyzed global gene expression changes in E2F1 knockdown HeLa cells, where no changes in cell growth or apoptosis were ...
Herst Patries M - - 2006
The view that mitochondrial electron transport is the only site of aerobic respiration and the primary bioenergetic pathway in mammalian cells is well established in the literature. Although this paradigm is widely accepted for most tissues, the situation is less clear for proliferating cells. Increasing evidence indicates that glycolytic ATP ...
Honda Henry M - - 2006
Mitochondria can serve as the arbiter of cell fate in response to stress. Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is characterized by permeabilization of an otherwise relatively impermeable mitochondrial inner membrane and appears to have a major role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in myocardial infarction and stroke. After I/R, the fate of ...
Fattoretti Patrizia - - 2006
A quantitative morphometric study has been carried out in human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE cells to evaluate the ultrastructural features and the metabolic efficiency of mitochondria involved in the early steps of apoptosis. In mitochondria from control and apoptotic cells cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity was estimated by preferential cytochemistry. Number of mitochondria ...
Frazier Ann E - - 2006
It is now appreciated that mitochondria form tubular networks that adapt to the requirements of the cell by undergoing changes in their shape through fission and fusion. Proper mitochondrial distribution also appears to be required for ATP delivery and calcium regulation, and, in some cases, for cell development. While we ...
Carranza-Rosales Pilar - - 2007
Mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) is a highly toxic compound, which can cause nephrotoxic damage. In the present study effects of HgCl(2) on mitochondria integrity and energy metabolism, as well as antidotal effects of 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) were investigated in the opossum kidney derived cell line (OK). OK cell monolayers were incubated during ...
Lee C S - - 2007
The present study investigated the effect of 5-hydroxydecanoate, a selective mitochondrial K(ATP) channel blocker, on the cytotoxicity of neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) in differentiated PC12 cells. 5-Hydroxydecanoate and glibenclamide (a cell surface and mitochondrial K(ATP) channel inhibitor) reduced the MPP(+)-induced cell death and GSH depletion and showed a maximal inhibitory effect ...
Brown Nicholas M - - 2007
Cytokine deprivation has been classically used to study molecular processes of apoptosis. Following interleukin (IL)-3 withdrawal in FL5.12 cells, Bax undergoes a conformational change that results in its mitochondria targeting, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9, and apoptosis. Cells overexpressing Casp9DN (dominant negative caspase-9) or treated with the caspase inhibitor ...
Szigeti Andras - - 2006
We found that heme-binding protein 2/SOUL sensitised NIH3T3 cells to cell death induced by A23187 and etoposide, but it did not affect reactive oxygen species formation. In the presence of sub-threshold calcium, recombinant SOUL provoked mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) in vitro that was inhibited by cyclosporine A (CsA). This effect ...
Kim Grace J - - 2006
Radiation-induced genomic instability (RIGI) manifests as a heritable increased rate of genetic alterations in the progeny of irradiated cells generations after the initial insult. The progeny can show an increased frequency of chromosomal translocations, deletions, mutations, micronuclei, and decreased plating efficiency. What perpetuates RIGI is unclear; however, persistently increased levels ...
Pasquini L A - - 2007
In order to further characterize the still unknown mechanism of cuprizone-induced demyelination, we investigated its effect on rat primary oligodendroglial cell cultures. Cell viability was not significantly affected by this treatment. However, when concentrations of IFNgamma and/or TNFalpha having no deleterious effects per se on cell viability were added together ...
Mukhopadhyay Sudit S - - 2006
Cells from patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), an inherited disorder that includes bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition, have increased sensitivity to oxidative stress through an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate that the FA group G (FANCG) protein is found in mitochondria. Wild-type but not G546R mutant FANCG physically interacts with ...
González-Aragón David - - 2007
Dicoumarol, a competitive inhibitor of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), increases intracellular superoxide and affects cell growth of tumor cells. This work was set to establish a mechanistic link between dicoumarol, superoxide and cell cycle alterations in HL-60 cells. Using ES936, a mechanism-based irreversible inhibitor of NQO1, we demonstrate that NQO1 ...
Sen Nilkantha - - 2007
We have shown that treatment with luteolin in leishmanial cells causes loss of mt-DNA and induces apoptosis through mitochondria dependent pathway [Sen, N., Das, B.B., Ganguly, A., Banerjee, B., Sen, T., Majumder, H.K., 2006. Leishmania donovani: intracellular ATP level regulates apoptosis-like death in luteolin induced dyskinetoplastid cells. Experimental Parasitology, in ...
