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Results 551 - 600 of 1644
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Matos Ana Rita - - 2007
To investigate how the fatty acid composition of membrane lipids influences cell growth and mitochondrial respiration, in particular the expression and capacity of alternative oxidase (AOX), under cold stress, we used the Arabidopsis thaliana fad2 knockout and FAD3+ -overexpressing cultured cells lines affected in extrachloroplastic fatty acid desaturation activities. At ...
Moin Syed Mohammad - - 2007
The biology and pathogenesis of hepatitis E virus are poorly understood due to the lack of an in vitro culture or infection models. The viral Orf3 protein activates the cellular mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and is likely to modulate the host cell environment for efficient viral replication. We screened for ...
Pennazio Sergio - - 2007
This history has its conventional opening about twenty years after the statement of the "Cell Theory", when, at the end of the 19th century, several cytologists discovered unusual, minute corpuscles in the protoplasm of both animal and plant cells. These organelles, owing to their polymorphism, were defined "mitochondria" and a ...
Cheung Eric C C - - 2007
Mitochondria undergo continuous fission and fusion events in physiological situations. Fragmentation of mitochondria during cell death has been shown to play a key role in cell death progression, including release of the mitochondrial apoptotic proteins. Ultrastructural changes in mitochondria, such as cristae remodeling, is also involved in cell death initiation. ...
Bai Jie - - 2007
We show that 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)), an active metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), induces cytotoxicity via endoplasmic reticulum (ER)- and mitochondria-mediated pathways, and thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1), a redox-active protein, prevents MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. TRX-1 overexpression suppressed reactive oxygen species and the ATP decline caused by MPP(+) in HepG2 cells. MPP(+) activated caspase-12 ...
Goyal Gaurav - - 2007
The role of mitochondria in Drosophila programmed cell death remains unclear, although certain gene products that regulate cell death seem to be evolutionarily conserved. We find that developmental programmed cell death stimuli in vivo and multiple apoptotic stimuli ex vivo induce dramatic mitochondrial fragmentation upstream of effector caspase activation, phosphatidylserine ...
de Bivort Benjamin Lovegren - - 2007
The endosymbiosis of proto-mitochondrial prokaryotes (PMP) into proto-eukaryotic host-cells was a major advance in eukaryotic evolution. The nature of the initial relationship remains the subject of controversy. Various conceptual models have been proposed, but none has definitive support. We construct a model of inter-species interactions based upon well-established respiratory pathways, ...
Seo Jae-Gu - - 2007
Yeast cells become older with each division, but their daughters are born young. Mutational analysis shows that maintenance of this age asymmetry requires segregation of a complement of active mitochondria to daughters and that this process breaks down in older mother cells. This decline has implications for stem cell aging ...
Mukhopadhyay Partha - - 2007
Experiments with isolated mitochondria have established that these organelles are pivotal intracellular sources of superoxide in a variety of pathophysiological conditions. Recently, a novel fluoroprobe MitoSOX Red was introduced for selective detection of superoxide in the mitochondria of live cells and was validated with confocal microscopy. Here we show approximately ...
von Kleist-Retzow Jürgen-Christoph - - 2007
Energy-producing pathways, adenine nucleotide levels, oxidative stress response and Ca(2+) homeostasis were investigated in cybrid cells incorporating two pathogenic mitochondrial DNA point mutations, 3243A>G and 3302A>G in tRNA(Leu(UUR)), as well as Rho(0) cells and compared to their parental 143B osteosarcoma cell line. All cells suffering from a severe respiratory chain ...
Ramanujan V Krishnan - - 2007
Regulatory dynamics of energy metabolism in living cells entails a coordinated response of multiple enzyme networks that operate under non-equilibrium conditions. Here we show that mitochondrial dysfunctions associated with the aging process significantly modify nonlinear dynamical signatures in free radical generation/removal, thereby altering energy metabolism in liver cells. We support ...
Koopman Werner J H - - 2007
Malfunction of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I (CI), the first and largest complex of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system, has been implicated in a wide variety of human disorders. To demonstrate a quantitative relationship between CI amount and activity and mitochondrial shape and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, we ...
