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Wong Victor S C - - 2010
R-spondin-1 (Rspo1) is an intestinal growth factor known to exert its effects through activation of the canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling pathway and subsequent expression of cWnt target genes. We have detected Rspo1 mRNA in murine islets and the murine MIN6 and betaTC beta-cell lines, and Rspo1 protein in MIN6 beta-cells. ...
Suckow Arthur T AT 1Department of Medicine and Pediatric Diabetes Research Center, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0983, - - 2010
Pancreatic islet beta-cells contain synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). The origin, trafficking, and role of these SLMVs are poorly understood. In neurons, synaptic vesicle (SV) biogenesis is mediated by two different cytosolic adaptor protein complexes, a ubiquitous AP-2 complex and the neuron-specific AP-3B complex. Mice lacking AP-3B subunits exhibit impaired GABAergic (inhibitory) ...
Shieh Dar-Bin - - 2010
This study was performed to define the roles of actin-binding proteins in the regulation of actin filament assembly associated with cellular signal transduction pathways in stromal cell proliferation. Genistein, a tyrosine protein kinase inhibitor, decreased the intracellular Ca(2+) and attenuated cell proliferation and DNA synthesis through the beta-catenin and cyclin ...
Brom Maarten - - 2010
The changes in beta-cell mass (BCM) during the course of diabetes are not yet well characterized. A non-invasive method to measure the BCM in vivo would allow us to study the BCM during the onset and progression of the diseases caused by beta-cell dysfunction. PET and SPECT imaging are attractive ...
Cadron Isabelle - - 2010
BACKGROUND: In this study the modulatory effect of the proteinase kinase C beta (PKC beta) selective inhibitor enzastaurin on CA125 expression and shedding in ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3 cells) was investigated. MATERIAL ANDMETHODS: OVCAR-3 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with increasing concentrations of carboplatin (2-1000 microM), paclitaxel (0.2-100 ...
Villiger M - - 2010
Endocrine beta cells produce and release insulin in order to tightly regulate glucose homeostasis and prevent metabolic pathologies such as Diabetes Mellitus. Optical imaging has contributed greatly to our current understanding of beta cell structure and function. In vitro microscopy of beta cell lines has revealed the localization of molecular ...
Veluthakal Rajakrishnan - - 2010
In diabetic disease, blood glucose, HbA1c and insulin levels qualify as biomarkers reflecting endocrine pancreas function, but their shortfall in being truly useful predictors or surrogate endpoints of "abnormal processes or disease" lies in that alteration in their levels are dependent on a variety comorbidities and occur too late in ...
In't Veld Peter - - 2010
This study assesses beta-cell replication in human donor organs and examines possible influences of the preterminal clinical conditions. beta-Cell replication was quantified in a consecutive series of n = 363 human organ donors using double immunohistochemistry for Ki67 and insulin. Uni- and multivariate analysis was used to correlate replication levels ...
Bellocq Delphine D UMR1089 - Laboratoire des Xénobiotiques, INRA/ENVT, 180, Chemin de Tournefeuille, BP 93173, F-31027 Toulouse cedex 3, - - 2010
Epidemiological studies have revealed a protective role of oestrogens against the promotion of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, the oestrogen metabolism status of colonic cells is studied to explain it. Loss of function of adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene product is an early and frequent event in human colorectal carcinogenesis. Normal ...
Braun Matthias M Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK. - - 2010
Paracrine signaling via gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) has been documented in rodent islets. Here we have studied the importance of GABAergic signaling in human pancreatic islets. Expression of GABA(A)Rs in islet cells was investigated by quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry, and patch-clamp experiments. Hormone release was measured from intact ...
van Arensbergen Joris - - 2010
The epigenome changes that underlie cellular differentiation in developing organisms are poorly understood. To gain insights into how pancreatic beta-cells are programmed, we profiled key histone methylations and transcripts in embryonic stem cells, multipotent progenitors of the nascent embryonic pancreas, purified beta-cells, and 10 differentiated tissues. We report that despite ...
Pais Eszter - - 2010
Although pancreatic beta-cell transplantation may serve as a potential cure for diabetes mellitus (DM), limited donor tissue availability poses a major challenge. Thus, there is a great demand to find new sources for pancreatic beta-cells. Here, we present a lentiviral vector-based approach to achieve beta-cell proliferation through the beta-cell-specific activation ...
