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Results 601 - 650 of 2256
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Nittala Aparna - - 2007
The oscillatory insulin release is fundamental to normal glycemic control. The basis of the oscillation is the intercellular coupling and bursting synchronization of beta cells in each islet. The functional role of islet beta cell mass organization with respect to its oscillatory bursting is not well understood. This is of ...
Wang M - - 2007
Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis plays an important role in the destruction of pancreatic beta-cell, and contributes to the development of type 1 diabetes. The chaperone molecule, glucose regulated proteins 78 (GRP78), is required to maintain ER function during toxic insults. In this study, we investigated the effect of GRP78 on ...
Patterson Steven - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Although detrimental effects of homocysteine attributed to homocysteine auto-oxidation and generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have been reported in various cell types, such actions have not been considered in pancreatic beta-cells. This study investigates the acute effects of homocysteine on beta-cell integrity and regulation, in particular, the role of ...
Seymour Philip A - - 2007
With the recent advances in mouse genetics, it is now possible to mark specific cell types genetically in vivo and to study the fate of cells during development and adulthood. Cells are labeled and followed in vivo through the stable expression of reporter genes in particular cell types. The two ...
Caldwell J D - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a 94-kDa homodimer that binds steroids and is made in the hypothalamus. We have demonstrated that infusions of SHBG into the hypothalami of rats increase their female sexual receptivity except when SHBG is coupled to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) suggesting that SHBG has an active function ...
Nguyen Lananh N - - 2007
Oval cells are hepatocytic precursors that proliferate in late-stage cirrhosis and that give rise to a subset of human hepatocellular carcinomas. Although liver regeneration typically occurs through replication of existing hepatocytes, oval cells proliferate only when hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a key inhibitory cytokine for ...
Wang Chen - - 2007
Pancreatic beta-cells are the major extraneural site of glutamate decarboxylase expression (GAD). During culture of isolated beta-cells, the GAD product gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) is rapidly released in the medium, independently of insulin. It is considered as a possible mediator of beta-cell influences on alpha-cells, acinar cells, and/or infiltrating lymphocytes. In this ...
Murtaugh L Charles - - 2007
The development of insulin-producing pancreatic beta (beta)-cells represents the culmination of a complex developmental program. Cells of the posterior foregut assume a pancreatic identity, cells within the expanding pancreatic primordia adopt an endocrine fate, and a subset of these precursors becomes competent to generate beta-cells. Postnatally, beta-cells are primarily maintained ...
Dutton James R JR Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, - - 2007
Insulin-secreting beta cells were thought to reside only in the pancreas. Here, we show that beta cells are also present in the extra-hepatic bile ducts of mice. They are characterised by insulin and C-peptide content, the presence of secretory granules that are immunoreactive for insulin, and the ducts exhibit glucose-stimulated ...
Davies Maria - - 2006
It has been demonstrated that the chemopreventive agent N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) induces apoptotic cell death, but recent data has suggested that late stage/recurrent tumours lose their response to 4-HPR-induced cell death by mechanisms that are unknown. Our study investigated the ability of 4-HPR to induce cell death in keratinocyte cell lines ...
Cao Jun J Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Jiefang Road 238, Wuhan 430060, Hubei Province, - - 2006
To explore the effect of gastrin 17 (G17) on beta-catenin/T cell factor-4 (Tcf-4) signaling in colonic cancer cell line Colo320WT. The pCR3.1/GR plasmid, which expresses gastrin receptor, cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK-2R), was transfected into a colonic cancer cell line Colo320 by Lipofectamine (TM)2000 and the stably expressing CCK-2R clones were screened ...
Pisharath Harshan H Department of Comparative Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 720 Rutland Avenue, Ross 771, Baltimore, MD 21205, - - 2007
In order to generate a zebrafish model of beta cell regeneration, we have expressed an Escherichia coli gene called nfsB in the beta cells of embryonic zebrafish. This bacterial gene encodes a nitroreductase (NTR) enzyme, which can convert prodrugs such as metronidazole (Met) to cytotoxins. By fusing nfsB to mCherry, ...