Kawase Tomoyuki - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Periodontitis, similar to many other known inflammatory diseases, is thought to increase adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in extracellular spaces. Extracellular ATP acts on specific receptors to modulate the proliferation of various cell types. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains high levels of ectonucleotidase activity capable of degrading ATP. The aim of ...
Maguire Paula - - 2007
The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure of HPV-G cells to irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) could induce an adaptive response if the cells were subsequently challenged with a higher ICCM dose. Clonogenic survival and major steps in the cascade leading to apoptosis, such as calcium influx ...
Agostinelli E E Department of Biochemical Sciences A Rossi Fanelli, University of Rome La Sapienza and CNR, Biology and Molecular Pathology Institutes, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy. - - 2007
Cytotoxic products of polyamines generated in situ by an enzyme-catalysed reaction may be useful as a new avenue in combating cancer. This study demonstrated that MDR (multidrug-resistant) cancer cells (colon adenocarcinoma and melanoma) are significantly more sensitive than the corresponding WT (wild-type) ones to H(2)O(2) and aldehydes, the products of ...
Igaki Tatsushi - - 2007
Despite the essential role of mitochondria in a variety of mammalian cell death processes, the involvement of mitochondrial pathway in Drosophila cell death has remained unclear. To address this, we cloned and characterized DmHtrA2, a Drosophila homolog of a mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2/Omi. We show that DmHtrA2 normally resides in ...
Lee Seungmin - - 2007
During cell cycle progression and division, how cells coordinate mitochondrial biogenesis, distribution, and partitions remains to be clarified. Here, we show that mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial membrane potential increased from early G(1) to G(1)/S and further gradually elevated to mitotic phase, indicating that mitochondrial biogenesis begins from early G(1) phase. ...
Marroquin Lisa D - - 2007
Many highly proliferative cells generate almost all ATP via glycolysis despite abundant O(2) and a normal complement of fully functional mitochondria, a circumstance known as the Crabtree effect. Such anaerobically poised cells are resistant to xenobiotics that impair mitochondrial function, such as the inhibitors rotenone, antimycin, oligomycin, and compounds like ...
Secondo Agnese - - 2007
The specific role played by NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3, the three isoforms of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), has been explored during hypoxic conditions in BHK cells stably transfected with each of these isoforms. Six major findings emerged from the present study: (1) all the three isoforms were highly expressed on ...
Chen Yeong-Chang - - 2007
Ribosomal biogenesis is correlated with cell cycle, cell proliferation, cell growth and tumorigenesis. Some oncogenes and tumor suppressors are involved in regulating the formation of mature ribosome and affecting the ribosomal biogenesis. In previous studies, the mitochondrial ribosomal protein L41 was reported to be involved in cell proliferation regulating through ...
Patenaude Alexandre - - 2007
Chloroethylureas (CEU) are soft alkylating agents that covalently bind to beta-tubulin (betaTAC) and affect microtubule polymerization dynamics. Herein, we report the identification of a CEU subset and its corresponding oxazolines, which induce cell growth inhibition, apoptosis, and microtubule disruption without alkylating beta-tubulin (N-betaTAC). Both betaTAC and N-betaTAC trigger the collapse ...
Yu Man - - 2007
In order to investigate the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in human breast cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis, a mtDNA-deficient cell line, T47D rho(0), was generated following a long-term exposure to ethidium bromide (EtBr). T47D rho(0) cells showed a marked decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)). However, the apoptosis rate ...
Voortman Jens - - 2007
Defects in the apoptotic machinery may contribute to chemoresistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We have previously showed a deficiency in mitochondria-dependent caspase-9 activation in NSCLC H460 cells after exposure to cisplatin, a drug widely used to treat NSCLC. Here we show that, unlike cisplatin, the novel anticancer ...
Moss Tijuana N - - 2007
Mitochondria are the bioenergetic and metabolic centers in eukaryotic cells and play a central role in apoptosis. Mitochondrial distribution is controlled by the microtubular cytoskeleton. The perinuclear aggregation of mitochondria is one of the characteristics associated with some types of cell death. Control of mitochondrial aggregation particularly related to cell ...
Goubern Marc - - 2007
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced inside the intestine and is known as a poison that inhibits cellular respiration at the level of cytochrome oxidase. However, sulfide is used as an energetic substrate by many photo- and chemoautotrophic bacteria and by animals such as the lugworm Arenicola marina. The concentrations of ...
