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Li Qianqian - - 2010
Galantamine, which is currently used in the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect against beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide-induced toxicity, which is involved in the pathogenesis of AD. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effect of galantamine on Abeta-induced ...
Kamel Mohamed A MA Department of Oral Biology, UMKC School of Dentistry, 650 East 25th Street, Kansas City, MO 64108, - - 2010
The osteocyte is hypothesized to be the mechanosensory cell in bone. However, osteoblastic cell models have been most commonly used to investigate mechanisms of mechanosensation in bone. Therefore, we sought to determine if differences might exist between osteocytic and osteoblastic cell models relative to the activation of β-catenin signaling in ...
Low Y K A - - 2012
α-Phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has chains of zero dipole moments and is, therefore, nonpiezoelectric, while β-phase PVDF has the most significant piezoelectric properties among the polymorphs due to its polar chains. Although many reports describe PVDF as a suitable biomaterial due to its stability and biocompatibility, few considered the specific ...
Bonner Caroline - - 2010
In diabetes, β-cell mass is not static but in a constant process of cell death and renewal. Inactivating mutations in transcription factor 1 (tcf-1)/hepatocyte nuclear factor1a (hnf1a) result in decreased β-cell mass and HNF1A-maturity onset diabetes of the young (HNF1A-MODY). Here, we investigated the effect of a dominant-negative HNF1A mutant ...
Collombat Patrick - - 2010
The pancreas is composed of two main compartments consisting of endocrine and exocrine tissues. The majority of the organ is exocrine and responsible for the synthesis of digestive enzymes and for their transport via an intricate ductal system into the duodenum. The endocrine tissue represents less than 2% of the ...
Fiaschi-Taesch Nathalie M - - 2010
Most knowledge on human beta-cell cycle control derives from immunoblots of whole human islets, mixtures of beta-cells and non-beta-cells. We explored the presence, subcellular localization, and function of five early G1/S phase molecules-cyclins D1-3 and cdk 4 and 6-in the adult human beta-cell. Immunocytochemistry for the five molecules and their ...
Kim Young Sik - - 2010
Pilomatricoma is a benign follicular tumor that is composed of basaloid cells, transitional cells and shadow cells. beta-Catenin is a 92-kDa protein, and it plays important roles in cell-cell adhesion at the cell membrane and signal transduction in the nucleus. beta-Catenin has recently been shown to play an important role ...
Uroić Daniela S DS School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, - - 2010
In the mouse the developing pancreas is controlled by contact with, and signalling molecules secreted from, surrounding cells. These factors are best studied using explant cultures of embryonic tissue. The present study was undertaken to determine whether embryonic stem (ES) cells could be used as an alternative model in vitro ...
Lee Sang-Bum - - 2010
We screened 1434 small heterocyclic molecules and identified thirteen 2,3,6-trisubstituted quinoxaline derivatives that were able to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway and cell proliferation. In the screen, some of the hit compounds such as the ethylene group-coupled quinoxaline derivatives were shown to hold promise for use as potential small-molecule inhibitors ...
Montemurro Chiara - - 2010
Insulin therapy has been suggested to preserve beta-cell mass in patients with diabetes through the mechanisms of beta-cell rest as well as direct effects on beta-cell proliferation. However, data about the effects of hyperinsulinism on beta-cell mass and turnover in humans are sparse. Pancreatic tissue specimens from five patients with ...
Fischer I - - 2010
Galectin-1 (gal-1), a member of the mammalian beta-galactoside-binding proteins, exerts biological effects by recognition of glycan ligands, including those involved in cell adhesion and growth regulation. In trophoblast cells, gal-1 binds to cell surface glycoproteins (e.g., Mucin1). It has been demonstrated that gal-1 recognizes appropriate glycotopes on the syncytiotrophoblast and ...
Ulgen F - - 2011
Adipocytes produce signalling molecules which can act on target cells including pancreatic beta-cells. In previous studies we found adipocytes to directly stimulate insulin secretion and the proliferation of pancreatic beta-cells in vitro. Rimonabant acts as an antagonist at the cannabinoid-1 (CB-1) receptor which is expressed on adipocytes. Rimonabant decreases insulin ...
