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Homaeigohar S S H - - 2006
Beta-tricalcium phosphate-reinforced high-density polyethylene (beta-TCP/HDPE) is a new biomaterial, which was made to simulate bone composition and study its capacity to act like bony tissues. This material was produced by replacing mineral component and collagen soft tissue of bone with beta-TCP and HDPE, respectively. The biocompatibility of composite samples with ...
Chen Chang - - 2006
So far, nitric oxide (NO) donors have been applied to various aspects of antitumor therapy. To selectively sensitize tumor cells and avoid unwanted side effects, we recently synthesized a beta-galactosidase-activatable NO-releasing compound, beta-galactosyl-pyrrolidinyl diazeniumdiolate (beta-Gal-NONOate). In this study, we first verified its superiority over its parent diazeniumdiolate (NONOate) in terms ...
Jang Tae Jung - - 2006
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) activated gene (NAG-1) is a newly identified member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. Members of the TGF-beta family are multifunctional growth factors, and the nature of their effects depends on the cellular context and cell type. NAG-1 has antitumorigenic and proapoptotic activities in colon ...
Welters Hannah J - - 2006
Saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids exert differential effects on pancreatic beta-cell viability during chronic exposure. Long chain saturated molecules (e.g. palmitate) are cytotoxic to beta-cells and this is associated with caspase activation and induction of apoptosis. By contrast, mono-unsaturated fatty acids (e.g. palmitoleate) are not toxic and can protect against ...
Meier Juris J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish whether hypoglycemia after gastric bypass surgery (GBS) for morbid obesity is due to increased fractional beta-cell area or inappropriately increased insulin secretion. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined pancreata obtained at partial pancreatectomy from 6 patients with post-GBS hypoglycemia and compared ...
Prentki Marc - - 2006
The major focus of this Review is on the mechanisms of islet beta cell failure in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes (T2D). As this demise occurs within the context of beta cell compensation for insulin resistance, consideration is also given to the mechanisms involved in the compensation process, ...
Wang Jie - - 2006
beta cell failure is a common denominator of diabetes. Susceptibility to stress-induced apoptosis may underlie beta cell failure and/or hamper islet transplantation therapy. The causal basis is not well understood. In efforts to identify important differences in gene expression in alpha vs. beta cells, a gene termed HIMP1 (Hypoglycemia/hypoxia Inducible ...
Meier J J - - 2006
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated whether there was evidence of attempted beta cell regeneration in the pancreas obtained from a patient with recent-onset type 1 diabetes, and if so by what mechanism this occurred. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined pancreas tissue from a lean 89-year-old patient (BMI 18.0 kg/m(2)) with recent-onset ...
Saavedra Geraldine - - 2006
Physiological roles of microsomal (iPLA(2)gamma) and cytosolic (iPLA(2)beta)Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A(2) were determined in two different epithelial cell models. R- and S-enantiomers of the iPLA(2) inhibitor bromoenol lactone (BEL) were isolated and shown to selectively inhibit iPLA(2gamma) and iPLA(2beta), respectively. The effect of these enantiomers on cell growth was assessed in ...
Wang Y-P - - 2006
Although neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques have been identified as the hallmark pathological changes in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the relationship between them is still not fully understood. In the present study, we have studied the effect of endogenously overproduced amyloid beta (A beta) on tau by using ...
Bulut K - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: VEGF is a glycoprotein with various (e.g. angiogenic) activities. So far, research has focused on its angiogenic properties. VEGF receptors are localized on epithelial cells of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and also on Caco-2 and IEC-18 cells. Our aim was to evaluate the role of VEGF on ...
Larsson Lars-Inge - - 2006
In the small intestines, cell renewal from stem cells present in the crypts is balanced by cell extrusion from the tips of the villi. The mechanism by which extrusion occurs is unknown. Recent in vitro data suggested that loss of E-cadherin could contribute to cell extrusion and induction of programmed ...
Szutowicz A - - 2006
A preferential loss of brain cholinergic neurons in the course of Alzheimer's disease and other encephalopathies is accompanied by a proportional impairment of acetyl-CoA synthesizing capacity in affected brains. Particular susceptibility of cholinergic neurons to neurodegeneration might results from insufficient supply of acetyl-CoA for energy production and acetylcholine synthesis in ...
