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Results 451 - 500 of 1655
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Zhang Ji J Department of Biochemistry, St. Jude Children's Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee USA. - - 2008
The controlled elimination of defective mitochondria is necessary for the health of long-lived post-mitotic cells, like cardiomyocytes and neurons. Mitochondrial elimination also occurs during the course of normal development, in lens epithelial and erythroid cells. Strikingly, at the final stage of erythroid cell maturation, newly formed erythrocytes, also known as ...
Piskacek Martin - - 2009
The human gene MRS2L encodes a mitochondrial protein distantly related to CorA Mg(2+) transport proteins. Constitutive shRNA-mediated knockdown of hMRS2 in human HEK-293 cell line was found here to cause death. To further study its role in Mg(2+) transport, we have established stable cell lines with conditionally expressing shRNAs directed ...
Eimre Margus - - 2008
Expression and function of creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK) and hexokinase (HK) isoforms in relation to their roles in regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and intracellular energy transfer were assessed in beating (B) and non-beating (NB) cardiac HL-l cell lines and adult rat cardiomyocytes or myocardium. In both types ...
Gurvitz Aner - - 2008
We report on the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis HtdZ (Rv0130), representing a novel 3-hydroxyacyl-thioester dehydratase. HtdZ was picked up by the functional complementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae htd2Delta cells lacking the dehydratase of mitochondrial type II fatty acid synthase. Mutant cells expressing HtdZ contained dehydratase activity, recovered their respiratory ability, and ...
Yue Xiaojing - - 2008
Although generally acknowledged as a plasma membrane protein, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor has been found in the nucleus and subcellular organelles. Recently, the mitochondrial localization of the EGF receptor (EGFR) was reported; nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying EGFR localization in mitochondria is largely unknown. Using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron ...
Pereira C - - 2008
Mitochondrial involvement in yeast apoptosis is probably the most unifying feature in the field. Reports proposing a role for mitochondria in yeast apoptosis present evidence ranging from the simple observation of ROS accumulation in the cell to the identification of mitochondrial proteins mediating cell death. Although yeast is unarguably a ...
Kukat Alexandra - - 2008
Eukaryotic cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA (rho0 cells) were originally generated under artificial growth conditions utilizing ethidium bromide. The chemical is known to intercalate preferentially with the mitochondrial double-stranded DNA thereby interfering with enzymes of the replication machinery. Rho0 cell lines are highly valuable tools to study human mitochondrial disorders ...
Murias Marek - - 2008
The phytochemical resveratrol, which is found in grapes and red wine, has been reported to have a variety of biological properties. It was shown in our previous research that introduction of additional hydroxyl groups into the stilbene structure increases the biological activity of resveratrol. In this study, the activity of ...
Hu Wan-Ping - - 2008
A series of novel thiobenzanilides is described. These compounds have been previously found to show strong biological activity such as antimycotic and antifungal actions. This is the first demonstration on the mechanism of the anticancer effect of thiobenzanilide agents (4a-c) on human melanoma A375 cells. The cytotoxic studies of compounds ...
Parihar Mordhwaj S - - 2008
mAtNOS1 is a novel gene recently reported in mammalian cells with functions that are not fully understood. The present study generated human neuroblastoma SHSY cells over- and underexpressing mAtNOS1 and shows that mAtNOS1 is involved in regulating mitochondrial nitric oxide, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, protein tyrosine nitration, cytochrome c release, and ...
Parihar Arti - - 2008
In the present study, we tested the significance of mitochondria for apoptosis upon exposure to tamoxifen and etoposide using two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. We showed that both tamoxifen and etoposide induced apoptosis, increased intramitochondrial calcium and nitric oxide, and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential in both ...
Lemire Joseph - - 2008
Although zinc (Zn) is a known environmental toxicant, its impact on the cellular energy-producing machinery is not well established. This study investigated the influence of this divalent metal on the oxidative ATP producing network in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Zn-challenged cells contained more oxidized proteins and lipids compared with ...
