Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 2256
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Xiao Jian - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: This study explored the response of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells to TGF-beta1-induced growth suppression and investigated the roles of the TGF-beta/Smad signaling pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. METHODS: The cells of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE2 were treated with TGF-beta1. The growth responses of CNE2 cells were analyzed by MTT ...
Parenti S - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Several reports indicate that mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA) is a promising candidate for the chemoprevention of colo-rectal cancer because of its ability to reach the purpose avoiding the unwanted side effects usually associated with prolonged administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This activity of 5-ASA is probably the consequence of ...
Cout? Yohann - - 2010
Pancreatic beta-cells are responsible for insulin secretion that regulates blood glucose homeostasis. In the development of type II diabetes, a progressive impairment of insulin secretion by the pancreatic beta-cells occurs called beta-cell dysfunction or beta-cell failure. Chronic hyperglycemia has been shown being involved in beta-cell dysfunction, a phenomenon known as ...
Castro Carla N - - 2010
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that destroys the insulin-secreting beta-cells of the pancreas. It is now possible to predict those candidates that will progress to T1D before the full onset of the disease. Prevention of uncontrollable autoimmunity against beta-cells in therapies for T1D is mandatory ...
Lee Ji-Hyeon - - 2010
Insulin-producing pancreatic islet beta cells (beta-cells) are destroyed, severely depleted or functionally impaired in diabetes. Therefore, replacing functional beta-cell mass would advance clinical diabetes management. We have previously demonstrated the importance of Cdk4 in regulating beta-cell mass. Cdk4-deficient mice display beta-cell hypoplasia and develop diabetes, whereas beta-cell hyperplasia is observed ...
Meivar-Levy Irit - - 2010
Regenerative medicine aims at producing new cells for repair or replacement of diseased and damaged tissues. Embryonic and adult stem cells have been suggested as attractive sources of cells for generating the new cells needed. The leading dogma was that adult cells in mammals, once committed to a specific lineage, ...
Meir Ofir - - 2010
[This corrects the article on p. e9516 in vol. 5.].
Jun Hee-Sook - - 2010
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are considered to be caused by defective control of blood glucose resulting from a reduced beta-cell mass. Thus, the restoration of a functional beta-cell mass by replacing the damaged beta-cells or stimulating beta-cell regeneration is a logical approach for the treatment of diabetes. ...
Baskar Albert A - - 2010
Asclepias curassavica Linn. is a traditional medicinal plant used by tribal people in the western ghats, India, to treat piles, gonorrhoea, roundworm infestation and abdominal tumours. We have determined the protective effect of beta-sitosterol isolated from A. curassavica in colon cancer, using in vitro and in vivo models. The active ...
Wang Haijuan - - 2010
Postnatal expansion of the pancreatic β-cell mass is required to maintain glucose homeostasis immediately after birth. This β-cell expansion is regulated by multiple growth factors, including glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). These mitogens signal through several downstream pathways (AKT, ERK, STAT3, and JNK) to ...
Li Yan - - 2010
Lipoapoptosis of pancreatic beta cells caused by elevated circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) has now been recognized to be a pivotal factor contributing to beta cellular dysfunction and beta-mass lose in type 2 diabetes. Although recent studies suggested an important role for the ceramide pathway in the late destructive phase ...
Piazza Francesco - - 2010
Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) α and β are two serine-threonine kinases controlling insulin, Wnt/β-catenin, NF-κB signaling and other cancer-associated transduction pathways. Recent evidence suggests that GSK-3 could function as growth-promoting kinases, especially in malignant cells. In this study, we have investigated GSK-3α and GSK-3β function in multiple myeloma (MM). GSK-3 ...
Chung Cheng-Ho - - 2010
Beta-cell deficit is the major pathological feature in type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients, and plays a key role in disease progression. In principle, beta-cell regeneration can occur by replication of pre-existing beta-cells, or by beta-cell neogenesis from stem/progenitors. Unfortunately, beta-cell replication is limited by the almost complete absence ...
