Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1698
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Alano Conrad C - - 2007
Activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)-1 leads to the death of neurons and other types of cells by a mechanism involving NAD(+) depletion and mitochondrial permeability transition. It has been proposed that the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is required for NAD(+) to be released from mitochondria and subsequently consumed by ...
Hovater Michael B - - 2008
Renal epithelial cells release ATP constitutively under basal conditions and release higher quantities of purine nucleotide in response to stimuli. ATP filtered at the glomerulus, secreted by epithelial cells along the nephron, and released serosally by macula densa cells for feedback signaling to afferent arterioles within the glomerulus has important ...
Tettamanti Gianluca - - 2008
Oligomycin A, an inhibitor of mitochondrial ATP synthase, provokes simultaneous and different responses in IPLB-LdFB insect cell line. The oligomycin A treatment causes mitochondrial loss, increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), destabilization/reorganization of the actin microfilaments and, finally, autophagic cell death. We speculate that oligomycin A affects the mitochondria and ...
Masci Alessandra - - 2008
Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT) patients are particularly sensitive to oxidative-nitrosative stress. Nitric oxide (NO) controls mitochondrial respiration via the reversible inhibition of complex IV. The mitochondrial response to NO of AT lymphoblastoid cells was investigated. Cells isolated from three patients and three intrafamilial healthy controls were selected showing within each group ...
Laparra J M - - 2008
Foods and drinking water are the main routes for human exposure to inorganic arsenic, the intestinal epithelium being the first barrier against such exogenous toxicants. The present study evaluates the effect of As(III) (0.5-25 microM) upon Caco-2 cells as an intestinal epithelia model. Cell viability, intracellular formation of reactive oxygen ...
Buenz Eric J - - 2008
Aloe is widely used as a dietary supplement. However, there are continuing concerns over the toxicity and the purity of aloe-based products. The primary class of compounds responsible for aloe-induced toxicity are anthraquinones. One of these, aloe-emodin, has been extensively investigated for apoptosis inducing effects. Conversely, the precursor to aloe-emodin, ...
Ferreiro Elisabete - - 2008
Prion disorders are progressive neurodegenerative diseases characterized by extensive neuronal loss and by the accumulation of the pathogenic form of prion protein, designated PrP(Sc). Recently, we have shown that PrP(106-126) induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to mitochondrial cytochrome c release, caspase 3 activation and apoptotic death. In order to ...
Scott Iain - - 2008
Mitochondrial morphology and dynamics were investigated during the onset of cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana. Cell death was induced by either chemical (reactive oxygen species (ROS)) or physical (heat) shock. Changes in mitochondrial morphology in leaf tissue, or isolated protoplasts, each expressing mitochondrial-targeted green fluorescent protein (GFP), were observed by ...
Giannelli M - - 2008
Although several studies have shown that chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) has bactericidal activity against periodontal pathogens and exerts toxic effects on periodontal tissues, few have been directed to evaluate the mechanisms underlying its adverse effects on these tissues. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro ...
Bressan Alessandro - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in anthracycline-induced apoptosis is controversial. Sabarubicin accumulates in the mitochondria of A2780 human ovarian tumor cells. The effects of this new anthracycline on the structure and the functionality of mtDNA, as well as on the apoptosis of mtDNA-depleted cells have been investigated. MATERIALS ...
Wittig Ilka - - 2007
We introduce high resolution clear native electrophoresis (CNE) as a powerful technique to resolve enzymatically active mitochondrial complexes from cultured human cell lines and skeletal muscle biopsy samples. Quantitative enzymatic assays can be performed using small amounts of cultured cells with low mitochondria content, for example, around 10 mg of ...
Morici Giovanni - - 2007
In the present paper we applied confocal microscopy and fluorescence technologies for studying the distribution and the oxidative activity of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) mitochondria during development, by in vivo incubating eggs and embryos with cell-permeant MitoTracker probes. We calculated, by a mathematical model, the intensity values, the variations of ...
