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Results 401 - 450 of 2260
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Meng Z X - - 2009
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Liver X receptors (LXRs) are important transcriptional regulators of lipid homeostasis and proliferation in several cell types. However, the roles of LXRs in pancreatic beta cells have not been fully established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LXRs on pancreatic beta cell proliferation. METHODS: ...
Shiku Hitoshi - - 2009
A highly sensitive and quantitative analysis was performed using a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microwell array in a scanning electrochemical microscopy setup. A microelectrode with a relatively large seal radius was used to cover the top of the cylindrical PDMS microwell (96 pL). The voltammogram for 4 mM ferrocyanide resulted in a ...
Zhang Quan - - 2008
The perforated whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was applied to functionally identified beta-cells in intact mouse pancreatic islets to study the extent of cell coupling between adjacent beta-cells. Using a combination of current- and voltage-clamp recordings, the total gap junctional conductance between beta-cells in an islet was estimated to ...
Chen Wei - - 2009
It is thought that differentiation of beta-cell precursors into mature cells is largely autonomous, but under certain conditions differentiation can be modified by external factors. The factors that modify beta-cell differentiation have not been identified. In this study, we tested whether adult islet cells can affect the differentiation process in ...
Fujita Takeo - - 2008
Alteration of the tumor microenvironment by aberrant stromal cells influences many aspects of cell biology, including differentiation of stem cells and tumor metastasis. The role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling in stromal cells of the tissue microenvironment is critical to both pathways. We examined murine marrow stromal cells with ...
Jovanovi? Milica - - 2010
Antibodies to phospholipids (aPL) have been shown to adversely affect trophoblast invasion in vivo and in vitro. HTR-8/SVneo cells derived from first trimester of pregnancy extravillous trophoblast were studied. Matrigel invasion assay, cytochemistry and cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) with aPL or normal IgG was used. Our data show that ...
Cnop Miriam - - 2008
The UPR (unfolded protein response) or ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress response was first described 20 years ago. The field of ER stress has expanded tremendously since, moving from basic biology in yeast to human neurodegenerative, inflammatory, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases. The ER stress response has also been implicated in diabetes ...
Meijer Alfred J - - 2008
Autophagy is inhibited by the insulin-amino acid-mTOR signaling pathway. Two papers in this issue of Cell Metabolism (Ebato et al., 2008; Jung et al., 2008) provide evidence that basal autophagy is necessary to maintain the architecture and function of pancreatic beta cells and that its induction in diabetic mice protects ...
Hartley Taila - - 2009
Protein degradation in eukaryotic cells is mediated primarily by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy. Turnover of protein aggregates and other cytoplasmic components, including organelles, is another function attributed to autophagy. The ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy are essential for normal cell function but under certain pathological conditions can be overwhelmed, which ...
Jouhilahti Eeva-Mari - - 2008
The findings of this study show that Class III beta-tubulin is a component of the mitotic spindle in multiple cell types. Class III beta-tubulin has been widely used as a neuron-specific marker, but it has been detected also in association with breast and pancreatic cancers. In this study, we describe ...
Criswell Tracy L TL Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt-Ingram Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, - - 2008
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling pathway plays dual roles in epithelial cell tumorigenesis. TGF-beta is initially growth inhibitory, but as tumorigenesis progresses, TGF-beta becomes prometastatic. Although the role of the types I and II TGF-beta receptors is fairly well established, the role of the ubiquitously expressed TGF-beta type III ...
Qian Lei - - 2008
Sulfonylureas, by stimulating beta cell to secrete insulin, are still largely used for treatment of type 2 diabetic patients. More recently concern has been raised with respect to possible adverse effects associated with the use of these agents, like favoring beta cell apoptosis and beta cell exhaustion, which is believed ...
Lee Ying C - - 2009
Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been suggested to play a role in beta cell mass ...
