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Results 451 - 500 of 1641
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Zhang Huafeng - - 2008
Autophagy is a process by which cytoplasmic organelles can be catabolized either to remove defective structures or as a means of providing macromolecules for energy generation under conditions of nutrient starvation. In this study we demonstrate that mitochondrial autophagy is induced by hypoxia, that this process requires the hypoxia-dependent factor-1-dependent ...
Sankaran Vijay G - - 2008
Regulation of the cell cycle is intimately linked to erythroid differentiation, yet how these processes are coupled is not well understood. To gain insight into this coordinate regulation, we examined the role that the retinoblastoma protein (Rb), a central regulator of the cell cycle, plays in erythropoiesis. We found that ...
Miyazawa Masaki - - 2008
SDHC E69 cells, which overproduce superoxide anions in their mitochondria, were previously established that had a mutation in the SDHC gene of complex II of the respiratory chain. We now demonstrate that tumors formed by NIH 3T3 and SDHC E69 cells showed significant histological differences. Cytoplasmic cytochrome c release from ...
Kass George E N - - 2008
Mitochondria have multiple functions in eukaryotic cells and are organized into dynamic tubular networks that continuously undergo changes through coordinated fusion and fission and migration through the cytosol. Mitochondria integrate cell-signaling networks, especially those involving the intracellular messenger Ca(2+), into the regulation of metabolic pathways. Recently, it has become clear ...
Wiley David J DJ Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami School of Medicine, P.O. Box 016129, Miami, FL 33101-6129, - - 2008
Maintenance of cell morphology is essential for normal cell function. For eukaryotic cells, a growing body of recent evidence highlights a close interdependence between mitochondrial function, the cytoskeleton, and cell cycle control mechanisms; however, the molecular details of this interconnection are still not completely understood. We have identified a novel ...
Buttigieg J - - 2008
Catecholamine (CAT) release from adrenomedullary chromaffin cells (AMC) in response to stressors such as low O(2) (hypoxia) and elevated CO(2)/H(+) is critical during adaptation of the newborn to extrauterine life. Using a surrogate model based on a v-myc immortalized adrenal chromaffin cell line (i.e., MAH cells), combined with genetic perturbation ...
Chen Chien-Tsun - - 2008
The multidifferentiation ability of mesenchymal stem cells holds great promise for cell therapy. Numerous studies have focused on the establishment of differentiation protocols, whereas little attention has been paid to the metabolic changes during the differentiation process. Mitochondria, the powerhouse of mammalian cells, vary in their number and function in ...
Kuznetsov Andrey V - - 2008
Survival signaling by RAF occurs through largely unknown mechanisms. Here we provide evidence for the first time that RAF controls cell survival by maintaining permissive levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+). Interleukin-3 (IL-3) withdrawal from 32D cells resulted in ROS production, which was suppressed by activated C-RAF. ...
Clybouw C - - 2008
In this study, we showed that the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-mediated apoptosis of Burkitt's lymphoma BL41 cells is dependent on the BH3-only protein Bim. In contrast to what has been observed with other cell types, TGFbeta activation did not promote Bim upregulation in BL41 cells, but instead resulted in ...
Ihrlund Linda Strandberg - - 2008
Tumour cells depend on aerobic glycolysis for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, making energy metabolism an interesting therapeutic target. 3-Bromopyruvate (BP) has been shown by others to inhibit hexokinase and eradicate mouse hepatocarcinomas. We report that similar to the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (DG), BP rapidly decreased cellular ATP within hours, but ...
Hussain Syed-Rehan A - - 2008
Effective administration of flavopiridol in advanced-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is often associated with early biochemical evidence of tumor cell lysis. Previous work using other cell types showed that flavopiridol impacts mitochondria, and in CLL cells flavopiridol down-regulates the mitochondrial protein Mcl-1. We therefore investigated mitochondrial structure and function in ...
Hail Numsen N - - 2008
Curcumin exhibits anticancer activity in vivo and triggers tumor cell apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Several in vitro studies suggest that curcumin-induced apoptosis is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and/or oxidative stress in transformed cells. This study compared and contrasted the effects of curcumin on human skin ...
