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Li J - - 2010
The reduction in insulin secretory capacity and beta-cell mass has been attributed, at least partially, to lipotoxicity, which may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Chronic free fatty acids (FFA) exposure impairs pancreatic beta-cell function and induces beta-cell apoptosis. This study is to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. ...
Gibbs John D JD Laboratory of Respiratory Biology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, - - 2009
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common respiratory viral infection in children which is associated with immune dysregulation and subsequent induction and exacerbations of asthma. We recently reported that treatment of primary human epithelial cells (PHBE cells) with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) enhanced RSV replication. Here, we report that ...
García Mónica - - 2009
Enteroviral infections are associated with type I diabetes. The mechanisms by which viruses or viral products such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) affect pancreatic beta cell function and survival remain unclear. We have shown that extracellular dsRNA induces beta cell death via Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3) signaling whereas cytosolic dsRNA triggers the ...
Cooperberg Benjamin A - - 2009
Given evidence of both indirect and direct signaling, we tested the hypothesis that increased beta-cell-mediated signaling of alpha-cells negates direct alpha-cell signaling in the regulation of glucagon secretion in humans. We measured plasma glucagon concentrations before and after ingestion of a formula mixed meal and, on a separate occasion, ingestion ...
Panasyuk Ganna - - 2009
The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) promotes growth in response to nutrients and growth factors and is deregulated in numerous pathologies, including cancer. The mechanisms by which mTOR senses and regulates energy metabolism and cell growth are relatively well understood, whereas the molecular events underlining how it mediates survival and ...
Guney Michelle A - - 2009
Diabetes is characterized by decreased function of insulin-producing beta cells and insufficient insulin output resulting from an absolute (Type 1) or relative (Type 2) inadequate functional beta cell mass. Both forms of the disease would greatly benefit from treatment strategies that could enhance beta cell regeneration and/or function. Successful and ...
Maehr René - - 2009
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the result of an autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells. The cellular and molecular defects that cause the disease remain unknown. Pluripotent cells generated from patients with T1D would be useful for disease modeling. We show here that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be ...
Natale David R C DR Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4N1. - - 2009
Prolonged maintenance of trophoblast stem (TS) cells requires fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 4 and embryonic fibroblast feeder cells or feeder cell-conditioned medium. Previous studies have shown that TGF-beta and Activin are sufficient to replace embryonic fibroblast-conditioned medium. Nodal, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, is also known to be important ...
Hesselson Daniel - - 2009
Pancreatic beta-cells are critical regulators of glucose homeostasis, and they vary dramatically in their glucose stimulated metabolic response and levels of insulin secretion. It is unclear whether these parameters are influenced by the developmental origin of individual beta-cells. Using HOTcre, a Cre-based genetic switch that uses heat-induction to precisely control ...
Hardy Alexandre B - - 2009
Voltage-gated eag-related gene (Erg) K(+) channels regulate the electrical activity of many cell types. Data regarding Erg channel expression and function in electrically excitable glucagon and insulin producing cells of the pancreas is limited. In the present study Erg1 mRNA and protein were shown to be highly expressed in human ...
Mori Hiroyuki - - 2009
TSC1 is a tumor suppressor that associates with TSC2 to inactivate Rheb, thereby inhibiting signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1). mTORC1 stimulates cell growth by promoting anabolic cellular processes, such as translation, in response to growth factors and nutrient signals. To test roles for TSC1 ...
Collombat Patrick - - 2009
We have previously reported that the loss of Arx and/or Pax4 gene activity leads to a shift in the fate of the different endocrine cell subtypes in the mouse pancreas, without affecting the total endocrine cell numbers. Here, we conditionally and ectopically express Pax4 using different cell-specific promoters and demonstrate ...
Hajduskova Martina - - 2009
Asymmetric cell divisions produce new cell types during animal development. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have identified major signal-transduction pathways that determine the polarity of cell divisions. How these relatively few conserved pathways interact and what modulates them to ensure the diversity of multiple tissue types is an open question. The ...
Susick Laura - - 2009
The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) has recently been shown to inhibit deleterious effects of cytokines on beta-cells, but it is unable to protect beta-cells from death due to its own cytotoxicity. Herein, we investigated novel HDAC inhibitors for their cytoprotective effects against IL-1beta-induced damage to isolated beta-cells. ...