Anmann Tiia - - 2006
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of cellular regulation of mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized cardiac cells with clearly different structural organization: (i) in isolated rat cardiomyocytes with very regular mitochondrial arrangement, (ii) in HL-1 cells from mouse heart, and (iii) in non-beating (NB HL-1 cells) without ...
Schauen Matthias - - 2006
We have used HeLa cells without mitochondrial DNA (rho0-cells) and transient rho0-phenocopies, obtained from wild-type cells by short-term treatment with ethidium bromide, to analyze how the absence of a functional mitochondrial respiratory chain slows down proliferation. We ruled out an energetic problem (ATP/ADP content) as well as defective synthesis of ...
Matsumoto-Ida Madoka - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria play pivotal roles in cell death; the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi(m)) is the earliest event that commits the cell to death. Here, we report novel real-time imaging of delta psi(m) in individual cardiomyocytes within perfused rat hearts using 2-photon laser-scanning microscopy, which has unique advantages ...
Poncet Delphine - - 2006
Replication of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) requires the expression of the viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA). vMIA inhibits apoptosis by recruiting Bax to mitochondria, resulting in its neutralization. We show that vMIA decreases cell size, reduces actin polymerization, and induces cell rounding. As compared with vMIA-expressing CMV, vMIA-deficient CMV, which ...
Chan J Y H - - 2006
Our current understanding of the nature of cell death that is associated with fatal organophosphate poisoning and the underlying cellular mechanisms is surprisingly limited. Taking advantage of the absence in an in vitro system of acetylcholinesterase, the pharmacological target of organophosphate compounds, the present study evaluated the hypothesis that the ...
Terman Alexei - - 2006
Normal mitochondrial respiration is associated with a continuous production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, inevitably resulting in minor macromolecular damage. Damaged cellular components are not completely turned over by autophagy and other cellular repair systems, leading to a progressive age-related accumulation of biological "garbage" material, such as defective mitochondria, cytoplasmic ...
Solans Asun - - 2006
Mitochondrial dysfunction may play an important role in the pathogenic mechanism of Huntington's disease (HD). However, the exact mechanism by which mutated huntingtin could cause bioenergetic dysfunction is still unknown. We have constructed a stable inducible yeast model of HD by expressing a human huntingtin fragment containing a mutant polyglutamine ...
Behbahani Homira - - 2006
Increasing evidence indicates that mitochondrial alterations contribute to the neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Presenilin 1 (PS1) and Presenilin 2 (PS2) mutations have been shown to sensitize cells to apoptosis by mechanisms suggested to involve impaired mitochondrial function. We have previously detected active gamma-secretase complexes in mitochondria. We investigated ...
Taghiyev Agshin F - - 2006
The histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) has previously been found to induce caspase activity in the human prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and LNCaP. TSA treatment resulted in the release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria in DU145, and activation of caspase-9 in both cell lines. We concluded ...
Tafani Marco - - 2006
Cyclosporin A (CyA) and bongkrekic acid (BK) prevented Fas-induced apoptosis in two type I cell lines (H9 and SKW6.4) and two type II cell lines (Jurkat and CEM). CyA and BK inhibited the release of cytochrome c in all four cell lines. In type I cells and in CEM cells, ...
Arakaki Naokatu - - 2006
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles in eukaryotic cells. Although the role of mitochondria in metabolism, ATP production and apoptosis is more widely recognized, alterations in mitochondrial morphology and abundance are also important for cellular functions. Here we investigated mitochondrial dynamics in synchronized HeLa cells in which the major stages of ...
Su Chun-Li - - 2007
SC-1, the aqueous phase of soybean fermentation products by bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus brevis), significantly inhibited the growth and clonogenesity of human hepatocellular (Hep 3B), mouse hepatocellular (ML-1), and human colorectal (HCT 116 and HT-29) carcinoma cells. Cytotoxicity of SC-1 in Hep 3B cells was through the process of ...
Ge Yun - - 2006
Using a novel cell-based assay to profile transcriptional pathway targeting, we have identified a new functional class of thalidomide analogs with distinct and selective antileukemic activity. These agents activate nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcriptional pathways while simultaneously repressing nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) via a rapid intracellular amplification of ...
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