Goemans C G - - 2008
Caspase inhibition can extend the survival of cells undergoing apoptosis beyond the point of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilisation (MOMP), but this does not confer long-term protection because caspase-independent death pathways emerge. Here, we describe a novel mechanism of mitochondrial self-destruction in caspase-inhibited cells, whose hallmark is the degradation of Tim23, ...
Xia Tian - - 2008
The exponential increase in the number of new nanomaterials that are being produced increases the likelihood of adverse biological effects in humans and the environment. In this study we compared the effects of cationic nanoparticles in five different cell lines that represent portal-of-entry or systemic cellular targets for engineered nanoparticles. ...
Weckelmann A - - 2008
Mitochondria are central players in diverse cellular functions and their efficient functioning has dramatic impact on embryonic development. Apparently, proliferation and transmission of well functioning mitochondria to the next generation require ingeniously adapted mechanisms, one of which, the 'mitochondrial bottleneck', is thought to occur early in mammalian development during primordial ...
Chalah Anas - - 2008
Mitochondria have long been known to be critical for cell survival due to their role in energy metabolism. However, not until the mid-1990s did it become evident that mitochondria are also active participants in programmed cell death (PCD). This chapter focuses mainly on the role the mitochondria in mammalian cell ...
Kuznetsov Andrey V - - 2008
Analysis of mitochondrial function is central to the study of intracellular energy metabolism, mechanisms of cell death and pathophysiology of a variety of human diseases, including myopathies, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. However, important properties of mitochondria differ in vivo and in vitro. Here, we describe a protocol for the analysis ...
Yao Ke - - 2008
PURPOSE: Oxidative stress has long been recognized as an important mediator of apoptosis in lens epithelial cells and also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cataracts. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant component in green tea, has potent antioxidant activity. The goals of this study were to determine ...
Stasik Izabela - - 2008
In order to exert their activity, transcription factors must be transported to the nucleus. Certain transcription factors have also been found on mitochondria. Here, the localization of RelB and NFATx in the mitochondrial fractions of normal thymocytes and thymic lymphoma cells is shown for the first time. CREB was only ...
Duval Raphaël Emmanuel - - 2008
Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound which exists widely in nature and is known to have a pleitropic biological activity profile. For the last few decades, extensive work has been carried out to establish its biological activities and pharmacological actions. It is described as a promising chemopreventive agent ...
Hoegger Mark J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, which are present in all mitochondria-containing cells, paradoxically cause tissue-specific disease. For example, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) results from one of three point mutations mtDNA coding for complex I components, but is only manifested in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), a central neuron contained within ...
Christensen Karen E - - 2008
Folate-mediated metabolism involves enzyme-catalyzed reactions that occur in the cytoplasmic, mitochondrial, and nuclear compartments in mammalian cells. Which of the folate-dependent enzymes are expressed in these compartments depends on the stage of development, cell type, cell cycle, and whether or not the cell is transformed. Mitochondria become formate-generating organelles in ...
Fosslien Egil - - 2008
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) required for normal cell metabolism is mainly supplied by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which is limited by available oxygen and modulated by cell signaling pathways. Primary or secondary OXPHOS failure shifts cell metabolism towards ATP generation by glycolysis (Warburg effect). The objective of this paper is to ...
Whiteman Matthew - - 2008
Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) play a key role in a number of human diseases either by inducing cell death, cellular proliferation, or by acting as mediators in cellular signaling. Therefore, their measurement in vivo and in cell culture is desirable but technically difficult and often troublesome. To address some of ...
Schenk Ursula - - 2008
T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation results in the influx of Ca(2+), which is buffered by mitochondria and promotes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. We found that ATP released from activated T cells through pannexin-1 hemichannels activated purinergic P2X receptors (P2XRs) to sustain mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. P2XR antagonists, such as ...
Zhao Ming - - 2008
PURPOSE: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to defects in the apoptotic pathway, and solid tumors, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), exhibit defects in apoptosis. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) is an early initiating event in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. We investigated the apoptotic response of 3 ...