Priel Tsvia - - 2006
In the mammalian pancreas, high concentrations of Zn(2+) are co-secreted with insulin, which may then permeate via abundant L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCC) present on the beta-cells. Neither the mechanisms utilized by these cells to lower cytosolic Zn(2+) nor the implications of increased intracellular Zn(2+) on beta-cell survival are well understood. ...
Sievers S - - 2006
The intracellular level of the proto-oncoprotein beta-catenin is a parameter for the activity of the Wnt pathway, which has been linked to carcinogenesis. The paper introduces a novel sandwich-based ELISA for the determination of the beta-catenin concentration in lysates from cells or tissues. The advantages of the method were proven ...
Hettiarachchi K D - - 2006
Inhibition of endosomal acidification disturbs insulin signaling in both liver and adipose cells. In this study we used MIN6 beta cells to determine whether bafilomycin, a potent inhibitor of the proton-translocating vacuolar ATPase, disrupts insulin signaling in islet beta cells. Pretreatment of MIN6 cells with varying concentrations of bafilomycin according ...
Keshamouni Venkateshwar G VG Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Michigan Proteomics Consortium, National Resource for Proteomics and Pathways, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109, USA. - - 2006
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of epithelial cells in both normal embryonic development and certain pathological contexts. Here, we show that TGF-beta induced-EMT in human lung cancer cells (A549; adenocarcinoma cells) mediates tumor cell migration and invasion phenotypes. To gain insights into molecular events during EMT, we ...
Cozar-Castellano Irene - - 2006
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes both result from inadequate production of insulin by the beta-cells of the pancreatic islet. Accordingly, strategies that lead to increased pancreatic beta-cell mass, as well as retained or enhanced function of islets, would be desirable for the treatment of diabetes. Although pancreatic beta-cells have ...
Torres Vicente A - - 2006
Caveolin-1 is suggested to act as a tumor suppressor. We tested the hypothesis that caveolin-1 does so by repression of survivin, an Inhibitor of apoptosis protein that regulates cell-cycle progression as well as apoptosis and is commonly overexpressed in human cancers. Ectopic expression of caveolin-1 in HEK293T and ZR75 cells ...
Wang Xujing - - 2006
The heterogeneity between young- and adult-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) is well known, but not well understood. We approach this question through mathematical formulation and analysis of the dynamic interactions between the immune cells and the pancreatic islet beta-cells that lead to the beta-cell destruction. Utilizing the perturbation expansion method ...
Karaskov Elizabeth - - 2006
Chronic free fatty acid (FFA) exposure induces pancreatic beta-cell death, which may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms involved in FFA-induced cell death are not completely understood. Here we have investigated the effect of FFA on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways in INS-1 pancreatic beta-cells. INS-1 ...
Lee Eun Kyung - - 2006
Accumulating evidence suggests that intracellular amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide triggers the early pathological events in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the consequence of cytosolic Abeta. In this study, we ectopically expressed Abeta42 in the cytoplasm of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by expressing a fusion protein of GFP-tagged ubiquitin and ...
Park Hyun-Joo - - 2006
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family of cytokines regulates cell proliferation, morphogenesis, and specialized cell functions in metazoans. Herein, we screened a compound library for modifiers of TGF-beta signaling in NMuMG epithelial cells using a cell-based assay to measure Smad2/3 nuclear translocation. We identified five enhancers of TGF-beta signaling that ...
Nlend Rachel Nlend - - 2006
Most cell types are functionally coupled by connexin (Cx) channels, i.e. exchange cytoplasmic ions and small metabolites through gap junction domains of their membrane. This form of direct cell-to-cell communication occurs in all existing animals, whatever their position in the phylogenetic scale, and up to humans. Pancreatic beta-cells are no ...
Stiles Bangyan L - - 2006
Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase. PTEN inhibits the action of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and reduces the levels of phosphatidylinositol triphosphate, a crucial second messenger for cell proliferation and survival, as well as insulin signaling. In this study, we deleted Pten specifically in the insulin ...
