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Blavier Laurence - - 2010
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a well-defined role in later stages of tumor progression. However, there has been evidence that they also contribute to earlier stages of malignant transformation. The Wnt signaling transduction pathway plays a critical role in development and in the pathogenesis of many epithelial cancers. Here we have ...
Elghazi Lynda - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the S6K arm of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in regulation of β-cell mass and function. Additionally, we aimed to delineate the importance of in vivo S6K activation in the regulation of insulin signaling and the ...
Ning Congqin - - 2010
Beta-type low elastic modulus alloys of the Ti-Nb-Zr system have recently attracted much attention for both orthopedic and dental applications. In the present study, meta-stable beta alloys of Ti-35Nb-xZr with different Zr contents were developed. The effect of Zr content on the microstructure, mechanical properties and cell attachment was investigated. ...
Ritzel Robert A - - 2010
In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) chronic beta-cell stimulation and oligomers of aggregating human islet amyloid polypeptide (h-IAPP) cause beta-cell dysfunction and induce beta-cell apoptosis. Therefore we asked whether beta-cell rest prevents h-IAPP induced beta-cell apoptosis. We induced beta-cell rest with a beta-cell selective K(ATP)-channel opener (K(ATP)CO) in RIN cells ...
Christiaens Valerie - - 2010
Type 2 diabetes is causally related to obesity and characterized by dysfunctional pancreatic beta cells. It is so far unclear whether direct interactions exist between adipocytes and beta cells and possibly raise any pathogenic relevance. In this study, we examined whether 9-day co-cultured 3T3-F442A (pre)adipocytes and primary rat pancreatic beta ...
Lepper Christoph - - 2010
Descendants of E9.5 Pax7-expressing (in red, beta-gal+) central dermomyotome cells contribute to myofibers (in green, MF-20+, a myosin heavy chain protein) in the E16.5 mouse embryo. Nuclei are blue (DAPI). The beta-gal+/MF-20_ cells that are intermingled with myofibers are likely myogenic progenitors. See the article by Lepper and Fan in ...
Hu Jun - - 2010
Distant metastases are unusual occurrences at presentation and during the progression of epithelial ovarian cancer. There are no good clinical predictors of this phenomenon. In this study, we examined the role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in cell metastasis in ovarian cancer HO8910 cells. We found that HGF has functions ...
Pohl Michael - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Inactivation of the tumour suppressor gene SMAD4 is a genetically late event in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. SMAD4 is a transmitter of growth-inhibitory effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), an important tumour promoter capable of inducing an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The role of SMAD proteins in late, tumour-promoting effects ...
Suzuki Shigeki - - 2010
Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) is secreted as a latent complex, which consists of latency-associated peptide (LAP) and the mature ligand. The release of the mature ligand from LAP usually occurs through conformational change of the latent complex and is therefore considered to be the first step in the activation ...
Nybäck-Nakell A - - 2010
The present study aimed to describe changes over 10 years in HbA(1c) and beta-cell function, as assessed by postprandial C-peptide (PP-CPT) and C-peptide/glucose (PP-CPT/glucose) ratio, and to investigate whether treatment with sulphonylurea (SU) exerts a deleterious effect on beta-cell function. During 1997-1998, HbA(1c), PP-CPT and PP glucose were measured in ...
Gage Blair K - - 2010
Islet transplantation represents a potential cure for type 1 diabetes; however, a lack of sufficient donor material limits its clinical use. To address the shortfall of islet availability, surrogate insulin-producing cells are sought. Studies suggest that human amniotic fluid (hAF) contains multipotent progenitor cells capable of differentiating to all three ...
Mendelsohn Adam D - - 2010
Cluster-size dependent behavior of pancreatic beta-cells has direct implications in islet transplantation therapy for type I diabetes treatment. Control over the cluster size enables evaluation of cluster-size-dependent function, ultimately leading to the production of beta-cell clusters with improved transplant efficacy. This work for the first time demonstrates the use of ...