Thörn Kristofer - - 2010
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is an ER resident enzyme introducing a double-bond in saturated fatty acids. Global knockout of SCD1 in mouse increases fatty acid oxidation and insulin sensitivity which makes the animal resistant to diet-induced obesity. Inhibition of SCD1 has therefore been proposed as a potential therapy of the ...
Loza Matthew J MJ Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, - - 2010
It is widely recognized that Th2 cytokines derived from T cells play a major role in the development of allergic lung inflammation that causes most asthma. Beta-agonists are important rescue and maintenance therapies for asthma, yet our understanding of beta-agonist effects on T cell biology is surprisingly poor. Recent studies ...
Wang Yang Y Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, - - 2010
Truncating mutations in the tumor suppressor gene APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) are thought to initiate the majority of colorectal cancers. The 15- and 20-amino acid repeat regions of APC bind beta-catenin and have been widely studied for their role in the negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling. However, functions of ...
Arriagada Christian - - 2010
Human Down syndrome (DS) represents the most frequent cause of mental retardation associated to a genetic condition. DS also exhibits a characteristic early onset of neuropathology indistinguishable from that observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), namely the deposition of the beta-amyloid peptide. Early endosomal dysfunction has been described in individuals with ...
Barnes Elizabeth A EA University of Washington, Department of Surgery, Seattle, Washington 98195, - - 2010
Mutations in the tumor suppressor tuberin (TSC2) are a common factor in the development of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). LAM is a cystic lung disease that is characterized by the infiltration of smooth muscle-like cells into the pulmonary parenchyma. The mechanism by which the loss of tuberin promotes the development of LAM ...
Chung Won-Suk WS Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Programs in Developmental Biology, Genetics and Human Genetics, the Liver Center, Institute for Regeneration Medicine and Diabetes Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, - - 2010
Bmp signaling has been shown to regulate early aspects of pancreas development, but its role in endocrine, and especially beta-cell, differentiation remains unclear. Taking advantage of the ability in zebrafish embryos to cell-autonomously modulate Bmp signaling in single cells, we examined how Bmp signaling regulates the ability of individual endodermal ...
Kroening Sven - - 2010
Tubular epithelial cells secrete connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2), which contributes to tubulointerstitial fibrosis. However, the molecular regulation of CTGF in human primary tubular epithelial cells (hPTECs) is not well defined. Therefore, CTGF expression was characterized in hPTECs isolated from healthy parts of tumor nephrectomies, with special emphasis on ...
Gonez L Jorge - - 2010
The cure for type 1 diabetes (T1D) will require either the replacement or regeneration of insulin-producing cells, together with measures that prevent their immune-mediated destruction. Experiments in rodent models have found that pancreatic stem cells, committed progenitors and replicating beta-cells can all contribute to insulin-producing cell regeneration. The cellular and ...
Meier Juris J - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: beta-cell regeneration is an area under active investigation for the future treatment of diabetes, but little is known about the patterns and dynamics of prenatal beta-cell development in humans. In particular, the quantitative changes in beta-cell mass in the developing pancreas have not been elucidated in detail. We addressed ...
Kordowich Simon - - 2010
Due to the increasing prevalence of type 1 diabetes and the complications arising from actual therapies, alternative treatments need to be established. In order to compensate the beta-cell deficiency associated with type 1 diabetes, current researches focus on new strategies to generate insulin-producing beta cells for transplantation purpose, including the ...
Lee Jong Han - - 2010
Pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction is a prerequisite for the development of type 2 diabetes. Alcoholism is a diabetes risk factor and ethanol increases oxidative stress in beta-cells, whereas the mitochondrial chaperone prohibitin (PHB) has antioxidant effects in several cell types. In the present study we investigated whether PHB is expressed in ...
Rieck Sebastian S Department of Genetics and Institute for Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, - - 2010
Inadequate beta-cell mass can lead to insulin insufficiency and diabetes. During times of prolonged metabolic demand for insulin, the endocrine pancreas can respond by increasing beta-cell mass, both by increasing cell size and by changing the balance between beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis. In this paper, we review recent advances in ...
