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Kitamura Tadahiro - - 2007
Forkhead transcription factors of the FoxO family have important roles in cellular proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and stress resistance. FoxO proteins also play important roles in metabolism of complex organisms. FoxO1 regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in liver, as well as preadipocyte, myoblast and vascular endothelial cell differentiation. In the hypothalamus, ...
Bodendorf S - - 2007
Wound fluids were collected up to 60 h after abdominal surgery. Immediately after obtaining the wound fluid by Robinson drainage, wound fluid was centrifuged to remove blood cells and inflammatory cells. The concentration of total protein as well as of thymosin beta(4) was determined in the cell-free supernatant solution. Total ...
Kirkpatrick, Nanda Duhe
5$\alpha$-Cholest-8(14)-en-3$\beta$-ol-15-one is a potent inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis in cultured cells. Cells derived from the CHO K-1 cell line have been isolated based on their ability to grow in high concentrations of 5$\alpha$-cholest-8(14)-en-3$\beta$-ol-15-one (up to 40 $\mu$M). These cells, designated as the 15-ketosterol-adapted or K(15) cells, accumulate cytoplasmic lipid-rich regions ...
Rodgers Melissa J - - 2007
The parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei contains two type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (alpha and beta). We have cloned the gene encoding the T. brucei type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase beta (TbPI4KIII-beta), expressed the protein in COS-7 cells, and confirmed that the protein catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol. Depletion of TbPI4KIII-beta in procyclic ...
Calderari S - - 2007
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes. Defective beta cell mass detectable in late fetal age precedes the onset of hyperglycaemia. Our hypothesis was that an embryonic IGF production deficiency might be involved in beta cell mass anomaly in the diabetic GK rat. To ...
Ciurea Stefan O - - 2007
In order to investigate the biologic processes underlying and resulting from the megakaryocytic hyperplasia that characterizes idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF), peripheral blood CD34+ cells isolated from patients with IMF, polycythemia vera (PV), and G-CSF-mobilized healthy volunteers were cultured in the presence of stem cell factor and thrombopoietin. IMF CD34+ cells generated ...
Glauser Dominique A - - 2007
FOXO transcription factors critically control fundamental cellular processes, including metabolism, cell differentiation, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and other reactions to cellular stress. FOXO factors sense the balance between stimuli promoting growth and differentiation versus stress stimuli signaling damage. Integrated through the FOXO system, these divergent stimuli decide on cell ...
Amoyal Ilana - - 2007
Increased fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in erythroid precursors of patients with beta-hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia), in which adult hemoglobin synthesis is defective, ameliorates the clinical symptoms of the underlying diseases. The production of erythroid precursors depends on the action of erythropoietin (EPO), which prevents their apoptosis and stimulates their ...
Graham, Nicholas Alexander
Precise and dynamic control of cell behaviors, including proliferation, adhesion, and migration, is required for proper tissue organization and homeostasis. A key element to understanding how these cellular functions are controlled lies in uncovering the topology of the molecular signaling networks that couple environmental signals to cellular responses. In this ...
Lillehoj Erik P - - 2007
beta-Catenin binds to the cytoplasmic region of the type 1 membrane glycoprotein MUC1. In the current study, we utilized HEK293T cells expressing the full-length MUC1 protein, or a CD8/MUC1 fusion protein containing only the MUC1 cytoplasmic tail, to investigate the effects of beta-catenin binding to MUC1 on downstream beta-catenin-dependent events. ...
Shimoda Kei - - 2007
The glycosylation of capsaicin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin was investigated using cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus. In addition to capsaicin 4-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (170 microg/g fr. wt of cells), the biotransformation products, capsaicin 4-O-(6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (116 microg/g fr. wt of cells) and capsaicin 4-O-(6-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (83 microg/g fr. wt of cells), were isolated from the cell ...
Kulkarni Rohit N - - 2007
How insulin-secreting beta cells of the pancreas communicate with each other is largely unknown. In this issue of Cell, Konstantinova et al. (2007) show that the signaling proteins EphA and ephrin-A modulate insulin secretion, providing fresh insights into the functional significance of the clustering of beta cells, which occurs in ...
Ryu Soo-In - - 2007
beta-Galactosyl-trehalose oligosaccharides (beta-GTOs) were enzymatically prepared as a mixture of 6-beta-galactosyl-trehalose (1) and 4-beta-galactosyl-trehalose (2) with a 9:1 ratio (w/w). The beta-GTO mixture showed a highly enhanced hygroscopicity as compared to those of trehalose and other sugars used. At 72 h of incubation under 90% relative humidity and room temperature, ...