Susick Laura L Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, - - 2009
The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) has recently been shown to inhibit deleterious effects of cytokines on beta-cells, but it is unable to protect beta-cells from death due to its own cytotoxicity. Herein, we investigated novel HDAC inhibitors for their cytoprotective effects against IL-1beta-induced damage to isolated beta-cells. ...
de Miguel-Santos Laura - - 2010
Replication, neogenesis, and apoptosis play a main role in neonatal endocrine pancreas remodeling. IGFs are major contributors to beta-cell growth and function and are highly sensitive to nutritional status. We previously showed that maternal malnutrition caused an increase in beta-cell mass in fetuses related to the stimulation of beta-cell proliferation ...
Shiau Rong-Jen - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The combination of anti-cancer drugs with nutritional factors is a potential strategy for improving the efficacy and decreasing the toxicity of chemotherapy. However, whether nutritional factors enhance the effect of trichostatin A (TSA), a novel anti-cancer drug, is unclear. AIM: We investigated the individual enhancing effect and its possible ...
Dugina Vera - - 2009
Using newly generated monoclonal antibodies, we have compared the distribution of beta- and gamma-cytoplasmic actin in fibroblastic and epithelial cells, in which they play crucial roles during various key cellular processes. Whereas beta-actin is preferentially localized in stress fibers, circular bundles and at cell-cell contacts, suggesting a role in cell ...
Li Changgong - - 2009
The precise mechanisms by which beta-catenin controls morphogenesis and cell differentiation remain largely unknown. Using embryonic lung development as a model, we deleted exon 3 of beta-catenin via Nkx2.1-cre in the Catnb[+/lox(ex3)] mice and studied its impact on epithelial morphogenesis. Robust selective accumulation of truncated, stabilized beta-catenin was found in ...
Shaykhalishahi Hamed - - 2009
Alzheimer's disease is the major cause of senile dementia with the hallmark of beta-amyloid deposition in neurons. Although the main cause(s) of this deposition is not fully understood, however, the wealth of the present literature data supports the pivotal role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in both the initiation ...
Gwak Jungsug - - 2009
Aberrant accumulation of intracellular beta-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells is a frequent early event during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that decrease the level of intracellular beta-catenin, we performed cell-based chemical screening using genetically engineered HEK293 reporter cells to detect compounds that inhibit TOPFlash reporter activity, ...
Estil les Elisabet - - 2009
Interleukin-1beta (IL1B) is an important contributor to the autoimmune destruction of beta-cells in type 1 diabetes, and it has been recently related to the development of type 2 diabetes. IGF2 stimulates beta-cell proliferation and survival. We have determined the effect of IL1B on beta-cell replication, and the potential modulation by ...
Filhoulaud Gaëlle - - 2009
Pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells develop during embryonic life from endodermal progenitors. This process depends on activation of a hierarchy of transcription factors. Although information is available regarding the mesodermal signals controlling pancreas development, little is known about the role of environmental factors such as nutrients, including glucose, that also ...
Bertran Esther - - 2009
Treatment of FaO rat hepatoma cells with TGF-beta selects cells that survive to its apoptotic effect and undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). We have established a cell line (T beta T-FaO, from TGF-beta-treated FaO) that shows a mesenchymal, de-differentiated, phenotype in the presence of TGF-beta and is refractory to its suppressor ...
Kim Dongkyun - - 2009
Endochondral ossification is characterized by a significant interdependence between cell shape and cytoskeletal organization that accompanies the onset of chondrogenic signaling. However, the mechanisms mediating these interactions have not been well studied. Here, treatment with transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta3 at a later stage of chondrogenesis led to activation of Smad-2 ...
Li Qingdi Q - - 2009
beta-Elemene, a new plant-derived anticancer agent with low toxicity, has been reported to be effective in the treatment of leukemia and solid tumors. In the current study, we explored the therapeutic application of beta-elemene in sensitizing lung cancer cells to cisplatin. beta-Elemene considerably enhanced the inhibitory effect of cisplatin on ...
