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Avila Jacqueline L - - 2012
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is believed to arise from precursor lesions termed pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN). Mouse models have demonstrated that targeted expression of activated K-ras to mature acinar cells in the pancreas induces the spontaneous development of PanIN lesions; implying acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) is a key event in this process. ...
Djoko Karrera Y - - 2012
NGO0579 is annotated copA in the Neisseria gonorrhoeae chromosome, suggesting that it encodes a cation-transporting ATPase specific for copper ions. Compared to wild-type cells, a copA mutant was more sensitive to killing by copper ions but not to other transition metals. The mutant also accumulated a greater amount of copper, ...
Marzluff William F - - 2011
Comment on: Rizkallah R, et al. Cell Cycle 2011; 10:3327-36.
Kasuya Kazuhiko - - 2011
At present, no effective chemotherapy for pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC) exists. However, anti-angiogenic therapy is expected to be effective for PNEC, a hypervascular tumor. We treated PNEC and hypovascular pancreatic ductal cell carcinoma (DCC) cell lines with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab, and compared the antitumor effect ...
Corbett David D Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United - - 2012
We report here the identification and characterization of two zinc uptake systems, ZurAM and ZinABC, in the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Transcription of both operons was zinc responsive and regulated by the zinc-sensing repressor Zur. Deletion of either zurAM or zinA had no detectable effect on growth in defined media, ...
Sliwa Dominika - - 2011
Friedreich ataxia is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease caused by reduced expression of mitochondrial frataxin. Frataxin deficiency causes impairment in respiratory capacity, disruption of iron homeostasis and hypersensitivity to oxidants. Although the redox properties of NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; NAD+ and NADH) are essential for energy metabolism, only few results are ...
Kinch Lisa - - 2011
Fumarate hydratase (FH) is a tumor suppressor, but how it acts is unclear. Two reports in this issue of Cancer Cell reveal that FH deficiency leads to succination of Keap1, stabilization of Nrf2, and induction of stress-response genes including HMOX1, which is important for the survival of FH-deficient cells.
Fukao Yoichiro - - 2011
Although zinc is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms, zinc is harmful to cells at high levels. In the presence of excess zinc, plants exhibit several major symptoms, including root growth inhibition, abnormal root hair morphology and chlorosis. To dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of excess zinc ...
Norelli Giuseppe - - 2011
Comment on: Puca R, et al. Cell Cycle 2011; 10:1679-89.
Haller Jorge F - - 2011
Inherited glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency is the second most frequent glycolytic erythroenzymopathy in humans. Patients present with non-spherocytic anemia of variable severity and with neuromuscular dysfunction. We previously described Chinese hamster (CHO) cell lines with mutations in GPI and loss of GPI activity. This resulted in a temperature sensitivity and ...
Matos Liliana - - 2012
Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) exposed to subcytotoxic concentrations of oxidative or stressful agents, such as hydrogen peroxide, tert-butylhydroperoxide, or ethanol, undergo stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). This condition is characterized by the appearance of replicative senescence biomarkers such as irreversible growth arrest, increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal) activity, altered cell ...
Saraya Ruchi - - 2011
We identified two proteins, Pex25 and Rho1, which are involved in reintroduction of peroxisomes in peroxisome-deficient yeast cells. These are, together with Pex3, the first proteins identified as essential for this process. Of the three members of the Hansenula polymorpha Pex11 protein family-Pex11, Pex25, and Pex11C-only Pex25 was required for ...
Dodani Sheel C - - 2011
We present the design, synthesis, spectroscopy, and biological applications of Mitochondrial Coppersensor-1 (Mito-CS1), a new type of targetable fluorescent sensor for imaging exchangeable mitochondrial copper pools in living cells. Mito-CS1 is a bifunctional reporter that combines a Cu(+)-responsive fluorescent platform with a mitochondrial-targeting triphenylphosphonium moiety for localizing the probe to ...
Dutta Amrita - - 2011
We have demonstrated that reducing zinc availability with the extracellular chelator diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) causes rapid inhibition of cellular zinc efflux in H4IIE hepatoma cells but increases zinc efflux in primary hepatocytes. Similar differences were also observed between the rat anterior pituitary cell line GH3 and primary anterior pituitary cells. ...
Caja Laia - - 2011
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) mediates several and sometime opposite effects in epithelial cells, inducing growth inhibition, and apoptosis but also promoting an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, which enhances cell migration and invasion. TGF-β plays relevant roles in different liver pathologies; however, very few is known about its specific ...
Armisén Ricardo - - 2011
Altered expression of some members of the TRP ion channel superfamily has been associated with the development of pathologies like cancer. In particular, TRPM4 levels are reportedly elevated in diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, prostate, and cervical cancer. However, whether such changes in TRPM4 expression may be relevant to genesis ...
Galli Carlo - - 2010
It is known that the roughness of titanium surfaces affects cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the mechanisms mediating the cellular responses to surface topography are only partially understood. The present study investigated whether Wnt canonical signaling, an important pathway in determining cell fate, is modulated by surface roughness. This study ...
Pineau Ludovic - - 2010
Exposure to long-chain saturated fatty acids (SFAs; e.g. palmitate) induces apoptosis in pancreatic β cells, a process that may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Under palmitate treatment, β cells undergo a so-called endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that can be counteracted by the unfolded protein response (UPR). The ...
Leow Pay-Chin - - 2010
Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway promotes osteosarcoma tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that osteosarcoma progression may be delayed by disrupting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway using small molecule inhibitors such as curcumin and PKF118-310. Effective inhibitions of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by curcumin and PKF118-310 in ...
Matthews L C - - 2011
Developmental insults during gestation, such as under-nutrition, are known to restrict the number of beta cells that form in the fetal pancreas and are maintained in adulthood, leading to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. There are now substantial data indicating that glucocorticoids mediate this effect of under-nutrition on beta ...
Duttaroy Alokesh - - 2011
The present study addressed the effect of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor vildagliptin ((1-[[(3-hydroxy-1-adamantyl) amino] acetyl]-2-cyano-(S)-pyrrolidine), LAF237) on pancreatic beta cell mass in neonatal rats. Newborn rats were treated orally with vildagliptin (60mg/kg) or vehicle once daily for 19days starting from postnatal day 2. Pancreatic immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis were ...
Jörns Anne - - 2010
To compare the effects of glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones on the regulation of the beta cell mass in the pancreas, the rats were treated and analyzed for cell cycle changes in islet and duct cells as a source for beta cell neogenesis. Different rat pancreases were morphometrically analyzed after immunohistochemical ...
Liu Ping - - 2010
Past studies on β-catenin in cancer cells focused on nuclear localized β-catenin and its involvement in the Wnt pathway. Our goal here was to investigate the function of β-catenin in both the cytoplasm and nucleus on the regulation of MT1-MMP expression and activity. We found that β-catenin in MDCK non-cancer ...
Köhler Christina U - - 2011
β-Cell regeneration declines with aging, but the molecular mechanisms controlling β-cell replication in humans are not well understood. We compared the expression of selected cell cycle proteins in prenatal and adult tissue and examined the association of these proteins with β-cell replication. Pancreatic tissue from a total of 20 human ...
Kwon Chang Young - - 2010
Serum response factor (SRF) regulates transcription of the immediate early genes and triggers proliferation, migration and differentiation in several types of cells. We examined the role of SRF in HCC by transfecting the SRF cDNA in HLE cells and the SRF anti-sense cDNA in sarcomatoid HCC cells. The overexpression of ...
Liu Ya-Chen - - 2010
The Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been implicated in leukemogenesis. We found β-catenin abnormally accumulated in both human acute T cell leukemia Jurkat cells and human erythroleukemia HEL cells. β-Catenin can be significantly down-regulated by the Janus kinase 2 specific inhibitor AG490 in these two cells. AG490 also reduces the luciferase activity ...
Salpeter Seth J - - 2010
Pancreatic beta cell proliferation has emerged as the principal mechanism for homeostatic maintenance of beta cell mass during adult life. This underscores the importance of understanding the mechanisms of beta cell replication and suggests novel approaches for regenerative therapy to treat diabetes. Here we use an in vivo pulse-chase labeling ...
Chien Ming-Hsien - - 2010
Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. β-Sitosterol, an important phytosterol found in plant food, is known to exert antiatherosclerosis activity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying β-sitosterol-induced antiproliferation of VSMCs were still not clear. This study demonstrated that β-sitosterol (1-20 ...
Valtat B - - 2011
Prenatal exposure to excess glucocorticoids associates with low birthweight in rodents, primates and humans and its involvement in programming glucose homeostasis is suspected. Our aim was to further dissect the role of glucocorticoids on beta cell development and function in mice. Using the model of maternal general food restriction during ...
Chung Cheng-Ho - - 2010
Because type 1 and type 2 diabetes are characterized by loss of β-cells, β-cell regeneration has garnered great interest as an approach to diabetes therapy. Here, we developed a new model of β-cell regeneration, combining pancreatic duct ligation (PDL) with elimination of pre-existing β-cells with alloxan. In this model, in ...
Zheng Xiaofen - - 2010
To develop a new bioassay method using human lung epithelial cells (CCL-185) to assess activity of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in human tear fluid from normal subjects and patients with dry eye. Two epithelial cell lines, mink lung cells (CCL-64) and human lung cells (CCL-185), were compared to detect ...
Fan R - - 2010
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates beta-cell proliferation and enhances beta-cell survival, whereas oligomerization of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) may induce beta-cell apoptosis and reduce beta-cell mass. Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased expression of IAPP. As GLP-1-based therapy is currently developed as a novel antidiabetic therapy, we examined the ...
Sangan Caroline B - - 2010
Cell therapy means treating diseases with the body's own cells. One of the cell types most in demand for therapeutic purposes is the pancreatic β-cell. This is because diabetes is one of the major healthcare problems in the world. Diabetes can be treated by islet transplantation but the major limitation ...
DiVito Kyle A - - 2010
The list of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)-related proteins in non-canonical TGF-β signaling is growing. Examples include receptor-Smads directing micro-RNA processing and inhibitory-Smads, e.g. Smad7, directing cell adhesion. Human skin grafts with fluorescently tagged melanoma cells revealed Smad7-expressing cells positioned themselves proximal to the dermal-epidermal junction and failed to form tumors, ...
Nath Niharika - - 2010
β-Catenin is a central player of the Wnt signaling pathway that regulates cell-cell adhesion and may promote leukemia cell proliferation. We examined whether JS-K, an NO-donating prodrug, modulates the Wnt/β-catenin/TCF-4 signaling pathway in Jurkat T-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia cells. JS-K inhibited Jurkat T cell growth in a concentration and time-dependent manner. ...
Li Qianqian - - 2010
Galantamine, which is currently used in the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect against beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide-induced toxicity, which is involved in the pathogenesis of AD. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effect of galantamine on Abeta-induced ...
Kamel Mohamed A - - 2010
The osteocyte is hypothesized to be the mechanosensory cell in bone. However, osteoblastic cell models have been most commonly used to investigate mechanisms of mechanosensation in bone. Therefore, we sought to determine if differences might exist between osteocytic and osteoblastic cell models relative to the activation of β-catenin signaling in ...
Low Y K A - - 2012
α-Phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has chains of zero dipole moments and is, therefore, nonpiezoelectric, while β-phase PVDF has the most significant piezoelectric properties among the polymorphs due to its polar chains. Although many reports describe PVDF as a suitable biomaterial due to its stability and biocompatibility, few considered the specific ...
Bonner Caroline - - 2010
In diabetes, β-cell mass is not static but in a constant process of cell death and renewal. Inactivating mutations in transcription factor 1 (tcf-1)/hepatocyte nuclear factor1a (hnf1a) result in decreased β-cell mass and HNF1A-maturity onset diabetes of the young (HNF1A-MODY). Here, we investigated the effect of a dominant-negative HNF1A mutant ...
Collombat Patrick - - 2010
The pancreas is composed of two main compartments consisting of endocrine and exocrine tissues. The majority of the organ is exocrine and responsible for the synthesis of digestive enzymes and for their transport via an intricate ductal system into the duodenum. The endocrine tissue represents less than 2% of the ...
Fiaschi-Taesch Nathalie M - - 2010
Most knowledge on human beta-cell cycle control derives from immunoblots of whole human islets, mixtures of beta-cells and non-beta-cells. We explored the presence, subcellular localization, and function of five early G1/S phase molecules-cyclins D1-3 and cdk 4 and 6-in the adult human beta-cell. Immunocytochemistry for the five molecules and their ...
Kim Young Sik - - 2010
Pilomatricoma is a benign follicular tumor that is composed of basaloid cells, transitional cells and shadow cells. beta-Catenin is a 92-kDa protein, and it plays important roles in cell-cell adhesion at the cell membrane and signal transduction in the nucleus. beta-Catenin has recently been shown to play an important role ...
Uroić Daniela S DS School of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, - - 2010
In the mouse the developing pancreas is controlled by contact with, and signalling molecules secreted from, surrounding cells. These factors are best studied using explant cultures of embryonic tissue. The present study was undertaken to determine whether embryonic stem (ES) cells could be used as an alternative model in vitro ...
Lee Sang-Bum - - 2010
We screened 1434 small heterocyclic molecules and identified thirteen 2,3,6-trisubstituted quinoxaline derivatives that were able to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway and cell proliferation. In the screen, some of the hit compounds such as the ethylene group-coupled quinoxaline derivatives were shown to hold promise for use as potential small-molecule inhibitors ...
Montemurro Chiara - - 2010
Insulin therapy has been suggested to preserve beta-cell mass in patients with diabetes through the mechanisms of beta-cell rest as well as direct effects on beta-cell proliferation. However, data about the effects of hyperinsulinism on beta-cell mass and turnover in humans are sparse. Pancreatic tissue specimens from five patients with ...
Fischer I - - 2010
Galectin-1 (gal-1), a member of the mammalian beta-galactoside-binding proteins, exerts biological effects by recognition of glycan ligands, including those involved in cell adhesion and growth regulation. In trophoblast cells, gal-1 binds to cell surface glycoproteins (e.g., Mucin1). It has been demonstrated that gal-1 recognizes appropriate glycotopes on the syncytiotrophoblast and ...
Ulgen F - - 2011
Adipocytes produce signalling molecules which can act on target cells including pancreatic beta-cells. In previous studies we found adipocytes to directly stimulate insulin secretion and the proliferation of pancreatic beta-cells in vitro. Rimonabant acts as an antagonist at the cannabinoid-1 (CB-1) receptor which is expressed on adipocytes. Rimonabant decreases insulin ...
Perl S - - 2010
Diabetes mellitus results from an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. The turnover rate of adult human β-cells remains unknown. We employed two techniques to examine adult human islet β-cell turnover and longevity in vivo. Subjects enrolled in National Institutes of Health clinical trials received thymidine analogs [iododeoxyuridine ...
Chintinne M - - 2010
Neogenesis of beta cells and their clustering to small aggregates is a key process in prenatal development of beta cell mass. We investigated the contribution of postnatally formed small aggregates to functional beta cell mass in adult rats. Conditions were defined for (1) counting total beta cell number in pancreases ...
Liu Qiong - - 2010
AIM: To investigate the effects of the natural product Withagulatin A on hepatic stellate cell (HSC) viability and type I procollagen production. The potential mechanism underlying the pharmacological actions was also explored. METHODS:The effect of Withagulatin A on cell viability was evaluated in HSC and LX-2 cells using a sulforhodamine ...
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