Balut C - - 2008
Renal ischemia and subsequent reperfusion lead to changes in the regulation of hydrogen ions across the mitochondrial membrane. This study was designed to monitor pH changes in the cytosol and mitochondria of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells exposed to metabolic inhibition and subsequent recovery. A classical one-photon confocal imaging approach using ...
Tamm Christoffer - - 2008
Manganese is an essential nutrient for humans that has to be maintained at proper levels for normal brain functioning. However, manganese also acts as a toxicant to the brain, and several studies have linked exposure to excessive manganese to neurotoxicity in adults. A recent report has suggested that ingesting high ...
Lutz-Bonengel Sabine - - 2008
The nature of mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy is still unclear. It could either be caused by two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes coexisting within a single cell or by an admixture of homoplasmic cells, each of which contains only one type of mtDNA molecule. To address this question, single lymphocytes were separated ...
Rea Shane L - - 2007
Prior studies have shown that disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) function in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans can result in life extension. Counter to these findings, many mutations that disrupt ETC function in humans are known to be pathologically life-shortening. In this study, we have undertaken the first formal ...
Athanasiou Andriani - - 2007
Time-lapse microscopy of human lung cancer (H460) cells showed that the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA), the phyto-cannabinoid Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and a synthetic cannabinoid HU 210 all caused morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis. Janus green assays of H460 cell viability showed that AEA and THC caused significant increases in OD 595 ...
Zorov D B - - 2007
The signaling function of mitochondria is considered with a special emphasis on their role in the regulation of redox status of the cell, possibly determining a number of pathologies including cancer and aging. The review summarizes the transport role of mitochondria in energy supply to all cellular compartments (mitochondria as ...
Yang Hongying H Department of Pathology, Paul F. Glenn Laboratories, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, - - 2007
A major cause of cell death caused by genotoxic stress is thought to be due to the depletion of NAD(+) from the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Here we show that NAD(+) levels in mitochondria remain at physiological levels following genotoxic stress and can maintain cell viability even when nuclear and ...
Wang Feng F Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2007
Hypoxia increased the ability of two human cancer cell lines, PC-3M and T24, to invade through Matrigel, while sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor, strongly inhibited this invasion, along with down-regulating HIF-1alpha. SNP also inhibited the function of mitochondria in PC-3M cells, and mitochondrion-specific inhibitors reduced the invasion ...
Pecqueur Claire - - 2008
Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) belongs to the mitochondrial carrier family and has been thought to be involved in suppressing mitochondrial ROS production through uncoupling mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis. However, we show here that loss of function of UCP2 does not result in a significant increase in ROS production or an ...
Pizzo Paola - - 2007
Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have different roles in living cells but they interact both physically and functionally. A key aspect of the mitochondria-ER relationship is the modulation of Ca(2+) signaling during cell activation, which thus affects a variety of physiological processes. We focus here on the molecular aspects that ...
Bongaerts Ger P A - - 2008
Apoptosis is defined as the process of ''programmed cell death'' (PCD), during which many cells simultaneously die from within along a very orderly pattern. PCD is as intrinsic for cells as mitosis and is involved in both degenerative and developmental processes of organs and organisms. The pattern of apoptotic cell ...
Quintana Ariel - - 2007
T helper (Th) cell activation is required for the adaptive immune response. Formation of the immunological synapse (IS) between Th cells and antigen-presenting cells is essential for Th cell activation. IS formation induces the polarization and redistribution of many signaling molecules; however, very little is known about organelle redistribution during ...
Gustafsson Asa B - - 2008
Mitochondria are important generators of energy, providing ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. However, mitochondria also monitor complex information from the environment and intracellular milieu, including the presence or absence of growth factors, oxygen, reactive oxygen species, and DNA damage. Mitochondria have been implicated in the loss of cells in various cardiac ...
Kinzler Ingrid - - 2007
The present study was undertaken to find new ways to improve efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). We investigated the combinatory effect of the photosensitizer Photofrin and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). UDCA is a relatively non-toxic bile acid which is used inter alia as a treatment for cholestatic disorders and was reported ...