Hasegawa Takuto - - 2009
Two kinds of rhodamine modified beta-cyclodextrins (R-1 and R-2), which are coupled up ethylene diamine (EDA) and tetraethylene pentamine (TEPA) between Rh B and beta-cyclodextrin, respectively, have been synthesized. R-1 and 2 work as a new fluorogenic probe for monitoring pH of Hela cells, and MTT of assay R-1, R-2, ...
Park Miejung - - 2009
Enterostatin is a peptide that regulates dietary fat intake in rodents and inhibits insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Microarray studies of the genomic response of both a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2 cells) and a mouse hypothalamic cell line (GT1-7 cells) to enterostatin suggested that it might regulate protein ...
Arnaud Camille - - 2009
To further characterize the molecular events supporting the tumor suppressor activity of Scrib in mammals, we aim to identify new binding partners. We isolated MCC, a recently identified binding partner for beta-catenin, as a new interacting protein for Scrib. MCC interacts with both Scrib and the NHERF1/NHERF2/Ezrin complex in a ...
Li Zhen - - 2009
Cell lineage analysis is critical in understanding the relationship between progenitors and differentiated cells as well as the mechanism underlying the process of differentiation. In order to study the zebrafish endocrine pancreas cell lineage, transgenic expression of diphtheria toxin gene A chain (DTA) under two cell type-specific promoters derived from ...
Kabashima Ayano - - 2009
We report here side population (SP) cells, a cancer stem cell enriched fraction from pancreatic cancer cell line, have enormous superior potential of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion, and metastasis. In an isolated SP cell culture, the cells rapidly expressed and up-regulated E-cadherin, an epithelial phenotypic marker, and ...
Harb George - - 2009
The retinoblastoma protein family (pRb, p130, p107) plays a central role in the regulation of cell cycle progression. Surprisingly, loss of pRb in the beta-cell has no discernible effect on cell cycle control. Therefore, we explored the effects of individual loss of either p130 or p107 in addition to the ...
Li Mengsen - - 2009
The role of AFP in the retinoic acid-RAR signaling pathway was investigated in human hepatoma Bel 7402 cells. The results showed that AFP and RAR-beta were co-localized and interacted in cytoplasm. AFP may inhibit translocation of RAR-beta into the nucleus via competitive binding to RAR-beta with ATRA, which was reversed ...
Legakis Ioannis - - 2009
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from insulin resistance in the setting of inadequate beta-cell compensation. Impaired beta-cell function and possibly beta-cell mass appear to be reversible, particularly at early stages of the disease. Pancreatic beta-cells possess the potential to greatly expand their function and mass in both ...
Satoh Keitaro - - 2009
beta-Adrenoceptor activation increases intracellular cAMP levels and consequently induces exocytotic amylase release in parotid acinar cells. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) catalyses the hydrolysis of cAMP, which terminates the downstream signaling of this second messenger. We investigated the involvement of PDE4, a cAMP-PDE, in beta-adrenoceptor agonist-induced amylase release in mouse, rat and rabbit ...
Kuo Yi-Chih - - 2009
CD44, a transmembrane receptor for hyaluronic acid, is implicated in various adhesion-dependent cellular processes, including cell migration, tumor cell metastasis and invasion. Recent studies demonstrated that CD44 expressed in cancer cells can be proteolytically cleaved at the ectodomain by membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) to form soluble CD44 and that ...
Leahy Jack L - - 2009
Several clinical trials have shown a high success rate of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) in prediabetes and early type 2 diabetes. The presumed mechanism of this effect has shifted from the best known effect of these agents to improve insulin sensitivity, to preservation of beta-cell function. The common explanation for this effect ...
Fryirs Michelle - - 2009
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It has recently been recognized that cholesterol homeostasis is fundamentally important for appropriate insulin secretory function of beta-cells in the pancreas. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the relationship between beta-cell cholesterol metabolism and beta-cell function. RECENT FINDINGS: The accumulation of cholesterol in beta-cells causes perturbations ...
Ye Lin - - 2009
The innovation of reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells provides a possible new approach to treat beta-thalassemia and other genetic diseases such as sickle cell anemia. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be made from these patients' somatic cells and the mutation in the beta-globin gene corrected by ...