Dosanjh Amrita - - 2006
Rhinovirus infection of the lower airways is now a recognized disease, associated with bronchiolitis and asthma. The bronchial epithelial cells are the host cells when rhinovirus infection occurs in the airway. It was hypothesized that a pro-fibrotic growth factor response may occur in these infected cells, leading to production of ...
Cozar-Castellano Irene - - 2006
p21(cip1), a regulatory molecule upstream of the G(1/0) checkpoint, is increased in beta-cells in response to mitogenic stimulation. Whereas p21(cip1) can variably stimulate or inhibit cell cycle progression, in vitro studies suggest that p21(cip1) acts as an inhibitor in the pancreatic beta-cell. To determine the functional role of p21(cip1) in ...
Gottschling Sandra - - 2007
In previous reports, we have demonstrated that only direct cell-cell contact with stromal cells, such as the murine stromal cell line AFT024, was able to alter the cell division kinetics and self-renewing capacity of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). Because beta(1)-integrins were shown to be crucial for the interaction of HPC ...
Hofmann Claudia - - 2007
Colonic epithelial cells (CECs) receive important survival signals from the extracellular matrix and undergo detachment-induced apoptosis (anoikis) as soon as they lose their cell-matrix anchorage. In contrast to the established role of cell-matrix contact, the role of cell-cell contacts as a physiologic survival factor for CECs is less clear. Intact ...
Mirski Shelagh E L - - 2007
Resistance to anticancer drugs that target DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) isoforms alpha and/or beta is associated with decreased nuclear and increased cytoplasmic topo IIalpha. Earlier studies have confirmed that functional nuclear localization and export signal sequences (NLS and NES) are present in both isoforms. In this study, we show ...
Briviba Karlis - - 2006
Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found in plants and seafood, exhibits antiproliferative, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. We show that astaxanthin delivered with tetrahydrofuran is effectively taken up by cultured colon adenocarcinoma cells and is localized mostly in the cytoplasm as detected by confocal resonance Raman and broad-band fluorescence microspectroscopy image analysis. Cells ...
Cerf Marlon E - - 2006
Type 2 diabetes is primarily associated with insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. Maintenance of functional mature beta-cells is imperative for ensuring glucose homeostasis. This can be achieved by optimal expression of key transcription factors that are required for normal pancreatic development and maintaining beta-cell function. Defining the regulation of transcription ...
Dvory-Sobol Hadas - - 2006
The adenomatous polyposis coli or beta-catenin genes are frequently mutated in colorectal cancer cells, resulting in oncogenic activation of beta-catenin signaling. We tried to establish in vitro and in vivo models for selectively killing human cancer cells with an activated beta-catenin/T-cell factor (Tcf) pathway. We used a recombinant adenovirus that ...
Yusta Bernardo - - 2006
Perturbation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis impairs insulin biosynthesis, beta cell survival, and glucose homeostasis. We show that a murine model of diabetes is associated with the development of ER stress in beta cells and that treatment with the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 significantly reduced biochemical markers of islet ER stress ...
Popow A - - 2006
Our studies were focused on the isolation and characterization of highly motile fraction of cells from hepatoma Morris 5123 population. Cells that underwent several migration cycles through Matrigel - coated filters were successfully cultured. The invasion index was determined by means of Matrigel invasion assay. Statically significant increase in the ...
Bender K - - 2006
The coupling of cytosolic glycolytic NADH production with the mitochondrial electron transport chain is crucial for pancreatic beta-cell function and energy metabolism. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase in the beta-cell is low, thus glycolysis-derived electrons are transported towards the mitochondrial matrix by a NADH shuttle system, which in turn regenerates ...
Lian Fuzhi - - 2006
Recent findings of an inverse association between beta-cryptoxanthin and lung cancer risk in several observational epidemiologic studies suggest that beta-cryptoxanthin could potentially act as a chemopreventive agent against lung cancer. However, the biological activity of beta-cryptoxanthin and molecular mechanism(s) by which beta-cryptoxanthin affects lung tumourigenesis have not been studied. In ...
Vagin Olga - - 2006
Based on recent data showing that overexpression of the Na,K-ATPase beta(1) subunit increased cell-cell adhesion of nonpolarized cells, we hypothesized that the beta(1) subunit can also be involved in the formation of cell-cell contacts in highly polarized epithelial cells. In support of this hypothesis, in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, ...