Northington F J FJ Department of Pediatrics, CMSC 6-104, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. - - 2007
Controversy surrounds proper classification of neurodegeneration occurring acutely following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). By ultrastructural classification, in the first 24 h after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia in the 7-day-old (p7) rat, the majority of striatal cells die having both apoptotic and necrotic features. There is formation of a functional apoptosome, and activation of ...
Yehezkel Galit - - 2007
In a previous study, we presented evidence for the existence of a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) in the N-terminal region of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1). In this study, further localization and possible roles of the proposed VDAC1-NBS were investigated using site-directed mutagenesis. The predicated NBS of murine VDAC1 (mVDAC1) was ...
Prabhakaran K - - 2007
Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), a Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3) domain only protein, has been identified as a mitochondrial mediator of hypoxia-induced cell death. Since cyanide produces histotoxic anoxia (chemical hypoxia), the present study was undertaken in primary rat cortical cells to determine involvement of the BNIP3 signaling ...
Lenz Holger - - 2007
The creatine kinase (CK) system is essential for cellular energetics in tissues or cells with high and fluctuating energy requirements. Creatine itself is known to protect cells from stress-induced injury. By using an siRNA approach to silence the CK isoenzymes in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells, expressing low levels of cytoplasmic ...
Ding Hongqun - - 2008
Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage. To develop a cellular model of Alzheimer's disease, we investigated the effects of thioredoxin (Trx) expression in the response to mitochondrial dysfunction-enhanced oxidative stress in the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with 15 ...
Ambrose Mark - - 2007
One of the characteristic features of cells from patients with ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is that they are in a state of continuous oxidative stress and exhibit constitutive activation of pathways that normally respond to oxidative damage. In this report, we investigated whether the oxidative stress phenotype of A-T cells might ...
Nugent Sharon M E - - 2007
The bystander effect describes radiation-like damage in unirradiated cells either in the vicinity of irradiated cells or exposed to medium from irradiated cells. This study aimed to further characterize the poorly understood mitochondrial response to both direct irradiation and bystander factor(s) in human keratinocytes (HPV-G) and Chinese hamster ovarian cells ...
Kissová Ingrid - - 2007
Mitochondria are essential to oxidative energy production in aerobic eukaryotic cells, where they are also required for multiple biosynthetic pathways to take place. Mitochondrial homeostasis also plays a crucial role in ageing and programmed cell death, and recent data have suggested that mitochondria degradation is a strictly regulated process. Autophagy ...
Kim Eun Hee - - 2007
Malignant gliomas are resistant to various proapoptotic therapies, such as radiotherapy and conventional chemotherapy. In this study, we show that selenite is preferentially cytotoxic to various human glioma cells over normal astrocytes via autophagic cell death. Overexpression of Akt, survivin, XIAP, Bcl-2, or Bcl-xL failed to block selenite-induced cell death, ...
Choi Joon-Seok - - 2007
Previous studies have suggested that upregulation of Cyclin A-dependent protein kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity is an essential event in apoptotic progression and the mitochondrial permeability transition in human cancer cells. Here, we show that upregulated Cyclin A/Cdk2 activity precedes the proteolytic cleavage of PARP and is correlated with the mitochondrial ...
Paliwal Rishi - - 2007
Mitochondrion, the energy generating organelle of the cell, is a subject of interest for selective targeting of therapeutic molecules, both Drugs and DNA, since it is found to be involved in numerous disorders like diabetes, neurodegenerative disease and cancer etc. Mitochondrial therapy can be made possible if the bioactive molecule ...
Kim Soon Young - - 2007
Psoriasis is characterized by excessive proliferation of keratinocytes accompanying acanthosis and incomplete differentiation. Prohibitin was investigated by examining its function of HaCaT as well as psoriasis. Psoriatic involved skin revealed high level of prohibitin in the basal layer. Prohibitin was analyzed by applying RNAi (PHBi) with HaCaT, which demonstrated increased ...