Caffieri Sergio - - 2007
The generation of photoproducts of psoralen (POPs) might be relevant in cell death induced by psoralen plus UVA, namely PUVA, which is a recognized effective treatment for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, chronic graft-versus-host disease, and psoriasis. We investigated the occurrence of POP-induced cell death and the underlying mechanisms. POPs were produced ...
Kimura Masashi - - 2007
Misato of Drosophila melanogaster and Saccharomyces cerevisiae DML1 are conserved proteins having a homologous region with a part of the GTPase family that includes eukaryotic tubulin and prokaryotic FtsZ. We characterized human Misato sharing homology with Misato of D. melanogaster and S. cerevisiae DML1. Tissue distribution of Misato exhibited ubiquitous ...
Taguchi Naoko - - 2007
Organelles are inherited to daughter cells beyond dynamic changes of the membrane structure during mitosis. Mitochondria are dynamic entities, frequently dividing and fusing with each other, during which dynamin-related GTPase Drp1 is required for the fission reaction. In this study, we analyzed mitochondrial dynamics in mitotic mammalian cells. Although mitochondria ...
Noctor Graham - - 2007
Mitochondria are key players in plant cell redox homeostasis and signalling. Earlier concepts that regarded mitochondria as secondary to chloroplasts as the powerhouses of photosynthetic cells, with roles in cell proliferation, death and ageing described largely by analogy to animal paradigms, have been replaced by the new philosophy of integrated ...
Lee Chung Soo - - 2007
The present study was designed to assess the preventive effect of licorice compounds glycyrrhizin and 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid against mitochondrial damage and cell death in lung epithelial cells exposed to 3-morpholinosydnonime, a donor of nitric oxide and superoxide. Treatment of lung epithelial cells with 3-morpholinosydnonime resulted in the nuclear damage, decrease ...
Cao Liqin - - 2007
Observations of rapid shifts in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants between generations prompted the creation of the bottleneck theory. A prevalent hypothesis is that a massive reduction in mtDNA content during early oogenesis leads to the bottleneck. To test this, we estimated the mtDNA copy number in single germline cells and ...
Rabkin Simon W SW Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada. - - 2007
The objective of this study was to determine whether adrenomedullin, a vasodilator peptide, modulates the process of cell death in cardiomyocytes and whether its effect would be enhanced by the endopeptidase inhibitor omapatrilat, which reduces adrenomedullin degradation. Further, we sought to determine whether the effect of adrenomedullin involved an action ...
Goldin Natalia - - 2007
Jasmonates are plant stress hormones that induce suppression of proliferation and death in cancer cells, while being selectively inactive towards non-transformed cells. Jasmonates can overcome apoptotic blocks and exert cytotoxic effects on drug-resistant cells expressing p53 mutations. Jasmonates induce a rapid depletion of ATP in cancer cells. Indeed, this steep ...
Qi Xiaoping - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To explore a treatment paradigm for Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), we augmented mitochondrial antioxidant defenses to rescue cells with the G11778A mutation in mitochondrial DNA. METHODS: Cells homoplasmic for the G11778A mutation in mitochondrial DNA were infected with an adeno-associated viral vector containing the human mitochondrial superoxide dismutase ...
Pan B S - - 2007
Presented here is the first experimental evidence that natural, intramolecular, isotope ratios are sensitive to physiological status, based on observations of intramolecular delta(15)N of lysine in the mitochondrial mimic Paracoccus denitrificans. Paracoccus denitrificans, a versatile, gram-negative bacterium, was grown either aerobically or anaerobically on isotopically-characterized ammonium as sole cell-nitrogen source. ...
Inoue Hiroto - - 2007
The basic mechanism of cell death induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) (ALA-PDT) in glioma cells has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the details of the cell death mechanism induced by ALA-PDT were investigated in three human glioma cell lines (U251MG, U87MG, and U118MG) in vitro. ...
Sancho Pilar - - 2007
Dequalinium (DQA) has been proposed as a selective antitumoral agent due to its preferential accumulation in mitochondria of cancer cells. Our aim was a better understanding of DQA cytotoxicity. DQA-induced NB4 and K562 cell alterations are initiated within the first 30 min of treatment at a high DQA concentration with ...