Perl S - - 2010
Diabetes mellitus results from an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. The turnover rate of adult human β-cells remains unknown. We employed two techniques to examine adult human islet β-cell turnover and longevity in vivo. Subjects enrolled in National Institutes of Health clinical trials received thymidine analogs [iododeoxyuridine ...
Chintinne M - - 2010
Neogenesis of beta cells and their clustering to small aggregates is a key process in prenatal development of beta cell mass. We investigated the contribution of postnatally formed small aggregates to functional beta cell mass in adult rats. Conditions were defined for (1) counting total beta cell number in pancreases ...
Liu Qiong - - 2010
AIM: To investigate the effects of the natural product Withagulatin A on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) viability and type I procollagen production. The potential mechanism underlying the pharmacological actions was also explored. METHODS:The effect of Withagulatin A on cell viability was evaluated in HSC and LX-2 cells using a sulforhodamine ...
Blavier Laurence - - 2010
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a well-defined role in later stages of tumor progression. However, there has been evidence that they also contribute to earlier stages of malignant transformation. The Wnt signaling transduction pathway plays a critical role in development and in the pathogenesis of many epithelial cancers. Here we have ...
Elghazi Lynda - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the S6K arm of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in regulation of β-cell mass and function. Additionally, we aimed to delineate the importance of in vivo S6K activation in the regulation of insulin signaling and the ...
Ning Congqin - - 2010
Beta-type low elastic modulus alloys of the Ti-Nb-Zr system have recently attracted much attention for both orthopedic and dental applications. In the present study, meta-stable beta alloys of Ti-35Nb-xZr with different Zr contents were developed. The effect of Zr content on the microstructure, mechanical properties and cell attachment was investigated. ...
Ritzel Robert A RA Larry Hillblom Islet Research Center, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7073, USA. - - 2010
In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) chronic beta-cell stimulation and oligomers of aggregating human islet amyloid polypeptide (h-IAPP) cause beta-cell dysfunction and induce beta-cell apoptosis. Therefore we asked whether beta-cell rest prevents h-IAPP induced beta-cell apoptosis. We induced beta-cell rest with a beta-cell selective K(ATP)-channel opener (K(ATP)CO) in RIN cells ...
Christiaens Valerie - - 2010
Type 2 diabetes is causally related to obesity and characterized by dysfunctional pancreatic beta cells. It is so far unclear whether direct interactions exist between adipocytes and beta cells and possibly raise any pathogenic relevance. In this study, we examined whether 9-day co-cultured 3T3-F442A (pre)adipocytes and primary rat pancreatic beta ...
Lepper Christoph - - 2010
Descendants of E9.5 Pax7-expressing (in red, beta-gal+) central dermomyotome cells contribute to myofibers (in green, MF-20+, a myosin heavy chain protein) in the E16.5 mouse embryo. Nuclei are blue (DAPI). The beta-gal+/MF-20_ cells that are intermingled with myofibers are likely myogenic progenitors. See the article by Lepper and Fan in ...
Hu Jun - - 2010
Distant metastases are unusual occurrences at presentation and during the progression of epithelial ovarian cancer. There are no good clinical predictors of this phenomenon. In this study, we examined the role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in cell metastasis in ovarian cancer HO8910 cells. We found that HGF has functions ...
Pohl Michael - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Inactivation of the tumour suppressor gene SMAD4 is a genetically late event in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. SMAD4 is a transmitter of growth-inhibitory effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), an important tumour promoter capable of inducing an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The role of SMAD proteins in late, tumour-promoting effects ...
Suzuki Shigeki - - 2010
Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) is secreted as a latent complex, which consists of latency-associated peptide (LAP) and the mature ligand. The release of the mature ligand from LAP usually occurs through conformational change of the latent complex and is therefore considered to be the first step in the activation ...
Nybäck-Nakell A - - 2010
The present study aimed to describe changes over 10 years in HbA(1c) and beta-cell function, as assessed by postprandial C-peptide (PP-CPT) and C-peptide/glucose (PP-CPT/glucose) ratio, and to investigate whether treatment with sulphonylurea (SU) exerts a deleterious effect on beta-cell function. During 1997-1998, HbA(1c), PP-CPT and PP glucose were measured in ...
Gage Blair K - - 2010
Islet transplantation represents a potential cure for type 1 diabetes; however, a lack of sufficient donor material limits its clinical use. To address the shortfall of islet availability, surrogate insulin-producing cells are sought. Studies suggest that human amniotic fluid (hAF) contains multipotent progenitor cells capable of differentiating to all three ...
Mendelsohn Adam D AD Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, - - 2010
Cluster-size dependent behavior of pancreatic beta-cells has direct implications in islet transplantation therapy for type I diabetes treatment. Control over the cluster size enables evaluation of cluster-size-dependent function, ultimately leading to the production of beta-cell clusters with improved transplant efficacy. This work for the first time demonstrates the use of ...
Bozzo Chiarella - - 2010
Beta-amyloid peptide (betaAP) induces apoptosis and down-regulation of alpha(1)beta(1) integrin in neuronal cells, indicating a relationship between betaAP neurotoxicity and modulation of integrin expression. Estrogen may play a role in protecting women from Alzheimer Disease (AD). It is here reported that both 17beta-estradiol (17betaE(2)) and its non-estrogenic stereoisomer 17alpha-estradiol (17alphaE(2)) ...
Lavine Jeremy A JA Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, - - 2010
An absolute or functional deficit in beta-cell mass is a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes. We model obesity-driven beta-cell mass expansion by studying the diabetes-resistant C57BL/6-Leptin(ob/ob) mouse. We previously reported that cholecystokinin (Cck) was the most up-regulated gene in obese pancreatic islets. We now show that islet cholecystokinin ...
Furuya Fumihiko - - 2010
Failure of the functional pancreatic beta-cell mass to expand in response to increased metabolic demand is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Lineage tracing studies indicate that replication of existing beta-cells is important for beta-cell proliferation in adult animals. In rat pancreatic beta-cell lines (RIN5F), treatment with 100 nM thyroid ...
Butler A E AE Larry L. Hillblom Islet Research Center, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, 900 Veteran Ave, 24-130 Warren Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7073, - - 2010
We sought to establish the extent and basis for adaptive changes in beta cell numbers in human pregnancy. Pancreas was obtained at autopsy from women who had died while pregnant (n = 18), post-partum (n = 6) or were not pregnant at or shortly before death (controls; n = 20). ...
Li Qianqian - - 2010
Galantamine, which is currently used in the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect against beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide-induced toxicity, which is involved in the pathogenesis of AD. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effect of galantamine on Abeta-induced ...
Cho Nancy L - - 2010
Activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is implicated in thyroid tumorigenesis, and up to 90% of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) demonstrate aberrant expression of beta-catenin. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs reverse aberrant beta-catenin expression and localization in colon cancer. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug sulindac ...
Sherman Arthur - - 2010
Mathematical models of pancreatic beta cells suggest design principles that can be applied to engineering cells to sense glucose and secrete insulin. Engineering cells can potentially both contribute to future diabetes therapies and generate new insights into beta-cell function. The focus is on ion channels, Ca(2+)handling, and elements of metabolism ...
Lovisolo Silvana M - - 2010
Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a rare pancreatic β-cell disease of neonates, characterized by inappropriate insulin secretion with severe persistent hypoglycemia, with regard to which many questions remain to be answered, despite the important acquisition of its molecular mechanisms in the last decade. The aim of this study was to examine ...
Fu Zhuo Z Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24060, - - 2010
Genistein, a flavonoid in legumes and some herbal medicines, has various biological actions. However, studies on whether genistein has an effect on pancreatic beta-cell function are very limited. In the present study, we investigated the effect of genistein on beta-cell proliferation and cellular signaling related to this effect and further ...
Fujimoto Kei K Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipid Research, and Center for Pharmacogenomics, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2010
Mutations of the pancreatic duodenal homeobox gene-1, Pdx1, cause heritable diabetes in humans and mice. A central abnormality with Pdx1 deficiency is increased death of beta-cells, leading to decreased beta-cell mass. We show that lentiviral suppression of Pdx1 increases death of mouse insulinoma MIN6 beta-cells associated with dissipation of the ...
Ouyang Weiming W Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, - - 2010
Thymus-derived naturally occurring regulatory T (nTreg) cells are necessary for immunological self-tolerance. nTreg cell development is instructed by the T cell receptor and can be induced by agonist antigens that trigger T cell-negative selection. How T cell deletion is regulated so that nTreg cells are generated is unclear. Here we ...
