Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1680
< 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 >
Zorov D B - - 2007
The signaling function of mitochondria is considered with a special emphasis on their role in the regulation of redox status of the cell, possibly determining a number of pathologies including cancer and aging. The review summarizes the transport role of mitochondria in energy supply to all cellular compartments (mitochondria as ...
Yang Hongying H Department of Pathology, Paul F. Glenn Laboratories, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2007
A major cause of cell death caused by genotoxic stress is thought to be due to the depletion of NAD(+) from the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Here we show that NAD(+) levels in mitochondria remain at physiological levels following genotoxic stress and can maintain cell viability even when nuclear and ...
Wang Feng F Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2007
Hypoxia increased the ability of two human cancer cell lines, PC-3M and T24, to invade through Matrigel, while sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, strongly inhibited this invasion, along with down-regulating HIF-1alpha. SNP also inhibited the function of mitochondria in PC-3M cells, and mitochondrion-specific inhibitors reduced the invasion ...
Pecqueur Claire - - 2008
Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) belongs to the mitochondrial carrier family and has been thought to be involved in suppressing mitochondrial ROS production through uncoupling mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis. However, we show here that loss of function of UCP2 does not result in a significant increase in ROS production or an ...
Pizzo Paola - - 2007
Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have different roles in living cells but they interact both physically and functionally. A key aspect of the mitochondria-ER relationship is the modulation of Ca(2+) signaling during cell activation, which thus affects a variety of physiological processes. We focus here on the molecular aspects that ...
Bongaerts Ger P A - - 2008
Apoptosis is defined as the process of ''programmed cell death'' (PCD), during which many cells simultaneously die from within along a very orderly pattern. PCD is as intrinsic for cells as mitosis and is involved in both degenerative and developmental processes of organs and organisms. The pattern of apoptotic cell ...
Quintana Ariel - - 2007
T helper (Th) cell activation is required for the adaptive immune response. Formation of the immunological synapse (IS) between Th cells and antigen-presenting cells is essential for Th cell activation. IS formation induces the polarization and redistribution of many signaling molecules; however, very little is known about organelle redistribution during ...
Gustafsson Asa B - - 2008
Mitochondria are important generators of energy, providing ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. However, mitochondria also monitor complex information from the environment and intracellular milieu, including the presence or absence of growth factors, oxygen, reactive oxygen species, and DNA damage. Mitochondria have been implicated in the loss of cells in various cardiac ...
Kinzler Ingrid - - 2007
The present study was undertaken to find new ways to improve efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). We investigated the combinatory effect of the photosensitizer Photofrin and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). UDCA is a relatively non-toxic bile acid which is used inter alia as a treatment for cholestatic disorders and was reported ...
Northington F J FJ Department of Pediatrics, CMSC 6-104, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. - - 2007
Controversy surrounds proper classification of neurodegeneration occurring acutely following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). By ultrastructural classification, in the first 24 h after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia in the 7-day-old (p7) rat, the majority of striatal cells die having both apoptotic and necrotic features. There is formation of a functional apoptosome, and activation of ...
Yehezkel Galit - - 2007
In a previous study, we presented evidence for the existence of a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) in the N-terminal region of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1). In this study, further localization and possible roles of the proposed VDAC1-NBS were investigated using site-directed mutagenesis. The predicated NBS of murine VDAC1 (mVDAC1) was ...
Prabhakaran K - - 2007
Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), a Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3) domain only protein, has been identified as a mitochondrial mediator of hypoxia-induced cell death. Since cyanide produces histotoxic anoxia (chemical hypoxia), the present study was undertaken in primary rat cortical cells to determine involvement of the BNIP3 signaling ...
Lenz Holger - - 2007
The creatine kinase (CK) system is essential for cellular energetics in tissues or cells with high and fluctuating energy requirements. Creatine itself is known to protect cells from stress-induced injury. By using an siRNA approach to silence the CK isoenzymes in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells, expressing low levels of cytoplasmic ...