Hyun Dong-Hoon - - 2007
Mitochondria-deficient cells (rho(o) cells) survive through enhanced glycolytic metabolism in the presence of pyruvate and uridine. The plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) contains several NAD(P)H-related enzymes and plays a key role in maintaining the levels of NAD(+)/NADH and reduced coenzyme Q. In this study, rho(o) cells were used to investigate ...
Holme Jørn A JA Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo, Norway. - - 2007
The present study compares and elucidates possible mechanisms why B[a]P induces different cell signals and triggers apparently different apoptotic pathways in two rather similar cell lines (hepatic epithelial cells of rodents). The rate and maximal capacity of metabolic activation, as measured by the formation of B[a]P-tetrols and B[a]P-DNA adducts, was ...
Jönsson Daniel - - 2007
Periodontal ligament (PDL) cells express oestrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) protein, but cellular functions regulated by ERbeta in these cells have not been identified. In this study we determine if ERbeta is localised to mitochondria and if oestrogen regulates mitochondrial function in human PDL cells obtained from teeth extracted for orthodontic ...
Wildling Stefan - - 2007
In the present study, we quantified the physiological consequences of nitric oxide (NO) on ammonium release in tadpoles of Xenopus laevis. Tadpoles exposed to S-nitro-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), an NO-donor, or L: -arginine, the substrate of NO synthase (NOS), showed a reversible decrease, whereas animals exposed to the NOS inhibitor Nomega-methyl-L: -arginine ...
Castino Roberta - - 2007
Hydrogen peroxide, the major oxidoradical species in the central nervous system, has been involved in neuronal cell death and associated neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we have investigated the involvement of the lysosomal pathway in the cytotoxic mechanism of hydrogen peroxide in human neuroblastoma cells. Alteration of lysosomal and mitochondrial ...
Kim Yun Jeong - - 2007
Defects in mitochondrial function have been shown to participate in the induction of neuronal cell injury. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of antiepileptic lamotrigine against the cytotoxicity of mitochondrial respiratory complex I inhibitors rotenone and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in relation to the mitochondria-mediated cell death ...
Cordas Emily - - 2007
Serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase-1 (SGK1) is involved in aldosterone-induced Na(+) reabsorption by increasing epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) activity in cortical collecting duct (CCD) cells, but its exact mechanisms of action are unknown. Although several potential targets such as Nedd4-2 have been described in expression systems, endogenous substrates mediating SGK1's physiological ...
Engqvist, Julia
Background and aims: The human pancreas is normally proliferatively quiescent; however loss of cells gives a rapid regenerative response to restore a functionally healthy tissue mass. The mechanism for this is unclear and to date research has failed to identify a definitive pancreatic stem cell. Cell lineage analyses are possible ...
Jönsson, Daniel
Objective: Periodontal ligament (PDL) cells express oestrogen receptor b (ERb) protein, but cellular functions regulated by ERb in these cells have not been identified. In this study we determine if ERb is localised to mitochondria and if oestrogen regulates mitochondrial function in human PDL cells obtained from teeth extracted for ...
Jönsson, Daniel
Objectives: Several studies have addressed the association between changes in the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone levels and changes in parameters of periodontitis. We have previously shown that periodontal ligament cells (PDL cells) express estrogen receptor β (ERβ) but not ERα immunoreactivity. The PDL cells express no immunoreactivity for ...
Monsalve María - - 2007
The integrity of mitochondrial function is fundamental to cell life. The cell demands for mitochondria and their complex integration into cell biology, extends far beyond the provision of ATP. It follows that disturbances of mitochondrial function lead to disruption of cell function, expressed as disease or even death. Mitochondria are ...
Orrenius Sten - - 2007
In addition to the established role of the mitochondria in energy metabolism, regulation of cell death has emerged as a second major function of these organelles. This seems to be intimately linked to their generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been implicated in mtDNA mutations, aging, and cell ...
Du Pasquier D - - 2007
Xenopus is a well proven model for a wide variety of developmental studies, including cell lineage. Cell lineage in Xenopus has largely been addressed by injection of tracer molecules or by micro-dissection elimination of blastomeres. Here we describe a genetic method for cell ablation based on the use of tBid, ...
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