Nolan Christopher J - - 2008
The pancreatic beta-cell senses blood nutrient levels and is modulated by neurohormonal signals so that it secretes insulin according to the need of the organism. Nutrient sensing involves marked metabolic activation, resulting in the production of coupling signals that promote insulin biosynthesis and secretion. The beta-cell's high capacity for nutrient ...
Wright Daniel G - - 2008
Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is highly stable and binds to complementary RNA and DNA with high affinity, but it resists cellular uptake, thereby limiting its bioavailability. We investigated whether protectiveantigen (PA, a non-toxic component of anthrax toxin) could transport antisense PNA oligomers into reporter cells that contain luciferase transgenes with ...
Niu Yang P - - 2008
Beta-escin, a natural triterpenoid saponin isolated from the seed of the horse chestnut, is known to generate a wide variety of biochemical and pharmacological effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine the apoptotic and antiproliferative activity of beta-escin in HL-60 human acute myeloid leukaemia cells. Antiproliferative activity ...
Kazmierczak Anna - - 2008
alpha-Synuclein is the fundamental component of Lewy bodies which occur in the brain of 60% of sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease patients. Moreover, a proteolytic fragment of alpha-synuclein, the so-called non-amyloid component of Alzheimer's disease amyloid, was found to be an integral part of Alzheimer's dementia related plaques. However, the ...
Suckow Arthur T AT Department of Medicine, Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, - - 2008
The composition of the beta-cell exocytic machinery is very similar to that of neuronal synapses, and the developmental pathway of beta-cells and neurons substantially overlap. beta-Cells secrete gamma-aminobutyric acid and express proteins that, in the brain, are specific markers of inhibitory synapses. Recently, neuronal coculture experiments have identified three families ...
Zhou Qiao - - 2008
One goal of regenerative medicine is to instructively convert adult cells into other cell types for tissue repair and regeneration. Although isolated examples of adult cell reprogramming are known, there is no general understanding of how to turn one cell type into another in a controlled manner. Here, using a ...
Ackermann Misfeldt Amanda - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine whether the transcription factor FoxM1 was required for regeneration of beta-cell mass via proliferation and/or neogenesis in the adult after 60% partial pancreatectomy (PPx). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Adult mice with a pancreas-wide deletion of Foxm1 (Foxm1(flox/flox);Pdx1-Cre [FoxM1(Deltapanc)]) and their control littermates (Foxm1(flox/flox)) ...
Whitfield James F - - 2009
There is much evidence that dietary Ca(2+) loading reduces colon cell proliferation and carcinogenesis in humans and rodents, but during carcinogenesis it becomes ineffective or even tumor-promoting. We are beginning to see how Ca(2+) balances the continuous massive cell production in colon crypts by driving the terminal differentiation and eventually ...
Hsieh Chin-Hsuan CH Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, - - 2009
In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), HLA class I downregulation has been found in about 40% of the lesions examined. Since only scanty information is available about the molecular basis of these defects, we have investigated the mechanism(s) underlying HLA class I antigen downregulation or loss in six RCC cell lines. ...
Clifford Rebecca J - - 2008
In eukaryotic cells, the apparent maintenance of 1:1 stoicheometry between the Na-K-ATPase alpha- and beta-subunits led us to question whether this was alterable and thus if some form of regulation was involved. We have examined the consequences of overexpressing Na-K-ATPase beta1-subunits using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells expressing flag-tagged beta1-subunits ...
Sridurongrit Somyoth S University of Michigan, Department of Biologic and Materials Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2008
Trophic factors secreted both from the endocardium and epicardium regulate appropriate growth of the myocardium during cardiac development. Epicardially-derived cells play also a key role in development of the coronary vasculature. This process involves transformation of epithelial (epicardial) cells to mesenchymal cells (EMT). Similarly, a subset of endocardial cells undergoes ...
Lau Ken S - - 2008
Metabolite flux to UDP-GlcNAc and Golgi N-glycan biosynthesis regulates surface residency of glycoprotein receptors and transporters, and thus sensitivities of cells to extracellular cues. Salvage of GlcNAc increases UDP-GlcNAc and branching of N-glycans progressively, but displays an optimum for cell proliferation and bulk endocytosis in mouse NMuMG and human HEK293T ...