Wong Helen Pui Shan - - 2007
Cigarette smoking has been implicated in colon cancer. Nicotine is a major alkaloid in cigarette smoke. In the present study, we showed that nicotine stimulated HT-29 cell proliferation and adrenaline production in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulatory action of nicotine was reversed by atenolol and ICI 118,551, a beta(1)- and ...
Waisman Ari - - 2007
We describe a mouse strain in which B cell development relies either on the expression of membrane-bound immunoglobulin (Ig) gamma1 or mu heavy chains. Progenitor cells expressing gamma1 chains from the beginning generate a peripheral B cell compartment of normal size with all subsets, but a partial block is seen ...
Speier Stephan - - 2007
We studied the effect of gap junctional coupling on the excitability of beta-cells in slices of pancreas, which provide a normal environment for islet cells. The electrophysiological properties of beta-cells from mice (C57Bl/6 background) lacking the gap junction protein connexin36 (Cx36(-/-)) were compared with heterozygous (Cx36(+/-)) and wild-type littermates (Cx36(+/+)) ...
Hu Da-Lin - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To explore the toxicological mechanism of hydroquinone in human bronchial epithelial cells and to investigate whether DNA polymerase beta is involved in protecting cells from damage caused by hydroquinone. METHODS: DNA polymerase beta knock-down cell line was established via RNA interference as an experimental group. Normal human bronchial epithelial ...
Kupriyanova Elena - - 2007
Active extracellular carbonic anhydrases (CAs) were found in the alkaliphilic stromatolite-forming cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes. Enzyme activity was detected in intact cells and in the cell envelope fraction. Western blot analysis of polypeptides from the cell envelope suggested the presence of at least two polypeptides cross-reacting with antibodies against both alpha ...
Cerf Marlon E - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Reported here are the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) fed to dams during pregnancy on the weight, beta- and alpha-cell development, and beta-cell function of their weanling offspring. METHODS: Offspring were obtained from dams maintained on an HFD for the first, second, or third week of gestation or ...
Ferrer Jorge - - 2007
Diabetes results from the absolute or relative deficiency of insulin-producing beta cells. The prospect that non-beta pancreatic cells could be harnessed to become beta cells has led to interest in understanding the plasticity of pancreatic cells. Recent studies, however, have shown that adult beta cells are largely derived from preexisting ...
Alonso Laura C - - 2007
Developing new techniques to induce beta-cells to replicate is a major goal in diabetes research. Endogenous beta-cells replicate in response to metabolic changes, such as obesity and pregnancy, which increase insulin requirement. Mouse genetic models promise to reveal the pathways responsible for compensatory beta-cell replication. However, no simple, short-term, physiological ...
Lin Chen-Yu - - 2007
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) has commonly been used to deliver carotenoids to cells but the use of THF is associated with cytotoxicity and low uptake efficiency of carotenoids. Here, we used fetal bovine serum (FBS) as the delivery vehicle for lycopene in comparison with THF, THF containing 0.0025 % butylated hydroxytoluene (THF/BHT), ...
Shah H R - - 2008
AIMS: To investigate the cytotoxicity of beta-lapachone, a potent agent that may selectively target tumour cells, in retinoblastoma (RB) cell lines. METHODS: Growth inhibitory effects of beta-lapachone were evaluated in Y79, WERI-RB1, and RBM human retinoblastoma cell lines. Pro-apoptotic effects of beta-lapachone were evaluated in Y79 cells by detection of ...
Touma Maki - - 2007
CD3epsilongamma and CD3epsilondelta are noncovalent heterodimers; each consists of Ig-like extracellular domains associated side-to-side via paired terminal beta-strands that are linked to individual subunit membrane proximal stalk segments. CD3epsilon, CD3gamma, and CD3delta stalks contain the RxCxxCxE motif. To investigate the functional importance of a CD3 stalk and terminal beta-strand, we ...
Wajchenberg Bernardo L - - 2007
There is a progressive deterioration in beta-cell function and mass in type 2 diabetics. It was found that islet function was about 50% of normal at the time of diagnosis, and a reduction in beta-cell mass of about 60% was shown at necropsy. The reduction of beta-cell mass is attributable ...
Hinke S A - - 2007
Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain the insulin-sensitising properties of metformin in peripheral tissues: (a) inhibition of electron transport chain complex I, and (b) activation of the AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). However the relationship between these mechanisms and their contribution to beta-cell death and dysfunction in vitro, are ...