Yano Takahisa - - 2008
Amiodarone is an effective class III antiarrhythmic drug, however, the pulmonary toxicity is one of the most life-threatening complications of its use. The present study was designed to determine the mechanisms underlying pulmonary toxicity of amiodarone. In cultured human lung epithelial cells A549, amiodarone caused cell injury characterized by mitochondrial ...
Meng Qinglai - - 2008
Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), like other lentiviruses, has a transmembrane glycoprotein with an unusually long cytoplasmic tail (CT). Viral envelope (Env) proteins having CT truncations just downstream the putative membrane-spanning domain (PMSD) are assumed to exist among all wild-type budded virions, and also in some cell-adapted strains. To determine ...
Zhang Huafeng - - 2008
Autophagy is a process by which cytoplasmic organelles can be catabolized either to remove defective structures or as a means of providing macromolecules for energy generation under conditions of nutrient starvation. In this study we demonstrate that mitochondrial autophagy is induced by hypoxia, that this process requires the hypoxia-dependent factor-1-dependent ...
Sankaran Vijay G - - 2008
Regulation of the cell cycle is intimately linked to erythroid differentiation, yet how these processes are coupled is not well understood. To gain insight into this coordinate regulation, we examined the role that the retinoblastoma protein (Rb), a central regulator of the cell cycle, plays in erythropoiesis. We found that ...
Miyazawa Masaki - - 2008
SDHC E69 cells, which overproduce superoxide anions in their mitochondria, were previously established that had a mutation in the SDHC gene of complex II of the respiratory chain. We now demonstrate that tumors formed by NIH 3T3 and SDHC E69 cells showed significant histological differences. Cytoplasmic cytochrome c release from ...
Kass George E N - - 2008
Mitochondria have multiple functions in eukaryotic cells and are organized into dynamic tubular networks that continuously undergo changes through coordinated fusion and fission and migration through the cytosol. Mitochondria integrate cell-signaling networks, especially those involving the intracellular messenger Ca(2+), into the regulation of metabolic pathways. Recently, it has become clear ...
Wiley David J DJ Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami School of Medicine, P.O. Box 016129, Miami, FL 33101-6129, - - 2008
Maintenance of cell morphology is essential for normal cell function. For eukaryotic cells, a growing body of recent evidence highlights a close interdependence between mitochondrial function, the cytoskeleton, and cell cycle control mechanisms; however, the molecular details of this interconnection are still not completely understood. We have identified a novel ...
Buttigieg J - - 2008
Catecholamine (CAT) release from adrenomedullary chromaffin cells (AMC) in response to stressors such as low O(2) (hypoxia) and elevated CO(2)/H(+) is critical during adaptation of the newborn to extrauterine life. Using a surrogate model based on a v-myc immortalized adrenal chromaffin cell line (i.e., MAH cells), combined with genetic perturbation ...
Chen Chien-Tsun - - 2008
The multidifferentiation ability of mesenchymal stem cells holds great promise for cell therapy. Numerous studies have focused on the establishment of differentiation protocols, whereas little attention has been paid to the metabolic changes during the differentiation process. Mitochondria, the powerhouse of mammalian cells, vary in their number and function in ...
Kuznetsov Andrey V - - 2008
Survival signaling by RAF occurs through largely unknown mechanisms. Here we provide evidence for the first time that RAF controls cell survival by maintaining permissive levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+). Interleukin-3 (IL-3) withdrawal from 32D cells resulted in ROS production, which was suppressed by activated C-RAF. ...
Clybouw C - - 2008
In this study, we showed that the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-mediated apoptosis of Burkitt's lymphoma BL41 cells is dependent on the BH3-only protein Bim. In contrast to what has been observed with other cell types, TGFbeta activation did not promote Bim upregulation in BL41 cells, but instead resulted in ...
Ihrlund Linda Strandberg - - 2008
Tumour cells depend on aerobic glycolysis for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, making energy metabolism an interesting therapeutic target. 3-Bromopyruvate (BP) has been shown by others to inhibit hexokinase and eradicate mouse hepatocarcinomas. We report that similar to the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (DG), BP rapidly decreased cellular ATP within hours, but ...