Bozzo Chiarella - - 2010
Beta-amyloid peptide (betaAP) induces apoptosis and down-regulation of alpha(1)beta(1) integrin in neuronal cells, indicating a relationship between betaAP neurotoxicity and modulation of integrin expression. Estrogen may play a role in protecting women from Alzheimer Disease (AD). It is here reported that both 17beta-estradiol (17betaE(2)) and its non-estrogenic stereoisomer 17alpha-estradiol (17alphaE(2)) ...
Lavine Jeremy A - - 2010
An absolute or functional deficit in beta-cell mass is a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes. We model obesity-driven beta-cell mass expansion by studying the diabetes-resistant C57BL/6-Leptin(ob/ob) mouse. We previously reported that cholecystokinin (Cck) was the most up-regulated gene in obese pancreatic islets. We now show that islet cholecystokinin ...
Furuya Fumihiko - - 2010
Failure of the functional pancreatic beta-cell mass to expand in response to increased metabolic demand is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Lineage tracing studies indicate that replication of existing beta-cells is important for beta-cell proliferation in adult animals. In rat pancreatic beta-cell lines (RIN5F), treatment with 100 nM thyroid ...
Butler A E - - 2010
We sought to establish the extent and basis for adaptive changes in beta cell numbers in human pregnancy. Pancreas was obtained at autopsy from women who had died while pregnant (n = 18), post-partum (n = 6) or were not pregnant at or shortly before death (controls; n = 20). ...
Li Qianqian - - 2010
Galantamine, which is currently used in the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect against beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide-induced toxicity, which is involved in the pathogenesis of AD. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effect of galantamine on Abeta-induced ...
Cho Nancy L - - 2010
Activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is implicated in thyroid tumorigenesis, and up to 90% of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) demonstrate aberrant expression of beta-catenin. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs reverse aberrant beta-catenin expression and localization in colon cancer. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug sulindac ...
Sherman Arthur - - 2010
Mathematical models of pancreatic beta cells suggest design principles that can be applied to engineering cells to sense glucose and secrete insulin. Engineering cells can potentially both contribute to future diabetes therapies and generate new insights into beta-cell function. The focus is on ion channels, Ca(2+)handling, and elements of metabolism ...
Lovisolo Silvana M - - 2010
Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a rare pancreatic β-cell disease of neonates, characterized by inappropriate insulin secretion with severe persistent hypoglycemia, with regard to which many questions remain to be answered, despite the important acquisition of its molecular mechanisms in the last decade. The aim of this study was to examine ...
Fu Zhuo Z Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24060, - - 2010
Genistein, a flavonoid in legumes and some herbal medicines, has various biological actions. However, studies on whether genistein has an effect on pancreatic beta-cell function are very limited. In the present study, we investigated the effect of genistein on beta-cell proliferation and cellular signaling related to this effect and further ...
Fujimoto Kei - - 2010
Mutations of the pancreatic duodenal homeobox gene-1, Pdx1, cause heritable diabetes in humans and mice. A central abnormality with Pdx1 deficiency is increased death of beta-cells, leading to decreased beta-cell mass. We show that lentiviral suppression of Pdx1 increases death of mouse insulinoma MIN6 beta-cells associated with dissipation of the ...
Ouyang Weiming - - 2010
Thymus-derived naturally occurring regulatory T (nTreg) cells are necessary for immunological self-tolerance. nTreg cell development is instructed by the T cell receptor and can be induced by agonist antigens that trigger T cell-negative selection. How T cell deletion is regulated so that nTreg cells are generated is unclear. Here we ...
Zhang Wei - - 2010
Epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated selenium could reduce the risk of some cancers. In our present study, growth inhibition and apoptosis were detected upon methylseleninic acid (MSA) treatment in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines EC9706 and KYSE150. MSA reduced beta-catenin protein levels, while there was no significant ...
Kreutzmann Peter - - 2010
Minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, has been reported to exert beneficial effects in models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To characterize the mechanisms underlying the putative minocycline-related neuroprotection, we studied its effect in an in vitro model of AD. Primary hippocampal cultures were treated with β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and cell viability was ...