Campbell Ian W - - 2007
Progressive beta-cell dysfunction and beta-cell failure are fundamental pathogenic features of type 2 diabetes. Ultimately, the development and continued progression of diabetes is a consequence of the failure of the beta-cell to overcome insulin resistance. Strategies that aim to prevent diabetes must, therefore, ultimately aim to stabilize the progressive decline ...
Nishikawa Yumiko - - 2006
Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) have been shown to play a crucial role in the positive selection of high-affinity B cells that are generated by somatic hypermutation in germinal center (GC). Because of technical difficulties in preparing and maintaining pure FDCs, a role for FDCs in this complicated process has not ...
Ishibe Shuta - - 2006
Following organ injury, morphogenic epithelial responses can vary depending on local cell density. In the present study, the role of cell confluence in determining the responsiveness of renal epithelial cells to the dedifferentiating morphogenic signals of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was examined. Increasing confluence resulted in a greater tendency of ...
Bodor Josef - - 2007
How regulatory T (TR) cells dampen T cell responses remains unclear. Multiple modes of action have been proposed, including cell contact-dependent and/or cytokine-dependent mechanisms. Suppression may involve direct contact between TR cells and responder T cells. Alternatively, TR cells may act on dendritic cells to reduce their ability to prime ...
Tokui Yae Y Department of Internal Medicine and Molecular Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2-B5, Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. - - 2006
Betacellulin (BTC) has been shown to have a role in the differentiation and proliferation of beta-cells both in vitro and in vivo. We administered a human betacellulin (hBTC) adenovirus vector to male ICR mice via retrograde pancreatic duct injection. As a control, we administered a beta-galactosidase adenovirus vector. In the ...
Laag E - - 2006
We have shown that the tobacco nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is an agonist for -adrenergic receptors (beta-ARs) and increased DNA synthesis of human lung adenocarcinoma cells with features of bronchiolar Clara cells by binding to these receptors. Using a cell line derived from a human pulmonary adenocarcinoma with Clara cell phenotype ...
Yu Run - - 2006
Human pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) encodes a securin protein critically important in regulating chromosome separation. Murine PTTG (mPTTG) is 66% homologous to human PTTG1 and PTTG-null (PTTG-/-) mice exhibit pancreatic beta-cell hypoplasia and abnormal nuclear morphology with resultant diabetes. As we show that ductal beta-cell neogenesis is intact in ...
Gros Laurent - - 2006
By selection of genetic suppressor elements (GSEs) conferring resistance to topoisomerase II inhibitors in Chinese hamster cells (DC-3F), we identified a gene encoding two proteins of 78 and 82 kDa which belong to the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family. Down-regulation of these enzymes (named PRMT7alpha and beta), either induced by ...
Zhang J - - 2006
Recent studies indicate that the deposition of beta-amyloid (Abeta) is related in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the underlying mechanism is still not clear. The abnormal interactions of Abeta with metal ions such as copper are implicated in the process of Abeta deposition and oxidative stress in AD ...
Argmann Carmen - - 2006
Despite their initial characterization as histone deacetylases controlling transcription, sirtuins also turn out to be critical regulators of metabolism. In this issue of Cell, Haigis et al. (2006) demonstrate that the mammalian Sir2 homolog SIRT4 acts in the mitochondria of pancreatic beta cells to repress the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase ...
Sam Ramin - - 2006
Studies were carried out to determine whether epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT), well described in renal tubular epithelial cells, also occurs in glomerular epithelial cells and whether it is reversible. To this effect, cultured glomerular epithelial cells were incubated with TGF-beta(1) and their transformation into myofibroblasts was studied. At 4 days, the ...
Corbett John A - - 2006
Recent studies have shown that the unfolded protein response (UPR) is essential for the survival of insulin-producing beta cells. Work in this issue of Cell Metabolism (Lipson et al., 2006) identifies a novel role for UPR activation in beta cell function by demonstrating that the UPR effector IRE1 is a ...