Hussain Syed-Rehan A - - 2008
Effective administration of flavopiridol in advanced-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is often associated with early biochemical evidence of tumor cell lysis. Previous work using other cell types showed that flavopiridol impacts mitochondria, and in CLL cells flavopiridol down-regulates the mitochondrial protein Mcl-1. We therefore investigated mitochondrial structure and function in ...
Hail Numsen N - - 2008
Curcumin exhibits anticancer activity in vivo and triggers tumor cell apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Several in vitro studies suggest that curcumin-induced apoptosis is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and/or oxidative stress in transformed cells. This study compared and contrasted the effects of curcumin on human skin ...
Goemans C G - - 2008
Caspase inhibition can extend the survival of cells undergoing apoptosis beyond the point of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilisation (MOMP), but this does not confer long-term protection because caspase-independent death pathways emerge. Here, we describe a novel mechanism of mitochondrial self-destruction in caspase-inhibited cells, whose hallmark is the degradation of Tim23, ...
Xia Tian - - 2008
The exponential increase in the number of new nanomaterials that are being produced increases the likelihood of adverse biological effects in humans and the environment. In this study we compared the effects of cationic nanoparticles in five different cell lines that represent portal-of-entry or systemic cellular targets for engineered nanoparticles. ...
Weckelmann A - - 2008
Mitochondria are central players in diverse cellular functions and their efficient functioning has dramatic impact on embryonic development. Apparently, proliferation and transmission of well functioning mitochondria to the next generation require ingeniously adapted mechanisms, one of which, the 'mitochondrial bottleneck', is thought to occur early in mammalian development during primordial ...
Chalah Anas - - 2008
Mitochondria have long been known to be critical for cell survival due to their role in energy metabolism. However, not until the mid-1990s did it become evident that mitochondria are also active participants in programmed cell death (PCD). This chapter focuses mainly on the role the mitochondria in mammalian cell ...
Kuznetsov Andrey V - - 2008
Analysis of mitochondrial function is central to the study of intracellular energy metabolism, mechanisms of cell death and pathophysiology of a variety of human diseases, including myopathies, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. However, important properties of mitochondria differ in vivo and in vitro. Here, we describe a protocol for the analysis ...
Yao Ke - - 2008
PURPOSE: Oxidative stress has long been recognized as an important mediator of apoptosis in lens epithelial cells and also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cataracts. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant component in green tea, has potent antioxidant activity. The goals of this study were to determine ...
Stasik Izabela - - 2008
In order to exert their activity, transcription factors must be transported to the nucleus. Certain transcription factors have also been found on mitochondria. Here, the localization of RelB and NFATx in the mitochondrial fractions of normal thymocytes and thymic lymphoma cells is shown for the first time. CREB was only ...
Duval Raphaël Emmanuel - - 2008
Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound which exists widely in nature and is known to have a pleitropic biological activity profile. For the last few decades, extensive work has been carried out to establish its biological activities and pharmacological actions. It is described as a promising chemopreventive agent ...
Christensen Karen E - - 2008
Folate-mediated metabolism involves enzyme-catalyzed reactions that occur in the cytoplasmic, mitochondrial, and nuclear compartments in mammalian cells. Which of the folate-dependent enzymes are expressed in these compartments depends on the stage of development, cell type, cell cycle, and whether or not the cell is transformed. Mitochondria become formate-generating organelles in ...
Fosslien Egil - - 2008
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) required for normal cell metabolism is mainly supplied by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which is limited by available oxygen and modulated by cell signaling pathways. Primary or secondary OXPHOS failure shifts cell metabolism towards ATP generation by glycolysis (Warburg effect). The objective of this paper is to ...
Whiteman Matthew - - 2008
Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) play a key role in a number of human diseases either by inducing cell death, cellular proliferation, or by acting as mediators in cellular signaling. Therefore, their measurement in vivo and in cell culture is desirable but technically difficult and often troublesome. To address some of ...