Ding Hongqun - - 2008
Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage. To develop a cellular model of Alzheimer's disease, we investigated the effects of thioredoxin (Trx) expression in the response to mitochondrial dysfunction-enhanced oxidative stress in the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with 15 ...
Ambrose Mark - - 2007
One of the characteristic features of cells from patients with ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is that they are in a state of continuous oxidative stress and exhibit constitutive activation of pathways that normally respond to oxidative damage. In this report, we investigated whether the oxidative stress phenotype of A-T cells might ...
Nugent Sharon M E - - 2007
The bystander effect describes radiation-like damage in unirradiated cells either in the vicinity of irradiated cells or exposed to medium from irradiated cells. This study aimed to further characterize the poorly understood mitochondrial response to both direct irradiation and bystander factor(s) in human keratinocytes (HPV-G) and Chinese hamster ovarian cells ...
Kissová Ingrid - - 2007
Mitochondria are essential to oxidative energy production in aerobic eukaryotic cells, where they are also required for multiple biosynthetic pathways to take place. Mitochondrial homeostasis also plays a crucial role in ageing and programmed cell death, and recent data have suggested that mitochondria degradation is a strictly regulated process. Autophagy ...
Kim Eun Hee - - 2007
Malignant gliomas are resistant to various proapoptotic therapies, such as radiotherapy and conventional chemotherapy. In this study, we show that selenite is preferentially cytotoxic to various human glioma cells over normal astrocytes via autophagic cell death. Overexpression of Akt, survivin, XIAP, Bcl-2, or Bcl-xL failed to block selenite-induced cell death, ...
Choi Joon-Seok - - 2007
Previous studies have suggested that upregulation of Cyclin A-dependent protein kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity is an essential event in apoptotic progression and the mitochondrial permeability transition in human cancer cells. Here, we show that upregulated Cyclin A/Cdk2 activity precedes the proteolytic cleavage of PARP and is correlated with the mitochondrial ...
Paliwal Rishi - - 2007
Mitochondrion, the energy generating organelle of the cell, is a subject of interest for selective targeting of therapeutic molecules, both Drugs and DNA, since it is found to be involved in numerous disorders like diabetes, neurodegenerative disease and cancer etc. Mitochondrial therapy can be made possible if the bioactive molecule ...
Kim Soon Young - - 2007
Psoriasis is characterized by excessive proliferation of keratinocytes accompanying acanthosis and incomplete differentiation. Prohibitin was investigated by examining its function of HaCaT as well as psoriasis. Psoriatic involved skin revealed high level of prohibitin in the basal layer. Prohibitin was analyzed by applying RNAi (PHBi) with HaCaT, which demonstrated increased ...
Merker Marilyn P MP Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, - - 2007
The objective was to determine the impact of intact normoxic and hyperoxia-exposed (95% O(2) for 48 h) bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells in culture on the redox status of the coenzyme Q(10) homolog coenzyme Q(1) (CoQ(1)). When CoQ(1) (50 microM) was incubated with the cells for 30 min, its concentration ...
Yang Yi - - 2007
The majority of protein disulfides in cells is considered an important inert structural, rather than a dynamic regulatory, determinant of protein function. Here, we show that some disulfides in proteins also are regulated by cell redox status with functional consequences. We find that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by mitochondria ...
Kakkar Poonam - - 2007
In their reductionist approach in unraveling phenomena inside the cell, scientists in recent times have focused attention to mitochondria. An organelle with peculiar evolutionary history and organization, it is turning out to be an important cell survival switch. Besides controlling bioenergetics of a cell it also has its own genetic ...
Coffman James A - - 2007
Mitochondria are not only the major energy generators of the eukaryotic cell but they are also sources of signals that control gene expression and cell fate. While mitochondria are often asymmetrically distributed in early embryos, little is known about how they contribute to axial patterning. Here we review studies of ...
Moncada, Claudio
The high-affinity (K-M < 1 muM) mitochondrial class 2 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) metabolizes most of the acetaldehyde generated in the hepatic oxidation of ethanol. H4-II-E-C3 rat hepatoma cells have been found to express ALDH2. We report a method to assess ALDH2 activity in intact hepatoma cells that does not require ...