Quesada Ivan - - 2006
Homeostasis of blood glucose is mainly regulated by the coordinated secretion of glucagon and insulin from alpha- and beta-cells within the islets of Langerhans. The release of both hormones is Ca(2+) dependent. In the current study, we used confocal microscopy and immunocytochemistry to unequivocally characterize the glucose-induced Ca(2+) signals in ...
Hindié M - - 2006
There is evidence that the shape of cells and their contact with a matrix direct the growth and the differentiation of both normal and cancer cells. Cells in 3D culture resemble the in vivo situation more closely than do those in conventional 2D cultures. We have studied the interactions and ...
Oliveira Rodrigo Juliano - - 2007
A large number of functional foods, including those that contain beta-glucan, have been shown to prevent the development of cancer and other chronic diseases. The aim of the present study was to elucidate its mechanism of action, as well as to understand its effects as an antigenotoxic, anticlastogenic agent, and ...
He Yu-Jun YJ Department of General Surgery, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042, China. - - 2006
To study the anti-tumor effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and the influence of CAPE on beta-catenin associated signaling pathway in SW480 colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. SW480 cells were treated with CAPE at serial concentrations. The proliferative status of cells was measured by methabenzthiazuron (MTT) assay. Cell cycle and ...
Tian Yanjie - - 2007
The compatibility Teflon-AF 2400 liquid core optical fibre with resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS-LCOF) was used to detect aqueous biomolecules. The maximum sensitivity enhancement factor for concentrations greater than the detection limit in a conventional cell was 10, and detection limit reduction of about 1000-fold have been achieved for the measurement ...
Jourdain Carine - - 2006
Cocoa contains many different types of physiologically active components. It was shown that cocoa beans are rich in specific antioxidants such as flavonoids, catechins, epicatechins and proanthocyanidins. Additionally, beta-sitosterol, the most common phytosterol, may play a protective role in the development of cancer. The aim of this in-vitro study was ...
Gustavsson Natalia - - 2006
We recently reported that the timing and magnitude of the nutrient-induced Ca(2+) response are specific and reproducible for each isolated beta-cell. We have now used tolbutamide and arginine to test if the cell specificity exists also for the response to non-nutrient stimulation of beta-cells and if so, whether it is ...
Konarkowska Barbara - - 2006
Human amylin is a small fibrillogenic protein that is the major constituent of pancreatic islet amyloid, which occurs in most subjects with type 2 diabetes. There is evidence that it can elicit in vitro apoptosis in islet beta-cells, but the physical properties that underpin its cytotoxicity have not been clearly ...
Storch A - - 2006
beta-Carbolines structurally related to the selective dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4- phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) may contribute to dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. The chloral-derived mammalian alkaloid derivative 1-trichloromethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline (TaClo) is formed endogenously by a Pictet-Spengler condensation from the biogenic amine tryptamine (Ta) and the hypnotic aldehyde chloral (Clo). Here we examine the dopaminergic ...
Yeow Karen - - 2006
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a serine-threonine protein kinase that exists as two isozymes, GSK3alpha and GSK3beta. It plays important roles in regulating cell structure, function, and survival, and dysregulation of its function is linked to disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. In resting cells, GSK3 is ...
Yang Shao-Nian - - 2006
Voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels are ubiquitously expressed in various cell types throughout the body. In principle, the molecular identity, biophysical profile, and pharmacological property of CaV channels are independent of the cell type where they reside, whereas these channels execute unique functions in different cell types, such as muscle contraction, ...
Compostella Federica - - 2006
CD1a protein binds sulfatide (3-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactosylceramide) to form an antigen complex that interacts with T cell receptors and activates T cells. To assess the role of the position of the sulfate in T cell activation, the synthesis of three beta-D-galactosylceramides, variously bearing a sulfate at position 2, 4, or 6 of ...
Homaeigohar S S H - - 2006
Beta-tricalcium phosphate-reinforced high-density polyethylene (beta-TCP/HDPE) is a new biomaterial, which was made to simulate bone composition and study its capacity to act like bony tissues. This material was produced by replacing mineral component and collagen soft tissue of bone with beta-TCP and HDPE, respectively. The biocompatibility of composite samples with ...
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