Schenk Ursula - - 2008
T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation results in the influx of Ca(2+), which is buffered by mitochondria and promotes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. We found that ATP released from activated T cells through pannexin-1 hemichannels activated purinergic P2X receptors (P2XRs) to sustain mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. P2XR antagonists, such as ...
Zhao Ming - - 2008
PURPOSE: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to defects in the apoptotic pathway, and solid tumors, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), exhibit defects in apoptosis. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) is an early initiating event in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. We investigated the apoptotic response of 3 ...
Galluzzi Lorenzo - - 2008
In several paradigms of cell death, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) delimits the frontier between life and death. Mitochondria control the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and participate in the extrinsic pathway. Moreover, they have been implicated in nonapoptotic cell death modalities. Irrespective of its initiation at the inner or the outer ...
Corsi Lorenzo - - 2008
The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), is an 18 kDa protein of the mammalian mitochondrial membrane and is a highly conserved protein among the mammalian. PBR is involved in numerous biological functions, including steroid biosynthesis, mitochondrial oxidative phosporylation and cell proliferation. The presence of PBR at the nuclear subcellular level has ...
Chen Daozhen - - 2008
To explore the relationship between the integration of mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) in the nuclei of cervical epithelium cells and the expression of c-myc. The expression of c-myc protein was measured by immunohistochemical test in 40 cases of the uterine cervix cancer, 30 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 30 cases ...
Silberberg Yaron R YR The London Centre for Nanotechnology and Centre for NanoMedicine, University College London, 17-19 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH, - - 2008
Mechanical stress affects and regulates many aspects of the cell, including morphology, growth, differentiation, gene expression and apoptosis. In this study we show how mechanical stress perturbs the intracellular structures of the cell and induces mechanical responses. In order to correlate mechanical perturbations to cellular responses, we used a combined ...
Hoegger Mark J MJ Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, USA. - - 2008
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, which are present in all mitochondria-containing cells, paradoxically cause tissue-specific disease. For example, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) results from one of three point mutations mtDNA coding for complex I components, but is only manifested in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), a central neuron contained within the ...
Kumemura Hiroto - - 2008
Microtubules (MTs) and microfilaments (MFs) are known to modulate mitochondrial morphology, distribution and function. However, little is known evidence about the role of intermediate filaments (IFs) in modulating mitochondria except desmin. To investigate whether or not the IFs regulate mitochondrial morphology, distribution, and function, we manipulated the IFs of cultured ...
Ichikawa Junji - - 2008
Human MutT homolog (hMTH1) hydrolyzes oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphates to monophosphates, thereby avoiding incorporation of such oxidized purines into DNA or RNA. We examined whether hMTH1 prevents cellular dysfunction induced by sodium nitroprusside, a spontaneous NO donor. Exposure to sodium nitroprusside caused an 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) buildup in DNA of proliferating ...
Rusznák Zoltán - - 2008
The presence of TASK-3 channels has been described in a number of healthy and malignantly transformed cells, showing mainly intracellular distribution with relatively insignificant labelling of the cell surface membrane. In this work, immunochemical and molecular biology methods were utilised to establish the intracellular organelle whose TASK-3 expression accounts for ...
Nicolescu Adrian C - - 2008
Amiodarone (AM), a drug used in the treatment of cardiac dysrrhythmias, can produce severe pulmonary adverse effects, including fibrosis. Although the pathogenesis of AM-induced pulmonary toxicity (AIPT) is not clearly understood, several hypotheses have been advanced, including increased inflammatory mediator release, mitochondrial dysfunction, and free-radical formation. The hypothesis that AM ...
Bjerke Mia - - 2008
The nucleoside analog 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) has been used for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. ddC causes delayed toxicity when cells are exposed to the drug at low concentration for prolonged periods of time. The delayed toxicity is due to inhibition of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication, which results in ...
Jourdain Isabelle - - 2008
Peroxisomes were visualized for the first time in living fission yeast cells. In small, newly divided cells, the number of peroxisomes was low but increased in parallel with the increase in cell length/volume that accompanies cell cycle progression. In cells grown in oleic acid, both the size and the number ...
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