Kim Soo-A - - 2007
Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT) is considered as a neoplastic counterpart of the calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC). beta-catenin mutations have been described in COC suggesting a critical role in its histogenesis. In this study, we report a patient with DGCT contains a missense mutation on codon 3 (ACT --> TCT) ...
Yamada Takahiro - - 2006
Wolfram syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene encoding an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein. Herein, we report that pancreatic islets of wfs1-deficient mice exhibit increases in phosphorylation of RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER kinase, chaperone gene expressions ...
Zhang Hongjie - - 2006
The FoxM1 transcription factor is highly expressed in proliferating cells and activates several cell cycle genes, although its requirement appears to be limited to certain tissue types. Embryonic hepatoblast-specific inactivation of Foxm1 results in a dramatic reduction in liver outgrowth and subsequent late gestation lethality, whereas inactivation of Foxm1 in ...
Higa M - - 2006
AIM: This study was conducted to clarify cell death and survival signals in pancreatic beta-cell lipotoxicity. METHODS: Rat insulinoma INS-1 cells, with or without expression of dominant-negative mutant of Akt (K179M), were cultured with palmitate (C16:0) or oleate (C18:1) and cell numbers were determined by 0.2% eosin dye exclusion assay. ...
Wei Cheng-Wey - - 2006
This work presents a novel microfluidic coculture system that improves the accuracy of evaluating the interaction between cocultured cell types. A microfluidic coculture chip, fabricated by CO(2) laser direct-writing on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), was designed to separate two cell types using a microchannel, while permitting transfer of cellular media. The ...
Duvillié Bertrand - - 2006
The importance of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in the proliferation of pancreatic progenitor cells is well established. Here, we provide evidence that the mesenchyme also controls the timing of beta-cell differentiation. When rat embryonic pancreatic epithelium was cultured without mesenchyme, we found first rapid induction in epithelial progenitor cells of the transcription ...
Chen Chun-Lin - - 2006
Cell-surface proteoglycans have been shown to modulate transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta responsiveness in epithelial cells and other cell types. However, the proteoglycan (heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate) involved in modulation of TGF-beta responsiveness and the mechanism by which it modulates TGF-beta responsiveness remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that TGF-beta1 induces ...
Luther Melanie J - - 2006
Insulin-secreting MIN6 cells show greatly enhanced secretory responsiveness to nutrients when grown as islet-like structures (pseudoislets). Since beta-cells use different mechanisms to respond to nutrient and non-nutrient stimuli, we have now investigated the role of homotypic beta-cell interactions in secretory responses to pharmacological or receptor-operated non-nutrient stimuli in MIN6 pseudoislets. ...
Damdinsuren Bazarragchaa - - 2006
Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) is a proposed regulator of Ids (inhibitors of DNA binding/differentiation) gene expression in epithelial cells. We previously reported that Id proteins are variously expressed in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). However, the mechanism of regulation of Ids in HCC remains obscure. Here, we examined the ...
Bouwens Luc - - 2006
Beta cell replacement and regeneration therapies seem promising approaches to the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes. The short supply in beta cells from cadaveric organ donors and the very low replication capacity of human beta cells have spurred efforts to find robust ways of (re-)generating beta cells in vitro and in ...
Kushner Jake A - - 2006
Improved understanding of the signals that regulate growth and maintenance of adult beta-cells remains one of the main challenges in diabetes research. However, new advances in identifying the specific components involved in G1 cell cycle progression of beta-cells suggest that the molecular determinants of this pathway could ultimately be revealed. ...
Lange Carsten - - 2006
New Zealand Obese (NZO) male mice develop a polygenic juvenile-onset obesity and maturity onset hyperinsulinemia. Approximately 50% transit to chronic hyperglycemia. Here we report on the proliferation of beta cells in relation to both the individual's metabolic status and structural parameters of the endocrine pancreas. Proliferating beta cells were quantified ...
Lin Yi-Ching - - 2006
Arginine-utilizing strains of Mycoplasma can be screened by assay of their arginine aminopeptidase activity. A standardized chromogenic method is described that enables enzyme detection in small volumes of cell suspension in less than 3 h. Cell suspensions (10 microl) in 96-well microtitre plates are incubated at 37 degrees C, pH ...