Galluzzi Lorenzo - - 2008
In several paradigms of cell death, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) delimits the frontier between life and death. Mitochondria control the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and participate in the extrinsic pathway. Moreover, they have been implicated in nonapoptotic cell death modalities. Irrespective of its initiation at the inner or the outer ...
Corsi Lorenzo - - 2008
The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), is an 18 kDa protein of the mammalian mitochondrial membrane and is a highly conserved protein among the mammalian. PBR is involved in numerous biological functions, including steroid biosynthesis, mitochondrial oxidative phosporylation and cell proliferation. The presence of PBR at the nuclear subcellular level has ...
Chen Daozhen - - 2008
To explore the relationship between the integration of mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) in the nuclei of cervical epithelium cells and the expression of c-myc. The expression of c-myc protein was measured by immunohistochemical test in 40 cases of the uterine cervix cancer, 30 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 30 cases ...
Silberberg Yaron R YR The London Centre for Nanotechnology and Centre for NanoMedicine, University College London, 17-19 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH, - - 2008
Mechanical stress affects and regulates many aspects of the cell, including morphology, growth, differentiation, gene expression and apoptosis. In this study we show how mechanical stress perturbs the intracellular structures of the cell and induces mechanical responses. In order to correlate mechanical perturbations to cellular responses, we used a combined ...
Kumemura Hiroto - - 2008
Microtubules (MTs) and microfilaments (MFs) are known to modulate mitochondrial morphology, distribution and function. However, little is known evidence about the role of intermediate filaments (IFs) in modulating mitochondria except desmin. To investigate whether or not the IFs regulate mitochondrial morphology, distribution, and function, we manipulated the IFs of cultured ...
Ichikawa Junji - - 2008
Human MutT homolog (hMTH1) hydrolyzes oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphates to monophosphates, thereby avoiding incorporation of such oxidized purines into DNA or RNA. We examined whether hMTH1 prevents cellular dysfunction induced by sodium nitroprusside, a spontaneous NO donor. Exposure to sodium nitroprusside caused an 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) buildup in DNA of proliferating ...
Rusznák Zoltán - - 2008
The presence of TASK-3 channels has been described in a number of healthy and malignantly transformed cells, showing mainly intracellular distribution with relatively insignificant labelling of the cell surface membrane. In this work, immunochemical and molecular biology methods were utilised to establish the intracellular organelle whose TASK-3 expression accounts for ...
Nicolescu Adrian C - - 2008
Amiodarone (AM), a drug used in the treatment of cardiac dysrrhythmias, can produce severe pulmonary adverse effects, including fibrosis. Although the pathogenesis of AM-induced pulmonary toxicity (AIPT) is not clearly understood, several hypotheses have been advanced, including increased inflammatory mediator release, mitochondrial dysfunction, and free-radical formation. The hypothesis that AM ...
Bjerke Mia - - 2008
The nucleoside analog 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) has been used for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. ddC causes delayed toxicity when cells are exposed to the drug at low concentration for prolonged periods of time. The delayed toxicity is due to inhibition of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication, which results in ...
Jourdain Isabelle - - 2008
Peroxisomes were visualized for the first time in living fission yeast cells. In small, newly divided cells, the number of peroxisomes was low but increased in parallel with the increase in cell length/volume that accompanies cell cycle progression. In cells grown in oleic acid, both the size and the number ...
Chen Ku-Chung - - 2008
Although Naja naja atra cardiotoxin 3 (CTX3) and cardiotoxin 4 (CTX4) showed different cytotoxicity toward human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells, the two toxins induced apoptotic death on SK-N-SH cells. The apoptosis signals of CTX3 and CTX3 included ROS generation, increase in mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c release to the cytosol and ...
Misiti Francesco - - 2008
The evolving role of mitochondria as a target for different death-inducing noxae prompted us to investigate trimethyltin (TMT)-dependent effects on mitochondrial functionality. For this purpose, we used a homogeneous cell culture model represented by undifferentiated PC12 cells. Mitochondria isolated from PC12 cells treated with TMT for 6, 12 and 24h, ...