Merker Marilyn P MP Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, - - 2007
The objective was to determine the impact of intact normoxic and hyperoxia-exposed (95% O(2) for 48 h) bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells in culture on the redox status of the coenzyme Q(10) homolog coenzyme Q(1) (CoQ(1)). When CoQ(1) (50 microM) was incubated with the cells for 30 min, its concentration ...
Yang Yi - - 2007
The majority of protein disulfides in cells is considered an important inert structural, rather than a dynamic regulatory, determinant of protein function. Here, we show that some disulfides in proteins also are regulated by cell redox status with functional consequences. We find that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by mitochondria ...
Kakkar Poonam - - 2007
In their reductionist approach in unraveling phenomena inside the cell, scientists in recent times have focused attention to mitochondria. An organelle with peculiar evolutionary history and organization, it is turning out to be an important cell survival switch. Besides controlling bioenergetics of a cell it also has its own genetic ...
Coffman James A - - 2007
Mitochondria are not only the major energy generators of the eukaryotic cell but they are also sources of signals that control gene expression and cell fate. While mitochondria are often asymmetrically distributed in early embryos, little is known about how they contribute to axial patterning. Here we review studies of ...
Moncada, Claudio
The high-affinity (K-M < 1 muM) mitochondrial class 2 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) metabolizes most of the acetaldehyde generated in the hepatic oxidation of ethanol. H4-II-E-C3 rat hepatoma cells have been found to express ALDH2. We report a method to assess ALDH2 activity in intact hepatoma cells that does not require ...
Annunen-Rasila Johanna - - 2007
We have recently shown disorganization of the vimentin network in cultured cells deficient in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We describe here the cellular responses to OXPHOS deficiency in osteosarcoma cells upon complex I (CI) and complex IV (CIV) inhibition, and upon the lack of mitochondrial DNA (rho0 cells). We examined the ...
Takahashi Kyohei - - 2007
Chloroacetaldehyde, a metabolite of the anticancer drug ifosfamide, may be responsible for serious adverse effects like encephalopathy in ifosfamide chemotherapy. In this study, we demonstrate that chloroacetaldehyde, but not ifosfamide, induces cell death in human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells and we investigated the mechanism by which this occurs. Chloroacetaldehyde above 30 ...
Lee Seungmin - - 2007
The number and morphology of mitochondria within a cell are precisely regulated by the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery. The human protein, hFis1, participates in mitochondrial fission by recruiting the Drp1 into the mitochondria. Using short hairpin RNA, we reduced the expression levels of hFis1 in mammalian cells. Cells lacking ...
Perl Andras A Department of Medicine, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, College of Medicine, Syracuse, New York 13210, - - 2007
The signaling networks that mediate cell growth, differentiation, and survival are dependent on complex metabolic and redox pathways. Metabolism of glucose through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) fulfills two unique functions: formation of ribose 5-phosphate for the synthesis of nucleotides, RNA, and DNA in support cell growth and formation of ...
Kim Hyoung Kyu - - 2007
We compared mitochondrial function, morphology, and proteome in the rat normal gastric cell line RGM-1 and the human gastric cancer cell line AGS. Total numbers and cross-sectional sizes of mitochondria were smaller in AGS cells. Mitochondria in AGS cells were deformed and consumed less oxygen. Confocal microscopy indicated that the ...
Chen Jin-Qiang - - 2007
Both estrogen receptors (ER) alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) are localized in the nucleus, plasma membrane, and mitochondria, where they mediate the different physiological effects of estrogens. It has been observed that the relative subcellular localization of ERs is altered in several cancer cells. We have demonstrated that MCF-10F cells, ...
Bovolenta Silvia - - 2007
The present work describes the engineering and characterization of a new Ca(2+)-activated photoprotein (Photina) and its use in mammalian cell lines for implementation of flash luminescence cell-based assays for high-throughput screening (HTS). When used to measure the activation of 2 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), targeting Photina to the mitochondria increased ...
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