Kim Dong-Uk - - 2006
Sialyltransferase is an enzyme that transfers the sialic acid moiety from cytidine-5-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NeuAc) to the carbohydrate group of various glycoproteins. These glycoproteins are involved in inflammation, embryogenesis, immune defence and metastasis of cancer cells by cell-cell interactions or cell-matrix interactions. The alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase PM0188 from Pasteurella multocida was purified using ...
Dewji Nazneen N - - 2006
We have earlier proposed that a cell-cell interaction, mediated by the specific binding of molecules of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) on one cell surface with molecules of presenilin (PS) on the other cell surface, is a required initial step in the ultimate production of beta-amyloid (Abeta) from beta-APP. Abeta ...
Hu Lihua - - 2006
In this study, we examined the effects of aspirin on the growth rates, subcellar distribution of beta-catenin protein, the expression of beta-catenin/TCF signaling pathway target gene cyclinD1 mRNA, and cell cycle of Jurkat cell line (Human T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia). Our results showed that the treatment with aspirin inhibited the growth ...
Heit Jeremy J - - 2006
Once thought incapable of significant proliferation, the pancreatic beta-cell has recently been shown to harbor immense powers of self-renewal. Pancreatic beta-cells, the sole source of insulin in vertebrate animals, can grow facultatively to a degree unmatched by other organs in experimental animals. beta-cell growth matches changes in systemic insulin demand, ...
Wakshlag Joseph J - - 2006
Tissue transglutaminase (TGase) has been implicated in both cell survival and apoptosis. Here we investigate the role of TGase in beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity using retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated, neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. We show that beta-amyloid-induced cell death was reduced in RA-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells treated with the TGase inhibitor monodansyl cadaverine. Expression of ...
Reddy Lalini - - 2006
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a fungal toxin that has been associated with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. This study was undertaken to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the antioxidants beta-carotene and lycopene inhibit AFB1-induced toxic changes in human hepatocytes (HepG2 cells). An in vitro system was ...
Barwe S P - - 2006
We have shown that repletion of Na,K-ATPase Beta1-subunit (Na,K-Beta) in Moloney Sarcoma virus transformed MDCK (MSV-Na,K-Beta) cells induced lamellipodia and suppressed motility in a PI3-Kinase dependent manner. In this study, we provide evidence that decreased cell motility is due to increased attachment of Na,K-Beta expressing cells to the substratum. Treatment ...
Strassel C - - 2006
The molecular defect of a new Bernard-Soulier patient, originating from Morocco and presenting thrombocytopenia with large platelets and an absence of ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination, has been identified and reproduced in transfected heterologous cells. Gene sequencing revealed insertion of a guanine in the domain coding for the transmembrane region of the ...
Gimi Barjor - - 2006
The increasing incidence of diabetes and the need to further understand its cellular basis has resulted in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. Nonetheless, the quest to noninvasively ascertain beta-cell mass and function has not been achieved. Manganese (Mn)-enhanced MRI is presented here as a tool to image ...
Affourtit Charles C MRC Dunn Human Nutrition Unit, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK. - - 2006
Pancreatic beta cells respond to rising blood glucose concentrations by increasing their oxidative metabolism, which leads to an increased ATP/ADP ratio, closure of K(ATP) channels, depolarization of the plasma membrane potential, influx of calcium and the eventual secretion of insulin. Such a signalling mechanism implies that the ATP/ADP ratio is ...
Gyulkhandanyan Armen V - - 2006
In pancreatic beta-cells Zn(2+) is crucial for insulin biosynthesis and exocytosis. Despite this, little is known about mechanisms of Zn(2+) transport into beta-cells or the regulation and compartmentalization of Zn(2+) within this cell type. Evidence suggests that Zn(2+) in part enters neurons and myocytes through specific voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). ...
Hara Manami - - 2006
We have developed a method to visualize fluorescent protein-labeled beta-cells in the intact pancreas through combined reflection and confocal imaging. This method provides a 3-D view of the beta-cells in situ. Imaging of the pancreas from mouse insulin I promoter (MIP)-green (GFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) transgenic mice shows ...
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