Heinis Mylène - - 2010
Recent evidence indicates that low oxygen tension (pO2) or hypoxia controls the differentiation of several cell types during development. Variations of pO2 are mediated through the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a crucial mediator of the adaptative response of cells to hypoxia. The aim of this study was to investigate the role ...
Kaminski Anna - - 2010
Secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines is associated with loss of pancreatic beta-cell viability and cell death. IL-4 (interleukin-4) has been reported to mediate a protective effect against the loss of pancreatic beta-cells, and IL-4 receptors have been found in rat pancreatic beta-cells at both the RNA and the protein level. The ...
Lin Ching-Chih - - 2009
Emerging evidence has shown that GSK3beta plays a pivotal role in regulating the specification of axons and dendrites. Our previous study has shown a novel GSK3beta interaction protein (GSKIP) able to negatively regulate GSK3beta in Wnt signaling pathway. To further characterize how GSKIP functions in neurons, human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells ...
Sachdeva Mohit - - 2010
MicroRNAs are important gene regulators that could play a profound role in tumorigenesis. Our previous studies indicate that miR-145 is a tumor suppressor capable of inhibiting tumor cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that miR-145 exerts its function in a cell-specific manner. Although ...
Ray Balmiki - - 2010
Memantine, an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, is a FDA-approved drug used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several studies have documented protective roles of memantine against amyloid beta (A beta) peptide-mediated damage to neurons in both in vitro and in vivo models. Memantine is also effective in reducing ...
Prydz Kristian - - 2009
Polarized epithelial cells like Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and CaCo-2 cells synthesize and secrete proteoglycans (PGs), mostly of heparan sulphate (HS) type in direction of the basal extracellular matrix, but also some in the apical direction. MDCK cells possess the capacity to synthesize chondroitin sulphate (CS) PGs that are mainly ...
Kwon Dae Young - - 2009
Exendin-4, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1-receptor agonist, is known to enhance beta-cell function, but the active mechanism by which it modulates beta-cell mass still remains unclear. We investigated what the long-term effects of exendin-4 (300 pmol/kg body weight per day) on beta-cell function and mass would be in 90% pancreatectomized (Px) ...
Béraud-Dufour Sophie - - 2009
The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) has been recently shown to protect pancreatic beta cells from toxic agents-induced apoptosis through interaction with the NT receptor-2 (NTSR2) and activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway. However, expression of the NT receptor-3/sortilin (NTSR3) in the mouse pancreatic beta cell line -TC3 led us to investigate ...
Nakamura Shin-Ichi - - 2009
Tongue epithelium continuously turns over in adults. Our previous study showed that epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2 stimulated proliferation of KT-1 cells derived from tongue epithelium, suggesting that these signals serve as positive regulators for tongue epithelial proliferation. To investigate a negative regulation of tongue epithelial cell proliferation, ...
Glauser Dominique A - - 2009
Lack of nutrients and growth factors activates FoxO transcription factors in pancreatic beta-cells, whereas PI3K/Akt-dependent inactivation of FoxO favors proliferation. To address the link between FoxO and cell cycle control, we deprived Min6 cells of serum and glucose which activated FoxO and inhibited proliferation. Concomitantly, expression of the transcriptional repressor ...
Mason Mariah N - - 2009
Development of an alternative source of functional, transplantable beta-cells to replace or supplement cadaveric tissue is critical to the future success of islet cell transplantation therapy. Embryonic pancreatic precursor cells are desirable as a renewable source of beta-cells as they are both proliferative and inherently capable of pancreatic cell differentiation. ...
Yanagisawa Makoto M Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics and Institute of Neuroscience, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, - - 2009
In neural stem cells (NSCs), glycoconjugates and carbohydrate antigens are known not only to serve as excellent cell surface biomarkers for cellular differentiation and development but also to play important functional roles in determining cell fate. O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), which modifies nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins on the serine and threonine ...
Wang Wei - - 2010
Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide secreted predominantly by X/A-like cells of the gastric fundus. Ghrelin increases pancreatic beta-cell proliferation and survival via sequential activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and Akt. The transcription regulator Foxo1 is a prominent effector of PI3K/Akt; when it is inhibited, pancreatic beta-cells are protected against fatty-acid-induced ...