Calabro Anthony R - - 2011
As an important structural protein, β-actin is associated with anchoring of tight junctions (TJs) to the cell scaffold. Caco-2 cells, an immortal intestinal epithelial cell line, rely on β-actin to form intact monolayers with high transepithelial electrical resistance in cell culture inserts. We examined the effect of six metals on ...
Ferrannini Ele - - 2010
beta cell dysfunction is sufficient to cause hyperglycemia; beta cell loss is not necessary but, if severe, can be sufficient and may be accompanied by intrinsic beta cell dysfunction. Clinical testing can differentiate beta cell capacity from beta cell glucose sensitivity but cannot ascribe either to relative changes in beta ...
Suckow Arthur T - - 2010
Pancreatic islet beta-cells contain synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). The origin, trafficking, and role of these SLMVs are poorly understood. In neurons, synaptic vesicle (SV) biogenesis is mediated by two different cytosolic adaptor protein complexes, a ubiquitous AP-2 complex and the neuron-specific AP-3B complex. Mice lacking AP-3B subunits exhibit impaired GABAergic (inhibitory) ...
Szabat M - - 2010
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The functional maturity of pancreatic beta cells is impaired in diabetes mellitus. We sought to define factors that can influence adult beta cell maturation status and function. METHODS: MIN6 cells labelled with a Pdx1 monomeric red fluorescent protein-Ins1 enhanced green fluorescent protein dual reporter lentivirus were used to screen ...
Wong Victor S C - - 2010
R-spondin-1 (Rspo1) is an intestinal growth factor known to exert its effects through activation of the canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling pathway and subsequent expression of cWnt target genes. We have detected Rspo1 mRNA in murine islets and the murine MIN6 and betaTC beta-cell lines, and Rspo1 protein in MIN6 beta-cells. ...
Shieh Dar-Bin - - 2010
This study was performed to define the roles of actin-binding proteins in the regulation of actin filament assembly associated with cellular signal transduction pathways in stromal cell proliferation. Genistein, a tyrosine protein kinase inhibitor, decreased the intracellular Ca(2+) and attenuated cell proliferation and DNA synthesis through the beta-catenin and cyclin ...
Brom Maarten - - 2010
The changes in beta-cell mass (BCM) during the course of diabetes are not yet well characterized. A non-invasive method to measure the BCM in vivo would allow us to study the BCM during the onset and progression of the diseases caused by beta-cell dysfunction. PET and SPECT imaging are attractive ...
Cadron Isabelle - - 2010
BACKGROUND: In this study the modulatory effect of the proteinase kinase C beta (PKC beta) selective inhibitor enzastaurin on CA125 expression and shedding in ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3 cells) was investigated. MATERIAL ANDMETHODS: OVCAR-3 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with increasing concentrations of carboplatin (2-1000 microM), paclitaxel (0.2-100 ...
Villiger M - - 2010
Endocrine beta cells produce and release insulin in order to tightly regulate glucose homeostasis and prevent metabolic pathologies such as Diabetes Mellitus. Optical imaging has contributed greatly to our current understanding of beta cell structure and function. In vitro microscopy of beta cell lines has revealed the localization of molecular ...
Veluthakal Rajakrishnan - - 2010
In diabetic disease, blood glucose, HbA1c and insulin levels qualify as biomarkers reflecting endocrine pancreas function, but their shortfall in being truly useful predictors or surrogate endpoints of "abnormal processes or disease" lies in that alteration in their levels are dependent on a variety comorbidities and occur too late in ...
In't Veld Peter - - 2010
This study assesses beta-cell replication in human donor organs and examines possible influences of the preterminal clinical conditions. beta-Cell replication was quantified in a consecutive series of n = 363 human organ donors using double immunohistochemistry for Ki67 and insulin. Uni- and multivariate analysis was used to correlate replication levels ...
Bellocq Delphine D UMR1089 - Laboratoire des Xénobiotiques, INRA/ENVT, 180, Chemin de Tournefeuille, BP 93173, F-31027 Toulouse cedex 3, - - 2010
Epidemiological studies have revealed a protective role of oestrogens against the promotion of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, the oestrogen metabolism status of colonic cells is studied to explain it. Loss of function of adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene product is an early and frequent event in human colorectal carcinogenesis. Normal ...