Zhang Wei - - 2010
Epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated selenium could reduce the risk of some cancers. In our present study, growth inhibition and apoptosis were detected upon methylseleninic acid (MSA) treatment in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines EC9706 and KYSE150. MSA reduced beta-catenin protein levels, while there was no significant ...
Kreutzmann Peter - - 2010
Minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, has been reported to exert beneficial effects in models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To characterize the mechanisms underlying the putative minocycline-related neuroprotection, we studied its effect in an in vitro model of AD. Primary hippocampal cultures were treated with β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and cell viability was ...
Calabro Anthony R - - 2011
As an important structural protein, β-actin is associated with anchoring of tight junctions (TJs) to the cell scaffold. Caco-2 cells, an immortal intestinal epithelial cell line, rely on β-actin to form intact monolayers with high transepithelial electrical resistance in cell culture inserts. We examined the effect of six metals on ...
Ferrannini Ele - - 2010
beta cell dysfunction is sufficient to cause hyperglycemia; beta cell loss is not necessary but, if severe, can be sufficient and may be accompanied by intrinsic beta cell dysfunction. Clinical testing can differentiate beta cell capacity from beta cell glucose sensitivity but cannot ascribe either to relative changes in beta ...
Szabat M - - 2010
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The functional maturity of pancreatic beta cells is impaired in diabetes mellitus. We sought to define factors that can influence adult beta cell maturation status and function. METHODS: MIN6 cells labelled with a Pdx1 monomeric red fluorescent protein-Ins1 enhanced green fluorescent protein dual reporter lentivirus were used to screen ...
Wong Victor S C - - 2010
R-spondin-1 (Rspo1) is an intestinal growth factor known to exert its effects through activation of the canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling pathway and subsequent expression of cWnt target genes. We have detected Rspo1 mRNA in murine islets and the murine MIN6 and betaTC beta-cell lines, and Rspo1 protein in MIN6 beta-cells. ...
Suckow Arthur T AT 1Department of Medicine and Pediatric Diabetes Research Center, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0983, - - 2010
Pancreatic islet beta-cells contain synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). The origin, trafficking, and role of these SLMVs are poorly understood. In neurons, synaptic vesicle (SV) biogenesis is mediated by two different cytosolic adaptor protein complexes, a ubiquitous AP-2 complex and the neuron-specific AP-3B complex. Mice lacking AP-3B subunits exhibit impaired GABAergic (inhibitory) ...
Shieh Dar-Bin - - 2010
This study was performed to define the roles of actin-binding proteins in the regulation of actin filament assembly associated with cellular signal transduction pathways in stromal cell proliferation. Genistein, a tyrosine protein kinase inhibitor, decreased the intracellular Ca(2+) and attenuated cell proliferation and DNA synthesis through the beta-catenin and cyclin ...
Brom Maarten - - 2010
The changes in beta-cell mass (BCM) during the course of diabetes are not yet well characterized. A non-invasive method to measure the BCM in vivo would allow us to study the BCM during the onset and progression of the diseases caused by beta-cell dysfunction. PET and SPECT imaging are attractive ...
Cadron Isabelle - - 2010
BACKGROUND: In this study the modulatory effect of the proteinase kinase C beta (PKC beta) selective inhibitor enzastaurin on CA125 expression and shedding in ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3 cells) was investigated. MATERIAL ANDMETHODS: OVCAR-3 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with increasing concentrations of carboplatin (2-1000 microM), paclitaxel (0.2-100 ...
Villiger M - - 2010
Endocrine beta cells produce and release insulin in order to tightly regulate glucose homeostasis and prevent metabolic pathologies such as Diabetes Mellitus. Optical imaging has contributed greatly to our current understanding of beta cell structure and function. In vitro microscopy of beta cell lines has revealed the localization of molecular ...
Veluthakal Rajakrishnan - - 2010
In diabetic disease, blood glucose, HbA1c and insulin levels qualify as biomarkers reflecting endocrine pancreas function, but their shortfall in being truly useful predictors or surrogate endpoints of "abnormal processes or disease" lies in that alteration in their levels are dependent on a variety comorbidities and occur too late in ...
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