Katrangi Eyad - - 2007
Mitochondrial DNA mutations are the direct cause of several physiological disorders and are also associated with the aging process. The modest progress made over the past two decades towards manipulating the mitochondrial genome and understanding its function within living mammalian cells means that cures for mitochondrial DNA mutations are still ...
Newman Robert A - - 2007
Lipid-soluble cardiac glycosides such as bufalin, oleandrin, and digitoxin have been suggested as potent agents that might be useful as anticancer agents. Past research with oleandrin, a principle cardiac glycoside in Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae), has been shown to induce cell death through induction of apoptosis. In PANC-1 cells, a ...
Keech Olivier - - 2007
Senescence is an active process allowing the reallocation of valuable nutrients from the senescing organ towards storage and/or growing tissues. Using Arabidopsis thaliana leaves from both whole darkened plants (DPs) and individually darkened leaves (IDLs), we investigated the fate of mitochondria and chloroplasts during dark-induced leaf senescence. Combining in vivo ...
Oda Kaoru - - 2007
Endonuclease G (EndoG) is a mitochondrial non-specific nuclease that is highly conserved among the eukaryotes. Although the precise role of EndoG in mitochondria is not yet known, the enzyme is released from the mitochondria and digests nuclear DNA during apoptosis in mammalian cells. Schizosaccharomyces pombe has an EndoG homolog Pnu1p ...
Nowak Grazyna - - 2008
We previously reported that mitochondrial function, intracellular ATP levels, and complex I activity are decreased in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) after oxidant (tert-butyl hydroperoxide; TBHP)-induced injury. This study examined the hypothesis that succinate supplementation decreases mitochondrial dysfunction, ameliorates energy deficits, and increases viability in TBHP-injured RPTC. Basal and uncoupled ...
Arimochi Hideki - - 2008
Cytotoxic effects of desipramine on human colon carcinoma HT29 and HCT116 cells were examined. Desipramine reduced the viability of HT29 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but failed to cause any significant change in the viability of HCT116 cells by the concentration up to 50 mumol/l, at which an approximately 60% ...
Alano Conrad C - - 2007
Activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)-1 leads to the death of neurons and other types of cells by a mechanism involving NAD(+) depletion and mitochondrial permeability transition. It has been proposed that the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is required for NAD(+) to be released from mitochondria and subsequently consumed by ...
Hovater Michael B - - 2008
Renal epithelial cells release ATP constitutively under basal conditions and release higher quantities of purine nucleotide in response to stimuli. ATP filtered at the glomerulus, secreted by epithelial cells along the nephron, and released serosally by macula densa cells for feedback signaling to afferent arterioles within the glomerulus has important ...
Tettamanti Gianluca - - 2008
Oligomycin A, an inhibitor of mitochondrial ATP synthase, provokes simultaneous and different responses in IPLB-LdFB insect cell line. The oligomycin A treatment causes mitochondrial loss, increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), destabilization/reorganization of the actin microfilaments and, finally, autophagic cell death. We speculate that oligomycin A affects the mitochondria and ...
Masci Alessandra - - 2008
Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT) patients are particularly sensitive to oxidative-nitrosative stress. Nitric oxide (NO) controls mitochondrial respiration via the reversible inhibition of complex IV. The mitochondrial response to NO of AT lymphoblastoid cells was investigated. Cells isolated from three patients and three intrafamilial healthy controls were selected showing within each group ...
Laparra J M - - 2008
Foods and drinking water are the main routes for human exposure to inorganic arsenic, the intestinal epithelium being the first barrier against such exogenous toxicants. The present study evaluates the effect of As(III) (0.5-25 microM) upon Caco-2 cells as an intestinal epithelia model. Cell viability, intracellular formation of reactive oxygen ...
Buenz Eric J - - 2008
Aloe is widely used as a dietary supplement. However, there are continuing concerns over the toxicity and the purity of aloe-based products. The primary class of compounds responsible for aloe-induced toxicity are anthraquinones. One of these, aloe-emodin, has been extensively investigated for apoptosis inducing effects. Conversely, the precursor to aloe-emodin, ...
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