Malaisse Willy J - - 2009
Noninvasive imaging and quantification of pancreatic, insulin-producing beta cells has been considered a high-priority field of investigation for the past decade. In the first review on this issue, attention was already paid to various agents for labeling beta cells, including 6-(125)I-D-glucose, (65)Zn, (3)H-glibenclamide, (3)H-mitiglinide, an (125)I-labeled mouse monoclonal antibody against ...
Manesso Erica - - 2009
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia, a deficit in beta-cells, increased beta-cell apoptosis, and islet amyloid derived from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). These characteristics are recapitulated in the human IAPP transgenic (HIP) rat. We developed a mathematical model to quantify beta-cell turnover and applied it to nondiabetic wild type ...
Koide Yuichiro - - 2009
A novel design strategy for controlling the fluorescence and photosensitizing ability of thiazole orange (TO) has been developed. The validity of this approach was demonstrated by the synthesis of a beta-galactosidase-activatable photosensitizer, PhoTO-Gal, in which fluorescence is simultaneously activated. PhoTO-Gal was demonstrated to kill HEK293 lacZ(+) cells, which express beta-galactosidase, ...
Ghantous Akram - - 2009
Four sesquiterpene lactones were isolated from Achillea falcata, through bioassay-guided fractionation, based on their differential ability to affect HaCaT cell growth. Identified seco-tanapartholides: 3-beta-methoxy-iso-seco-tanapartholide (1), tanaphillin (2), iso-seco-tanapartholide (3), and 8-hydroxy-3-methoxy-iso-seco-tanaparatholide (4) were found to differentially decrease keratinocyte cell viability. In addition, the stereoselectivity, lipophilicity, and number and position of ...
Daly Trevor J - - 2009
Much interest has focused on the cholesterol-lowering effects of phytosterols (plant sterols) but limited data suggests they may also possess anti-carcinogenic activity. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), sourced from meat and dairy products of ruminant animals, has also received considerable attention as a potential anti-cancer agent. Therefore, the aims of this ...
Zhang Gongliang - - 2009
Cellular phototoxicity induced by UVA irradiation and its potential application to therapy has been reported. In the present study, the induction of apoptosis induced by beta-carotene and dimethyl tetrasulfide (Me(2)S(4)) assisted by UVA irradiation in HL-60 cells was assessed. beta-carotene assisted by UVA significantly decreased the cell viability and induced ...
Kim Na Ryoung - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Conditioned media (CM) from human dental pulp cells (HDPC) was investigated for its effects on the proliferation and differentiation of HDPC and MG63 cells. STUDY DESIGN: CM prepared from the primary culture of HDPC was used for the culture of HDPC and MG63. Cell growth, alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity, ...
Sayers I I Division of Therapeutics & Molecular Medicine, University Hospital of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. - - 2009
Indacaterol is a novel beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist in development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the comparative pharmacology of indacaterol in recombinant cells expressing the common polymorphic variants of the human beta(2)-adrenoceptor and in human primary airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. ...
Dhawan Sangeeta - - 2009
The molecular mechanisms that regulate the age-induced increase of p16(INK4a) expression associated with decreased beta-cell proliferation and regeneration are not well understood. We report that in aged islets, derepression of the Ink4a/Arf locus is associated with decreased Bmi-1 binding, loss of H2A ubiquitylation, increased MLL1 recruitment, and a concomitant increase ...
Chen Hainan - - 2009
Proliferation of pancreatic islet beta cells is an important mechanism for self-renewal and for adaptive islet expansion. Increased expression of the Ink4a/Arf locus, which encodes the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a) and tumor suppressor p19(Arf), limits beta-cell regeneration in aging mice, but the basis of beta-cell Ink4a/Arf regulation is poorly understood. ...
Hsu Li-Jin - - 2009
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) initiates multiple signal pathways and activates many downstream kinases. Here, we determined that TGF-beta1 bound cell surface hyaluronidase Hyal-2 on microvilli in type II TGF-beta receptor-deficient HCT116 cells, as determined by immunoelectron microscopy. This binding resulted in recruitment of proapoptotic WOX1 (also named WWOX or ...
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