Braun Matthias M Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK. - - 2010
Paracrine signaling via gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) has been documented in rodent islets. Here we have studied the importance of GABAergic signaling in human pancreatic islets. Expression of GABA(A)Rs in islet cells was investigated by quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry, and patch-clamp experiments. Hormone release was measured from intact ...
van Arensbergen Joris - - 2010
The epigenome changes that underlie cellular differentiation in developing organisms are poorly understood. To gain insights into how pancreatic beta-cells are programmed, we profiled key histone methylations and transcripts in embryonic stem cells, multipotent progenitors of the nascent embryonic pancreas, purified beta-cells, and 10 differentiated tissues. We report that despite ...
Pais Eszter - - 2010
Although pancreatic beta-cell transplantation may serve as a potential cure for diabetes mellitus (DM), limited donor tissue availability poses a major challenge. Thus, there is a great demand to find new sources for pancreatic beta-cells. Here, we present a lentiviral vector-based approach to achieve beta-cell proliferation through the beta-cell-specific activation ...
Flamez D - - 2010
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Non-invasive imaging of the pancreatic beta cell mass (BCM) requires the identification of novel and specific beta cell biomarkers. We have developed a systems biology approach to the identification of promising beta cell markers. METHODS: We followed a functional genomics strategy based on massive parallel signal sequencing (MPSS) and ...
Brown Melissa L - - 2010
Loss of functional beta-cells is the primary cause of type 2 diabetes, so that there is an acute need to understand how beta-cell number and function are regulated in the adult under normal physiological conditions. Recent studies suggest that members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family regulate beta-cell function ...
Ueberberg S - - 2010
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro phage display in a beta cell line as a novel strategy for the isolation of beta cell-specific agents/biomarkers. METHODS: A single-chain antibody (SCA) library was pre-incubated with AR42J cells in order to eliminate SCAs with exocrine binding properties. ...
Thorel Fabrizio - - 2010
Pancreatic insulin-producing beta-cells have a long lifespan, such that in healthy conditions they replicate little during a lifetime. Nevertheless, they show increased self-duplication after increased metabolic demand or after injury (that is, beta-cell loss). It is not known whether adult mammals can differentiate (regenerate) new beta-cells after extreme, total beta-cell ...
Jeong Yun-Mi - - 2010
In the present study, we determined whether or not imidazole affects B16 murine melanoma cell migration to prevent melanoma metastasis. To determine the effects of imidazole on melanoma cell migration, B16 cells were treated with imidazole at various concentrations, and the migration was measured using a scratch migration assay. Imidazole ...
Yamada Parida - - 2010
The immediate-type allergic reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and sinusitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of acteoside extracted from CISTANCHE TUBULOSA (Schrenk) R. Wight on the basophilic cell-mediated allergic reaction. The effect of acteoside on β-hexosaminidase release and intracellular [Ca (2+)] ...
Slavova Nadia - - 2010
PURPOSE: Paneth cells are part of the innate mucosal immunity of the gut with possible regulatory function. This study intends to identify the gene expression pattern of the orthotopic and metaplastic Paneth cells, searching for differences between metaplastic occurrence between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Paneth cells were collected ...
Fujitani Yoshio - - 2010
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved machinery for degradation and recycling of various cytoplasmic components such as long-lived proteins and organelles. In pancreatic beta-cells, as in most other cells, autophagy is also important for the low basal turnover of ubiquitinated proteins and damaged organelles under normal conditions. Insulin resistance results in ...
Castell-Auví Anna - - 2010
Natural plant extracts are candidates for the development of new functional foods. Most of them are usually complex mixtures of molecules of uncertain bioavailability that are often partially metabolized before they finally reach the target cells IN VIVO. IN VITRO studies of the bioactivity of these extracts suggest that their ...
Grouwels Gael - - 2010
Generating functional beta-cells by inducing their proliferation may provide new perspectives for cell therapy in diabetes. Transcription factor E2F1 controls G(1)- to S-phase transition during the cycling of many cell types and is required for pancreatic beta-cell growth and function. However, the consequences of overexpression of E2F1 in beta-cells are ...
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