Flamez D - - 2010
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Non-invasive imaging of the pancreatic beta cell mass (BCM) requires the identification of novel and specific beta cell biomarkers. We have developed a systems biology approach to the identification of promising beta cell markers. METHODS: We followed a functional genomics strategy based on massive parallel signal sequencing (MPSS) and ...
Brown Melissa L ML Pioneer Valley Life Science Institute, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Springfield, MA 01107, - - 2010
Loss of functional beta-cells is the primary cause of type 2 diabetes, so that there is an acute need to understand how beta-cell number and function are regulated in the adult under normal physiological conditions. Recent studies suggest that members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family regulate beta-cell function ...
Ueberberg S - - 2010
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro phage display in a beta cell line as a novel strategy for the isolation of beta cell-specific agents/biomarkers. METHODS: A single-chain antibody (SCA) library was pre-incubated with AR42J cells in order to eliminate SCAs with exocrine binding properties. ...
Thorel Fabrizio F Department of Cell Physiology & Metabolism, University of Geneva Faculty of Medicine, 1 rue Michel-Servet, CH-1211 Geneva 4, - - 2010
Pancreatic insulin-producing beta-cells have a long lifespan, such that in healthy conditions they replicate little during a lifetime. Nevertheless, they show increased self-duplication after increased metabolic demand or after injury (that is, beta-cell loss). It is not known whether adult mammals can differentiate (regenerate) new beta-cells after extreme, total beta-cell ...
Jeong Yun-Mi - - 2010
In the present study, we determined whether or not imidazole affects B16 murine melanoma cell migration to prevent melanoma metastasis. To determine the effects of imidazole on melanoma cell migration, B16 cells were treated with imidazole at various concentrations, and the migration was measured using a scratch migration assay. Imidazole ...
Yamada Parida - - 2010
The immediate-type allergic reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and sinusitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of acteoside extracted from CISTANCHE TUBULOSA (Schrenk) R. Wight on the basophilic cell-mediated allergic reaction. The effect of acteoside on β-hexosaminidase release and intracellular [Ca (2+)] ...
Slavova Nadia - - 2010
PURPOSE: Paneth cells are part of the innate mucosal immunity of the gut with possible regulatory function. This study intends to identify the gene expression pattern of the orthotopic and metaplastic Paneth cells, searching for differences between metaplastic occurrence between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Paneth cells were collected ...
Fujitani Yoshio - - 2010
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved machinery for degradation and recycling of various cytoplasmic components such as long-lived proteins and organelles. In pancreatic beta-cells, as in most other cells, autophagy is also important for the low basal turnover of ubiquitinated proteins and damaged organelles under normal conditions. Insulin resistance results in ...
Castell-Auví Anna - - 2010
Natural plant extracts are candidates for the development of new functional foods. Most of them are usually complex mixtures of molecules of uncertain bioavailability that are often partially metabolized before they finally reach the target cells IN VIVO. IN VITRO studies of the bioactivity of these extracts suggest that their ...
Grouwels Gael - - 2010
Generating functional beta-cells by inducing their proliferation may provide new perspectives for cell therapy in diabetes. Transcription factor E2F1 controls G(1)- to S-phase transition during the cycling of many cell types and is required for pancreatic beta-cell growth and function. However, the consequences of overexpression of E2F1 in beta-cells are ...
Räsänen Kati - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) acts as a tumor promoter by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which leads to a motile phenotype, enabling invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. Cancer-related inflammation, mediated by prostaglandins, has been proposed as a critical mechanism in conversion of benign cells to malignant. OBJECTIVE: Induction ...
Xia Chang-Qing - - 2010
In our previous studies, we demonstrated that infusion of apoptotic cells significantly prevented type 1 diabetes (T1D) in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is an apoptotic cell-based therapy used clinically for immune-mediated disorders. In this study, we examined the effect that intravenous delivery of apoptotic cells (ECP-treated) has ...
Green Alice S AS Department of Animal Sciences, University of Arizona, 1650 East Limberlost Drive, Tucson, Arizona 85719, - - 2010
Low birth weight is an important risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes later in life. One hypothesis is that fetal beta-cells inherit a persistent defect as a developmental response to fetal malnutrition, a primary cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Our understanding of fetal programing events in the ...
Yechoor Vijay - - 2010
Pancreatic beta-cell failure underlies type 1 diabetes; it also contributes in an essential way to type 2 diabetes. beta-Cell replacement is an important component of any cure for diabetes. The current options of islet and pancreas transplantation are not satisfactory as definitive forms of therapy. Here, we review strategies for ...
Kawasaki Y - - 2010
It has been reported that the immunosuppressant rapamycin decreases the viability of pancreatic beta cells. In contrast, exendin-4, an analogue of glucagon-like peptide-1, has been found to inhibit beta cell death and to increase beta cell mass. We investigated the effects of exendin-4 on the cytotoxic effect of rapamycin in ...
Zhi Zheng-liang ZL Metabolic Unit, King's College London School of Medicine, Guy's Hospital, London, United Kingdom. - - 2010
This paper describes the use of a layer-by-layer nanocoating technique for the encapsulation of insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cell spheroids (pseudoislets) within chitosan/alginate multilayers. We used pseudoislets self-organized from a population of the insulinoma cell line MIN6, derived from a transgenic mouse expressing the large T-antigen of SV40 in pancreatic beta-cells, as ...
Detsch R - - 2010
Nanocrystalline calcium phosphates containing carbonate have a high similarity to bone mineral. The reactions of bone cells (primary osteoblasts and osteoclast-like cells) on these materials as well as on sintered beta-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite (HA) confirmed a good biocompatibility of the nanocrystalline samples. However, osteoclastic differentiation was constrained on the ...
Kommera Harish - - 2010
Four derivatives of betulin containing a D-glucopyranosyl moiety at C3 position were synthesized and characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy as well as mass spectrometry. The crystal structure of 28-O-acetylbetulin-3-yl-beta-D-(2',3',4',6'-tetra-O-acetyl)glucopyranoside was determined. The compounds were tested against fifteen tumor cell lines of different histogenic origins. The alpha- and beta-anomers ...
Wang Wei - - 2010
Inhibition of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is an attractive method for therapy of various tumors including breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer, etc. However, little is known about the role of Wnt2/beta-catenin pathway in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Here we identify that Wnt2/beta-catenin signaling pathway is activated in ESCC cells, and sodium ...
Xu Song - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: To explore the role of SEPT7 in glioma cell invasion. METHODS: SEPT7 was transfected into human glioma cell lines U251 and TJ899, the invasive abilities were evaluated by transwell assay, scratch assay, and 3-D/2-D Matrigel growth. The expression of MMP2/9, MT1-MMP, integrin alpha(v)beta(3), and TIMP1/2 was detected by immunohistochemistry, ...
Pinnick Katherine - - 2010
Pancreatic beta-cells metabolise both lipid and glucose nutrients but chronic exposure (>24 h) to elevated fatty acid (FA) concentrations results in deleterious metabolic and morphological changes. The aims of this study were to assess the adaptive morphological, metabolic and secretory responses of islet beta-cells to exposure and removal of FA. ...
Moon E Y - - 2010
AIMS: We evaluated Gi-protein inhibitor, guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate)(GOT)-induced senescence-associated(SA)-beta-galactosidase(Gal) positive cell formation to determine if it occurred through phosphorylation of cyclic AMP-dependent response element binding protein (CREB). MAIN METHODS: IMR-90 human lung fibroblast cells were used. SA-beta-Gal positive cells and senescence-associated heterochromatic foci (SAHF) were determined by assessing blue color formation ...
Kambhampati Suman - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME(2)), a promising anticancer agent, modulates Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma (BEAC) cell growth and behavior through a cellular pathway involving beta-catenin in partnership with E-cadherin, which seems to play a critical role in the induction of antitumor responses in cancer cells. ...
Zraika S S Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, VA Puget Sound Health Care System and University of Washington, 1660 South Columbian Way (151), Seattle, WA 98108, USA. - - 2010
Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease characterised by islet amyloid deposits in the majority of patients. Amyloid formation is considered a significant factor in deterioration of islet function and reduction in beta cell mass, and involves aggregation of monomers of the normally soluble beta cell peptide, human islet amyloid ...
Gustafson Birgit - - 2010
Canonical Wnt ligands are secreted by several cell types in the adipose tissue. We examined if mature adipocytes can also be target cells and found that canonical Wnt activation by Wnt3a induced a marked dedifferentiation of both 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes. Typical adipogenic markers were reduced while undifferentiated cell markers ...
González-Pertusa José A JA Division of Endocrinology, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, BST-E1140, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, - - 2010
Increasing evidence suggests that elevation of plasma fatty acids that often accompanies insulin resistance contributes to beta-cell insufficiency in obesity-related type 2 diabetes. Circulating levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are increased in humans with metabolic syndrome and obesity. HGF is known to protect beta-cells against streptozotocin and during islet ...
Brown James E P - - 2010
Obesity is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Activation of the adiponectin receptors has a clear role in improving insulin resistance although conflicting evidence exists for its effects on pancreatic beta-cells. Previous reports have identified both adiponectin receptors (ADR-1 and ADR-2) in the beta-cell. Recent evidence has suggested ...
Khanna Richie - - 2010
Gaucher disease is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the lysosomal enzyme acid beta-glucosidase (GCase). We have shown previously that the small molecule pharmacological chaperone isofagomine (IFG) binds and stabilizes N370S GCase, resulting in increased lysosomal trafficking and cellular activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of ...
Lee Ju-Han - - 2010
Membranous (M) cell of the human palatine tonsil is an antigen entry site for mucosal infection, but its location is obscure in histological sections. Recently, a microarray analysis has demonstrated that clusterin, annexin A5, CD44, MMP14, and beta-tubulin are candidate genes of M cell marker in mice. Among these genes, ...
Cassar Lucy - - 2010
Recent studies suggest that transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) inhibits telomerase activity by repression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene. In this report, we show that TGF-beta induces TERT repression-dependent apoptosis in pancreatic tumor, vascular smooth muscle, and cervical cancer cell cultures. TGF-beta activates Smad3 signaling, induces TERT gene ...
H?lsken Annett - - 2010
Activating beta-catenin mutations with aberrant cytoplasmic and nuclear protein accumulation are hallmarks of adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas (adaCP). These tumours tend to be associated with unfavourable and occasionally disastrous sequelae, as they invade adjacent brain structures such as the hypothalamus. The peculiar digitate growth pattern does not always allow gross surgical removal ...
Shen Lan - - 2010
The N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is involved in cell differentiation and apoptosis, but its function in the pancreas remains to be established. Herein we examine the expression and function of NDRG2 in the endocrine pancreas. NDRG2 immunoreactivity was localized mainly in the cytoplasm of pancreatic beta cells. When beta-TC3 ...
Sauter Alexander - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The most common neoplasm arising in the upper gastrointestinal tract is head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). This is an aggressive epithelial malignancy. Many growth factors and cytokines have been discovered that are responsible for the growth and formation of tumours. Among these factors, beta-catenin is considered to ...
Vecchi Chiara - - 2010
Hereditary hemochromatosis (HC) is commonly associated with homozygosity for the cysteine-to-tyrosine substitution at position 282 (C282Y) of the HFE protein. This mutation prevents HFE from binding beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)M) and reaching the cell surface. We have discovered that a widely used hepatoma cell line, Huh-7, carries a HFE mutation similar to ...
Juhl Kirstine K Section of Islet Transplantation and Cell Biology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, - - 2010
Diabetes results from inadequate functional mass of pancreatic beta-cells and therefore replenishing with new glucose-responsive beta-cells is an important therapeutic option. In addition to replication of pre-existing beta-cells, new beta-cells can be produced from differentiated adult cells using in-vitro or in-vivo approaches. This review will summarize recent advances in in-vivo ...
Zhou Xiao-lei XL Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Molecular Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin, - - 2010
To investigate the role of DKK-1/Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in high proliferation of LM-MCF-7 breast cancer cells, a sub-clone of MCF-7 cell line. Two cell lines (MCF-7 and LM-MCF-7) with different proliferation abilities were used. LM-MCF-7 cells were transiently transfected with the pcDNA3-DKK-1 plasmid encoding the DKK-1 gene (or MCF-7 cells were ...
Du Shaoqing - - 2010
Selenoprotein S (SelS), a transmembrane selenoprotein, may be related to the response of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In this report, the influence of selenite supplementation and SelS gene silence on beta-mercaptoethanol (beta-ME)-mediated ER stress and cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells were examined. The results showed that SelS protein expression was ...
Felthaus Oliver - - 2010
Dental stem cells such as dental follicle precursor cells (DFPCs) are capable of neural-like differentiation. However, compared to neuroectodermal progenitor cells such as murine retinal progenitor cells (mRPCs) they show only a limited capacity for glial cell differentiation. In this study we tested the influence of cell signaling on glial ...
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