Annunen-Rasila Johanna - - 2007
We have recently shown disorganization of the vimentin network in cultured cells deficient in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We describe here the cellular responses to OXPHOS deficiency in osteosarcoma cells upon complex I (CI) and complex IV (CIV) inhibition, and upon the lack of mitochondrial DNA (rho0 cells). We examined the ...
Takahashi Kyohei - - 2007
Chloroacetaldehyde, a metabolite of the anticancer drug ifosfamide, may be responsible for serious adverse effects like encephalopathy in ifosfamide chemotherapy. In this study, we demonstrate that chloroacetaldehyde, but not ifosfamide, induces cell death in human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells and we investigated the mechanism by which this occurs. Chloroacetaldehyde above 30 ...
Lee Seungmin - - 2007
The number and morphology of mitochondria within a cell are precisely regulated by the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery. The human protein, hFis1, participates in mitochondrial fission by recruiting the Drp1 into the mitochondria. Using short hairpin RNA, we reduced the expression levels of hFis1 in mammalian cells. Cells lacking ...
Perl Andras A Department of Medicine, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, College of Medicine, Syracuse, New York 13210, - - 2007
The signaling networks that mediate cell growth, differentiation, and survival are dependent on complex metabolic and redox pathways. Metabolism of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) fulfills two unique functions: formation of ribose 5-phosphate for the synthesis of nucleotides, RNA, and DNA in support cell growth and formation of ...
Kim Hyoung Kyu - - 2007
We compared mitochondrial function, morphology, and proteome in the rat normal gastric cell line RGM-1 and the human gastric cancer cell line AGS. Total numbers and cross-sectional sizes of mitochondria were smaller in AGS cells. Mitochondria in AGS cells were deformed and consumed less oxygen. Confocal microscopy indicated that the ...
Chen Jin-Qiang - - 2007
Both estrogen receptors (ER) alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) are localized in the nucleus, plasma membrane, and mitochondria, where they mediate the different physiological effects of estrogens. It has been observed that the relative subcellular localization of ERs is altered in several cancer cells. We have demonstrated that MCF-10F cells, ...
Bovolenta Silvia - - 2007
The present work describes the engineering and characterization of a new Ca(2+)-activated photoprotein (Photina) and its use in mammalian cell lines for implementation of flash luminescence cell-based assays for high-throughput screening (HTS). When used to measure the activation of 2 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), targeting Photina to the mitochondria increased ...
Mader Jamie S - - 2007
Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide that kills Jurkat T-leukemia cells by the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. However, the process by which LfcinB triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptosis is not well understood. Here, we show that LfcinB-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells was preceded by LfcinB binding to, and progressive ...
van der Toorn Marco - - 2007
Cyclosporin A induces closure of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. We aimed to investigate whether this closure results in concomitant increases in mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) and the production of reactive oxygen species. Fluorescent probes were used to assess DeltaPsim (JC-1, 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-benzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide), reactive oxygen species [DCF, 5- (and 6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein ...
Morimoto Satoshi - - 2007
Cannabinoids are secondary metabolites stored in capitate-sessile glands on leaves of Cannabis sativa. We discovered that cell death is induced in the leaf tissues exposed to cannabinoid resin secreted from the glands, and identified cannabichromenic acid (CBCA) and Delta(1)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) as unique cell death mediators from the resin. These ...
Matos Ana Rita - - 2007
To investigate how the fatty acid composition of membrane lipids influences cell growth and mitochondrial respiration, in particular the expression and capacity of alternative oxidase (AOX), under cold stress, we used the Arabidopsis thaliana fad2 knockout and FAD3+ -overexpressing cultured cells lines affected in extrachloroplastic fatty acid desaturation activities. At ...
Moin Syed Mohammad - - 2007
The biology and pathogenesis of hepatitis E virus are poorly understood due to the lack of an in vitro culture or infection models. The viral Orf3 protein activates the cellular mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and is likely to modulate the host cell environment for efficient viral replication. We screened for ...
Pennazio Sergio - - 2007
This history has its conventional opening about twenty years after the statement of the "Cell Theory", when, at the end of the 19th century, several cytologists discovered unusual, minute corpuscles in the protoplasm of both animal and plant cells. These organelles, owing to their polymorphism, were defined "mitochondria" and a ...
Cheung Eric C C - - 2007
Mitochondria undergo continuous fission and fusion events in physiological situations. Fragmentation of mitochondria during cell death has been shown to play a key role in cell death progression, including release of the mitochondrial apoptotic proteins. Ultrastructural changes in mitochondria, such as cristae remodeling, is also involved in cell death initiation. ...
Bai Jie - - 2007
We show that 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)), an active metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), induces cytotoxicity via endoplasmic reticulum (ER)- and mitochondria-mediated pathways, and thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1), a redox-active protein, prevents MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. TRX-1 overexpression suppressed reactive oxygen species and the ATP decline caused by MPP(+) in HepG2 cells. MPP(+) activated caspase-12 ...
Goyal Gaurav - - 2007
The role of mitochondria in Drosophila programmed cell death remains unclear, although certain gene products that regulate cell death seem to be evolutionarily conserved. We find that developmental programmed cell death stimuli in vivo and multiple apoptotic stimuli ex vivo induce dramatic mitochondrial fragmentation upstream of effector caspase activation, phosphatidylserine ...
de Bivort Benjamin Lovegren - - 2007
The endosymbiosis of proto-mitochondrial prokaryotes (PMP) into proto-eukaryotic host-cells was a major advance in eukaryotic evolution. The nature of the initial relationship remains the subject of controversy. Various conceptual models have been proposed, but none has definitive support. We construct a model of inter-species interactions based upon well-established respiratory pathways, ...
Seo Jae-Gu - - 2007
Yeast cells become older with each division, but their daughters are born young. Mutational analysis shows that maintenance of this age asymmetry requires segregation of a complement of active mitochondria to daughters and that this process breaks down in older mother cells. This decline has implications for stem cell aging ...
Mukhopadhyay Partha - - 2007
Experiments with isolated mitochondria have established that these organelles are pivotal intracellular sources of superoxide in a variety of pathophysiological conditions. Recently, a novel fluoroprobe MitoSOX Red was introduced for selective detection of superoxide in the mitochondria of live cells and was validated with confocal microscopy. Here we show approximately ...
von Kleist-Retzow Jürgen-Christoph - - 2007
Energy-producing pathways, adenine nucleotide levels, oxidative stress response and Ca(2+) homeostasis were investigated in cybrid cells incorporating two pathogenic mitochondrial DNA point mutations, 3243A>G and 3302A>G in tRNA(Leu(UUR)), as well as Rho(0) cells and compared to their parental 143B osteosarcoma cell line. All cells suffering from a severe respiratory chain ...
Ramanujan V Krishnan - - 2007
Regulatory dynamics of energy metabolism in living cells entails a coordinated response of multiple enzyme networks that operate under non-equilibrium conditions. Here we show that mitochondrial dysfunctions associated with the aging process significantly modify nonlinear dynamical signatures in free radical generation/removal, thereby altering energy metabolism in liver cells. We support ...
Koopman Werner J H - - 2007
Malfunction of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I (CI), the first and largest complex of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system, has been implicated in a wide variety of human disorders. To demonstrate a quantitative relationship between CI amount and activity and mitochondrial shape and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, we ...
Kawase Tomoyuki - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Periodontitis, similar to many other known inflammatory diseases, is thought to increase adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in extracellular spaces. Extracellular ATP acts on specific receptors to modulate the proliferation of various cell types. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains high levels of ectonucleotidase activity capable of degrading ATP. The aim of ...
Maguire Paula - - 2007
The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure of HPV-G cells to irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) could induce an adaptive response if the cells were subsequently challenged with a higher ICCM dose. Clonogenic survival and major steps in the cascade leading to apoptosis, such as calcium influx ...
< 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 >