Kim Ingyu - - 2009
Loss of polycystin-2 (PC2) in mice (Pkd2(-/-)) results in total body edema, focal hemorrhage, structural cardiac defects, abnormal left-right axis, hepatorenal and pancreatic cysts, and embryonic lethality. The molecular mechanisms by which loss of PC2 leads to these phenotypes remain unknown. We generated a model to allow targeted Pkd2 inactivation ...
Flozak Annette S AS Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611, - - 2010
The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling cascade activates genes that allow cells to adopt particular identities throughout development. In adult self-renewing tissues like intestine and blood, activation of the Wnt pathway maintains a progenitor phenotype, whereas forced inhibition of this pathway promotes differentiation. In the lung alveolus, type 2 epithelial cells (AT2) have ...
Figeac Florence - - 2010
Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is critical for a variety of fundamental cellular processes. Here, we investigated the implication of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in the in vivo regulation of beta-cell growth and regeneration in normal and diabetic rats. To this aim, TCF7L2, the distal effector of the canonical Wnt pathway, was knocked down ...
Kordowich Simon - - 2010
Due to the increasing prevalence of type 1 diabetes and the complications arising from actual therapies, alternative treatments need to be established. In order to compensate the beta-cell deficiency associated with type 1 diabetes, current research focuses on new strategies to generate insulin-producing beta-cells for transplantation purpose, including the differentiation ...
Weir G C - - 2009
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by reduction of beta-cell mass and dysfunctional insulin secretion. Understanding beta-cell phenotype changes as T2D progresses should help explain these abnormalities. The normal phenotype should differ from the state of overwork when beta-cells compensate for insulin resistance to keep glucose levels normal. When only ...
Demeterco C - - 2009
Prospects for inducing endogenous beta-cell regeneration in the pancreas, one of the most attractive approaches to reverse type 1 and type 2 diabetes, have gained substantially from recent evidence that cells in the adult pancreas exhibit more plasticity than previously recognized. There are two major pathways to beta-cell regeneration, beta-cell ...
Oliver Nick - - 2009
The normal pancreatic beta-cell membrane depolarizes in response to increasing concentrations of glucose in a bursting pattern. At <7 mM (126 mg/dl), the cell is electrically silent. The bursting pulse width increases as glucose rises >7 mM (126 mg/dl) until a continuous train of bursting is seen at >25 mM ...
Thiago L S - - 2010
B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is the most common malignancy in children. The Wnt signaling pathway has been found to be extensively involved in cancer onset and progression but its role in BCP-ALL remains controversial. We evaluate the role of the Wnt pathway in maintenance of BCP-ALL cells and ...
Guettier Jean-Marc JM Molecular Signaling Section, Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. - - 2009
Impaired functioning of pancreatic beta cells is a key hallmark of type 2 diabetes. beta cell function is modulated by the actions of different classes of heterotrimeric G proteins. The functional consequences of activating specific beta cell G protein signaling pathways in vivo are not well understood at present, primarily ...
Cnop M M Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Division of Endocrinology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, - - 2010
Defects in pancreatic beta cell turnover are implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes by genetic markers for diabetes. Decreased beta cell neogenesis could contribute to diabetes. The longevity and turnover of human beta cells is unknown; in rodents <1 year old, a half-life of 30 days is estimated. ...
Sachdeva Mira M - - 2009
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) results from pancreatic beta cell failure in the setting of insulin resistance. Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the beta cell transcription factor pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) are associated with both T2DM and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY4), and low levels of ...
Saisho Y Y Larry Hillblom Islet Research Center, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90024-2852, - - 2010
We sought to establish the relationship between fasting plasma glucose concentrations and pancreatic fractional beta cell area in adult cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Fasting plasma glucose and pancreatic fractional beta cell area were measured in 18 control and 17 streptozotocin-treated adult primates (17.0 +/- 1.2 vs 15.4 +/- 1.2 years ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >