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Hettiarachchi K D - - 2006
Inhibition of endosomal acidification disturbs insulin signaling in both liver and adipose cells. In this study we used MIN6 beta cells to determine whether bafilomycin, a potent inhibitor of the proton-translocating vacuolar ATPase, disrupts insulin signaling in islet beta cells. Pretreatment of MIN6 cells with varying concentrations of bafilomycin according ...
Cozar-Castellano Irene - - 2006
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes both result from inadequate production of insulin by the beta-cells of the pancreatic islet. Accordingly, strategies that lead to increased pancreatic beta-cell mass, as well as retained or enhanced function of islets, would be desirable for the treatment of diabetes. Although pancreatic beta-cells have ...
Torres Vicente A - - 2006
Caveolin-1 is suggested to act as a tumor suppressor. We tested the hypothesis that caveolin-1 does so by repression of survivin, an Inhibitor of apoptosis protein that regulates cell-cycle progression as well as apoptosis and is commonly overexpressed in human cancers. Ectopic expression of caveolin-1 in HEK293T and ZR75 cells ...
Wang Xujing - - 2006
The heterogeneity between young- and adult-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) is well known, but not well understood. We approach this question through mathematical formulation and analysis of the dynamic interactions between the immune cells and the pancreatic islet beta-cells that lead to the beta-cell destruction. Utilizing the perturbation expansion method ...
Karaskov Elizabeth - - 2006
Chronic free fatty acid (FFA) exposure induces pancreatic beta-cell death, which may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms involved in FFA-induced cell death are not completely understood. Here we have investigated the effect of FFA on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways in INS-1 pancreatic beta-cells. INS-1 ...
Lee Eun Kyung - - 2006
Accumulating evidence suggests that intracellular amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide triggers the early pathological events in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the consequence of cytosolic Abeta. In this study, we ectopically expressed Abeta42 in the cytoplasm of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by expressing a fusion protein of GFP-tagged ubiquitin and ...
Park Hyun-Joo - - 2006
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family of cytokines regulates cell proliferation, morphogenesis, and specialized cell functions in metazoans. Herein, we screened a compound library for modifiers of TGF-beta signaling in NMuMG epithelial cells using a cell-based assay to measure Smad2/3 nuclear translocation. We identified five enhancers of TGF-beta signaling that ...
Nlend Rachel Nlend - - 2006
Most cell types are functionally coupled by connexin (Cx) channels, i.e. exchange cytoplasmic ions and small metabolites through gap junction domains of their membrane. This form of direct cell-to-cell communication occurs in all existing animals, whatever their position in the phylogenetic scale, and up to humans. Pancreatic beta-cells are no ...
Stiles Bangyan L - - 2006
Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase. PTEN inhibits the action of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and reduces the levels of phosphatidylinositol triphosphate, a crucial second messenger for cell proliferation and survival, as well as insulin signaling. In this study, we deleted Pten specifically in the insulin ...
Kim Soo-A - - 2007
Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT) is considered as a neoplastic counterpart of the calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC). beta-catenin mutations have been described in COC suggesting a critical role in its histogenesis. In this study, we report a patient with DGCT contains a missense mutation on codon 3 (ACT --> TCT) ...
Yamada Takahiro - - 2006
Wolfram syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene encoding an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein. Herein, we report that pancreatic islets of wfs1-deficient mice exhibit increases in phosphorylation of RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER kinase, chaperone gene expressions ...
Zhang Hongjie - - 2006
The FoxM1 transcription factor is highly expressed in proliferating cells and activates several cell cycle genes, although its requirement appears to be limited to certain tissue types. Embryonic hepatoblast-specific inactivation of Foxm1 results in a dramatic reduction in liver outgrowth and subsequent late gestation lethality, whereas inactivation of Foxm1 in ...
Higa M - - 2006
AIM: This study was conducted to clarify cell death and survival signals in pancreatic beta-cell lipotoxicity. METHODS: Rat insulinoma INS-1 cells, with or without expression of dominant-negative mutant of Akt (K179M), were cultured with palmitate (C16:0) or oleate (C18:1) and cell numbers were determined by 0.2% eosin dye exclusion assay. ...
Wei Cheng-Wey - - 2006
This work presents a novel microfluidic coculture system that improves the accuracy of evaluating the interaction between cocultured cell types. A microfluidic coculture chip, fabricated by CO(2) laser direct-writing on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), was designed to separate two cell types using a microchannel, while permitting transfer of cellular media. The ...
Duvillié Bertrand - - 2006
The importance of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in the proliferation of pancreatic progenitor cells is well established. Here, we provide evidence that the mesenchyme also controls the timing of beta-cell differentiation. When rat embryonic pancreatic epithelium was cultured without mesenchyme, we found first rapid induction in epithelial progenitor cells of the transcription ...
Chen Chun-Lin - - 2006
Cell-surface proteoglycans have been shown to modulate transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta responsiveness in epithelial cells and other cell types. However, the proteoglycan (heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate) involved in modulation of TGF-beta responsiveness and the mechanism by which it modulates TGF-beta responsiveness remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that TGF-beta1 induces ...
Luther Melanie J - - 2006
Insulin-secreting MIN6 cells show greatly enhanced secretory responsiveness to nutrients when grown as islet-like structures (pseudoislets). Since beta-cells use different mechanisms to respond to nutrient and non-nutrient stimuli, we have now investigated the role of homotypic beta-cell interactions in secretory responses to pharmacological or receptor-operated non-nutrient stimuli in MIN6 pseudoislets. ...
Damdinsuren Bazarragchaa - - 2006
Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) is a proposed regulator of Ids (inhibitors of DNA binding/differentiation) gene expression in epithelial cells. We previously reported that Id proteins are variously expressed in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). However, the mechanism of regulation of Ids in HCC remains obscure. Here, we examined the ...
Bouwens Luc - - 2006
Beta cell replacement and regeneration therapies seem promising approaches to the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes. The short supply in beta cells from cadaveric organ donors and the very low replication capacity of human beta cells have spurred efforts to find robust ways of (re-)generating beta cells in vitro and in ...
Kushner Jake A - - 2006
Improved understanding of the signals that regulate growth and maintenance of adult beta-cells remains one of the main challenges in diabetes research. However, new advances in identifying the specific components involved in G1 cell cycle progression of beta-cells suggest that the molecular determinants of this pathway could ultimately be revealed. ...
Lange Carsten - - 2006
New Zealand Obese (NZO) male mice develop a polygenic juvenile-onset obesity and maturity onset hyperinsulinemia. Approximately 50% transit to chronic hyperglycemia. Here we report on the proliferation of beta cells in relation to both the individual's metabolic status and structural parameters of the endocrine pancreas. Proliferating beta cells were quantified ...
Lin Yi-Ching - - 2006
Arginine-utilizing strains of Mycoplasma can be screened by assay of their arginine aminopeptidase activity. A standardized chromogenic method is described that enables enzyme detection in small volumes of cell suspension in less than 3 h. Cell suspensions (10 microl) in 96-well microtitre plates are incubated at 37 degrees C, pH ...
Kim Dong-Uk - - 2006
Sialyltransferase is an enzyme that transfers the sialic acid moiety from cytidine-5-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NeuAc) to the carbohydrate group of various glycoproteins. These glycoproteins are involved in inflammation, embryogenesis, immune defence and metastasis of cancer cells by cell-cell interactions or cell-matrix interactions. The alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase PM0188 from Pasteurella multocida was purified using ...
Dewji Nazneen N - - 2006
We have earlier proposed that a cell-cell interaction, mediated by the specific binding of molecules of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) on one cell surface with molecules of presenilin (PS) on the other cell surface, is a required initial step in the ultimate production of beta-amyloid (Abeta) from beta-APP. Abeta ...
Hu Lihua - - 2006
In this study, we examined the effects of aspirin on the growth rates, subcellar distribution of beta-catenin protein, the expression of beta-catenin/TCF signaling pathway target gene cyclinD1 mRNA, and cell cycle of Jurkat cell line (Human T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia). Our results showed that the treatment with aspirin inhibited the growth ...
Heit Jeremy J - - 2006
Once thought incapable of significant proliferation, the pancreatic beta-cell has recently been shown to harbor immense powers of self-renewal. Pancreatic beta-cells, the sole source of insulin in vertebrate animals, can grow facultatively to a degree unmatched by other organs in experimental animals. beta-cell growth matches changes in systemic insulin demand, ...
Wakshlag Joseph J - - 2006
Tissue transglutaminase (TGase) has been implicated in both cell survival and apoptosis. Here we investigate the role of TGase in beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity using retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated, neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. We show that beta-amyloid-induced cell death was reduced in RA-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells treated with the TGase inhibitor monodansyl cadaverine. Expression of ...
Reddy Lalini - - 2006
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a fungal toxin that has been associated with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. This study was undertaken to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the antioxidants beta-carotene and lycopene inhibit AFB1-induced toxic changes in human hepatocytes (HepG2 cells). An in vitro system was ...
Barwe S P - - 2006
We have shown that repletion of Na,K-ATPase Beta1-subunit (Na,K-Beta) in Moloney Sarcoma virus transformed MDCK (MSV-Na,K-Beta) cells induced lamellipodia and suppressed motility in a PI3-Kinase dependent manner. In this study, we provide evidence that decreased cell motility is due to increased attachment of Na,K-Beta expressing cells to the substratum. Treatment ...
Strassel C - - 2006
The molecular defect of a new Bernard-Soulier patient, originating from Morocco and presenting thrombocytopenia with large platelets and an absence of ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination, has been identified and reproduced in transfected heterologous cells. Gene sequencing revealed insertion of a guanine in the domain coding for the transmembrane region of the ...
Gimi Barjor - - 2006
The increasing incidence of diabetes and the need to further understand its cellular basis has resulted in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Nonetheless, the quest to noninvasively ascertain beta-cell mass and function has not been achieved. Manganese (Mn)-enhanced MRI is presented here as a tool to image ...
Affourtit Charles C MRC Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK. - - 2006
Pancreatic beta cells respond to rising blood glucose concentrations by increasing their oxidative metabolism, which leads to an increased ATP/ADP ratio, closure of K(ATP) channels, depolarization of the plasma membrane potential, influx of calcium and the eventual secretion of insulin. Such a signalling mechanism implies that the ATP/ADP ratio is ...
Gyulkhandanyan Armen V - - 2006
In pancreatic beta-cells Zn(2+) is crucial for insulin biosynthesis and exocytosis. Despite this, little is known about mechanisms of Zn(2+) transport into beta-cells or the regulation and compartmentalization of Zn(2+) within this cell type. Evidence suggests that Zn(2+) in part enters neurons and myocytes through specific voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). ...
Weber Laney M - - 2006
An in vitro encapsulation platform for systematically testing the effects of microenvironmental parameters on encapsulated islets was developed. The base encapsulation matrix was a biocompatible hydrogel formed via the photoinitiated polymerization of dimethacrylated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGDM). The resulting inert encapsulation matrix affords control over the biochemical and biophysical cellular microenvironment ...
Hara Manami - - 2006
We have developed a method to visualize fluorescent protein-labeled beta-cells in the intact pancreas through combined reflection and confocal imaging. This method provides a 3-D view of the beta-cells in situ. Imaging of the pancreas from mouse insulin I promoter (MIP)-green (GFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) transgenic mice shows ...
Ma Richard Yam Man - - 2006
PDZD2 (PDZ domain containing 2) is a multi-PDZ protein expressed in pancreas and many other tissues. PDZD2 shows extensive homology to pro-interleukin-16 (pro-IL-16) and is localized mainly to the endoplasmic reticulum. We have recently demonstrated that PDZD2, like pro-IL-16, is proteolytically cleaved at its C-terminus to generate a secreted protein, ...
Karadag Abdullah - - 2005
The up-regulation of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), certain cell receptors such as integrins and CD44, and the SIBLING family of integrin-binding glycophosphoproteins have been reported separately and in various combinations for many types of tumors. The mechanisms by which these different proteins may be interacting and enhancing the ability of ...
Akpinar Pinar - - 2005
The signals and molecular mechanisms that regulate the replication of terminally differentiated beta cells are unknown. Here, we report the identification and characterization of transmembrane protein 27 (Tmem27, collectrin) in pancreatic beta cells. Expression of Tmem27 is reduced in Tcf1(-/-) mice and is increased in islets of mouse models with ...
Donath Marc Y - - 2005
A decrease in the number of functional insulin-producing beta-cells contributes to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Opinions diverge regarding the relative contribution of a decrease in beta-cell mass versus an intrinsic defect in the secretory machinery. Here we review the evidence that glucose, dyslipidemia, cytokines, leptin, autoimmunity, and some ...
Bogdani Marika - - 2005
The development of islet cell transplantation as a cure for diabetes is limited by the shortage of human donor organs. Moreover, currently used grafts exhibit a marginal beta-cell mass with an apparently low capacity for beta-cell renewal and growth. Although duct-associated nonendocrine cells have often been suggested as a potential ...
Ben-Yehudah Ahmi - - 2005
Noninvasive detection of differentiated cells is increasingly demanded for accurate and reliable assessments of both in vitro and in vivo experimental systems. Here we present an efficient, innovative approach for imaging the beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The main physiologic function of beta cells is glucose-stimulated insulin ...
Sun Ping - - 2006
Both malignant and normal prostate epithelial cells produce endothelin-1 (ET-1), a critical factor in prostate cancer (CaP) progression. beta-Catenin (beta-cat), a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway, is also implicated in CaP progression via beta-cat/T cell factor (Tcf) signaling. We recently demonstrated that beta-cat/Tcf-4 regulates transcription of ET-1 in ...
Bao Shunzhong S Medicine Department Mass Spectrometry Facility and Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Lipid Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, - - 2006
Studies involving pharmacologic inhibition or transient reduction of Group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2beta) expression have suggested that it is a housekeeping enzyme that regulates cell 2-lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) levels, rates of arachidonate incorporation into phospholipids, and degradation of excess phosphatidylcholine (PC). In insulin-secreting islet beta-cells and some other cells, in contrast, ...
Andrali Sreenath S - - 2005
Several nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in metazoans are modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). This modification is dynamic and reversible similar to phosphorylation and is catalyzed by the O-linked GlcNAc transferase (OGT). Hyperglycemia has been shown to increase O-GlcNAc levels in pancreatic beta cells, which appears to interfere with beta-cell function. ...
Kurth Thomas - - 2005
During development cell proliferation and morphogenetic movements are tightly intermingled. Both processes depend on the same cytoskeletal elements. Therefore, precise regulation of local mitotic activity seems to be basic for proper embryogenesis. Here, I report on bottle cells as an early non-mitotic cell population in the Xenopus gastrula. Endogenous and ...
Portha Bernard - - 2005
Now that the reduction in beta-mass has been clearly established in humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) 1-4, the debate focuses on the possible mechanisms responsible for decreased beta-cell number and impaired beta-cell function and their multifactorial etiology. Appropriate inbred rodent models are essential tools for identification of genes ...
Masiello Pellegrino - - 2006
Type 2 diabetes is increasingly viewed as a disease of insulin deficiency due not only to intrinsic pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction but also to reduction of beta-cell mass. It is likely that, in diabetes-prone subjects, the regulated beta-cell turnover that adapts cell mass to body's insulin requirements is impaired, presumably on ...
Gustavsson Natalia - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We recently showed that timing and magnitude of the glucose-induced cytoplasmic calcium [Ca2+]i response are reproducible and specific for the individual beta cell. We now wanted to identify which step(s) of stimulus-secretion coupling determine the cell specificity of the [Ca2+]i response and whether cell specificity is lost in beta-cells ...
Bouwens Luc - - 2005
Beta-cell mass regulation represents a critical issue for understanding diabetes, a disease characterized by a near-absolute (type 1) or relative (type 2) deficiency in the number of pancreatic beta cells. The number of islet beta cells present at birth is mainly generated by the proliferation and differentiation of pancreatic progenitor ...
Homaeigohar S Sh - - 2005
Beta-tricalcium phosphate-reinforced high-density polyethylene (beta-TCP/HDPE) is a new biomaterial which was made as a copy of bone composition with the aim of replacement of bony tissues. The composite samples were prepared using medical grade TCP powder and granular polyethylene. The raw materials were first compounded and the resulting composite preforms ...
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