Wojtusciszyn A - - 2008
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We assessed the heterogeneity of insulin secretion from human isolated beta cells and its regulation by cell-to-cell contacts. METHODS: Insulin secretion from single and paired cells was assessed by a reverse haemolytic plaque assay. The percentage of plaque-forming cells, the mean plaque area and the total plaque development were ...
Sun Tao - - 2008
The roles of TGF-beta and the interaction between TGF-beta and EGFR signaling are critical in Sertoli cell, though the knowledge about them is limited. RT-PCR was used to characterize the status of TGF-beta signaling in clinical testicular specimens with complete Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS). The mouse Sertoli cell TM4 was ...
Sargsyan Ernest - - 2008
Elevated levels of glucose and lipids are characteristics of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The enhanced nutrient levels have been connected with deterioration of beta-cell function and impaired insulin secretion observed in these individuals. A strategy to improve beta-cell function in individuals with T2DM has been intermittent administration ...
Fradin Chantal - - 2008
Beta-1,2-linked mannosides (beta-Mans) are believed to contribute to Candida albicans virulence. The presence of beta-Mans has been chemically established for two molecules (phosphopeptidomannan [PPM] and phospholipomannan) that are noncovalently linked to the cell wall, where they correspond to specific epitopes. However, a large number of cell wall mannoproteins (CWMPs) also ...
Stefanov I - - 2008
In this study, the localization of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) activity in the wall of canine perianal sinus (PS) was determined. The 3 beta-HSD activity was found out both in the cytoplasm of cells, situated in the propria and forming clusters adjacently to apocrine glands and in the cytoplasm of ...
Cain Sarah - - 2008
Recent studies implicate Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in lens differentiation (Stump, R. J., et al., 2003. A role for Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in lens epithelial differentiation. Dev Biol;259:48-61). Beta-catenin is a component of adherens junctions and functions as a transcriptional activator in canonical Wnt signaling. We investigated the effects of Cre/LoxP-mediated deletion of ...
Wang Qi Guang - - 2008
This is the first study to quantitate and profile the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composition of the pericellular matrix (PCM) of chondrons and chondrocytes using the highly sensitive technique; fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). Bovine articular chondrocytes and chondrons were isolated enzymatically. High cell yield and viability were obtained for both preparations. Chondrons ...
Jiang Yuying - - 2008
Diabetes results from a deficiency of functional beta-cells due to both an increase in beta-cell death and an inhibition of beta-cell replication. The molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects in susceptible individuals are mostly unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether a gene critical for cell division ...
Bar Yael - - 2008
In vitro expansion of beta-cells from adult human islets could solve the tissue shortage for cell replacement therapy of diabetes. Culture of human islet cells typically results in <16 cell doublings and loss of insulin expression. Using cell lineage tracing, we demonstrated that the expanded cell population included cells derived ...
Hirt-Burri Nathalie - - 2008
For tissue engineering, several cell types and tissues have been proposed as starting material. Allogenic skin products available for therapeutic usage are mostly developed with cell culture and with foreskin tissue of young individuals. Fetal skin cells offer a valuable solution for effective and safe tissue engineering for wounds due ...
Jayaraman Sundararajan - - 2008
Improvement over current methods of beta cell viability assessment is highly warranted in order to efficiently predict the viability and function of beta cells prior to transplantation into type 1 diabetes patients. Dispersed human islet cells were stained with the cell-permeable zinc-selective dye, FluoZin-3-AM, along with the mitochondrial membrane potential ...
Portha B - - 2009
Increasing evidence indicates that decreased functional beta-cell mass is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus. Nowadays, the debate focuses on the possible mechanisms responsible for abnormal islet microenvironment, decreased beta-cell number, impaired beta-cell function, and their multifactorial aetiologies. This review is aimed to illustrate to what extend the ...
Yesil Pinar - - 2008
Pancreatic islets consist of 60-80% beta cells, which secrete insulin, a hormone of profound importance in the regulation of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Beta cell death and/or dysfunction result in an insufficient amount of insulin that leads to high glucose levels in the blood, a metabolic disorder known as ...
Lucero Héctor A - - 2008
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a potent chemokine inducing the migration of varied cell types. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of LOX activity by beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) reduced the chemotactic response and sensitivity of these cells toward LOX and toward PDGF-BB. The chemotactic activity ...
Yang Xuexian O XO Department of Immunology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2008
Regulatory T (Treg) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells were recently proposed to be reciprocally regulated during differentiation. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we utilized a Th17 reporter mouse with a red fluorescent protein (RFP) sequence inserted into the interleukin-17F (IL-17F) gene. Using IL-17F-RFP together with a Foxp3 reporter, we ...
Cunha Daniel A - - 2008
Free fatty acids (FFA) cause apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells and might contribute to beta-cell loss in type 2 diabetes via the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We studied here the molecular mechanisms implicated in FFA-induced ER stress initiation and apoptosis in INS-1E cells, FACS-purified primary beta-cells and human islets ...
Gros Marilyn J - - 2008
TGF-beta family cytokines play multiple roles in immune responses. TGF-beta1-null mice suffer from multi-organ infiltration that leads to their premature death. T cells play a central role in the TGF-beta1 phenotype, as deficiency of TGF-beta1 only in T cells reproduces the lethal phenotype. Although it is known that TGF-beta1 controls ...
Chen Junqin J Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792, - - 2008
Pancreatic beta-cell loss through apoptosis represents a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes; however, no effective approaches to block this process and preserve endogenous beta-cell mass are currently available. To study the role of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), a proapoptotic beta-cell factor we recently identified, we used HcB-19 (TXNIP nonsense ...
Jeffrey Kristin D - - 2008
Obesity is a principal risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and elevated fatty acids reduce beta-cell function and survival. An unbiased proteomic screen was used to identify targets of palmitate in beta-cell death. The most significantly altered protein in both human islets and MIN6 beta-cells treated with palmitate was carboxypeptidase ...
Lee, Simon
Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) may be linked to the attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but it is unclear whether this phenomenon pertains to the pancreatic beta cell. In this study, a UCP2-deficient mouse model was used to assess the importance of UCP2 to beta cell viability. We investigated the effect ...
Rainbow Andrew J - - 2008
PURPOSE: Recombinant human adenovirus, AdCA35lacZ, was used to examine expression of a reporter gene and its reactivation following UVC (200-280 nm) and oxidative damage in fish cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AdCA35lacZ is a recombinant nonreplicating human adenovirus, which expresses the beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) reporter gene. UVC light produces DNA damage repaired ...
Bonal Claire - - 2008
The control of glucose metabolism by pancreatic endocrine cells throughout life relies on a tight regulation of the mass of insulin-producing beta-cells. How this homoeostasis is achieved is not well understood. Over the last few years, experimental rodent models with altered beta-cell mass, and, more recently, new transgenic approaches designed ...
Celen, Sofie
Non-invasive in vivo imaging of reporter gene expression is useful for many medical and biological research applications. The combination of an appropriate reporter gene and radiolabelled reporter probe offers the potential for in vivo imaging and follow-up of therapeutic transgenes and reporter gene expressing cells. The aim of this study ...
Kanamori Takahiro - - 2008
Asymmetric division is an important property of stem cells. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the Wnt/beta-catenin asymmetry pathway determines the polarity of most asymmetric divisions. The Wnt signalling components such as beta-catenin localize asymmetrically to the cortex of mother cells to produce two distinct daughter cells. However, the molecular mechanism to polarize ...
Xu Yuanyuan Y Department of Clinical Pathology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, - - 2008
Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) is an essential regulator of cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis, depending on the cellular context. TGF-beta1 is also known to affect cell-to-cell interactions between tumour cells and stromal cells. We investigated the role of TGF-beta1 in the survival of myelo-monocytic leukaemia cell lines co-cultured with ...
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