Atouf Fouad - - 2007
We used cre/loxP-based genetic lineage tracing analysis to test a previously proposed hypothesis that in vitro cultured adult pancreatic beta-cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to generate a highly proliferative, differentiation-competent population of mesenchymal islet "progenitor" cells. Our results in the mouse that are likely to be directly relevant to the ...
Yoshibayashi Hiroshi - - 2007
We have previously shown that expression of SIAH1 is frequently down-regulated in HCCs and associated with their advanced stages. It has been shown that SIAH1 functions in the phosphorylation-independent degradation of beta-catenin and induces apoptosis and growth arrest. To examine if the effects of SIAH1 overexpression depend on the altered ...
Ray Ramesh M - - 2007
Polyamine depletion with the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor alpha-difluoromethyl ornithine (DFMO), prevents Rac1 activation causing the formation of a thick actin cortex at the cell periphery and inhibits migration of intestinal epithelial cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that MEK activation by EGF increased Rac1 activation, dissociation of intercellular contacts, ...
Piaggi Simona - - 2007
The aim of this research was to characterize 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity on the insulin-secreting beta-cell line INS-1E. A sharp decline of cell survival (below 20%) was observed after 1 h exposure to TCDD concentrations between 12.5 and 25 nM. Ultrastructurally, beta-cell death was characterized by extensive degranulation, appearance of autophagic ...
Olson Keith R - - 2007
Many cell-based assays interrogating cell pathway activation employ protocols that require microscopic imaging techniques. However, such assays are not in general widely adopted for primary screening. Protein complementation, particularly of enzymes, provides an alternative approach for cell pathway analysis, with a principal advantage that is amenable to high throughput screening ...
Raffel Andreas - - 2007
Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is caused by uncontrolled insulin release either from neoplastic pancreatic beta-cells or from functionally defective beta-cells. The latter disorder, which is usually seen in newborns, has been called nesidioblastosis and is divided histopathologically into a focal and diffuse type. In adults, nesidioblastosis is rare, and therefore its histopathologic ...
Ackermann Amanda M - - 2007
Pancreatic beta-cells are responsible for producing all of the insulin required by an organism to maintain glucose homeostasis. Defects in development, maintenance, or expansion of beta-cell mass can result in impaired glucose metabolism and diabetes. Thus, identifying the molecular regulators of these processes may provide new therapeutic targets for diabetes. ...
Yasui H - - 2007
We have reported previously that R-enantiomer of etodolac (R-etodolac), which is under investigation in phase 2 clinical trials in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, induces potent cytotoxicity at clinically relevant concentrations in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. In this study, we demonstrated that SDX-308 (CEP-18082), a novel analog of etodolac, has more potent ...
Sakai Yumiko - - 2007
The deletion of MCD4 leads to an increase in beta-1,6-glucan level and a decrease in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein and mannan levels in the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that mcd4 deletion mutant (mcd4Delta) displays beta-glucans on the cell surface without a mannan cover. An observation of the cell surface of ...
Chan Katie K Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Medical Research Council, Harwell, Oxfordshire OX11 0RD, - - 2007
DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta) is important for the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Overexpression of Pol beta is frequently found in cancer cells and is thought to be associated with tumorigenesis. In this study, we examined BER fidelity in extracts derived from a human lymphoblastoid cell line that over ...
Lee Eun-Jeong - - 2007
Three Arabidopsis genes encoding a putative beta-galactosidase (At5g56870), beta-xylosidase (At5g49360) and beta-glucosidase (At3g60140) are induced by sugar starvation. The deduced proteins belong to the glycosyl hydrolase families 35, 3 and 1, respectively. They are predicted to be secretory proteins that play roles in modification of cell wall polysaccharides based on ...
Chen Mercy S - - 2007
The COMMA-Dbeta-geo cell line has been shown to contain a permanent subpopulation of progenitor cells that are enriched in outgrowth potential. Using the COMMA-Dbeta-geo cell line as a model, we sought to study the radioresistance of mammary progenitor cells. Using the putative progenitor cell marker stem cell antigen 1 (Sca1), ...
Strandberg Karin - - 2007
Beta(2)-adrenoceptors are widely distributed and occur on airway epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to find out whether the two long-acting beta(2)-agonists formoterol and salmeterol influence interleukin-6 (IL-6) and -8 (IL-8) release from airway epithelial cells in vitro. A549 cells and primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) were stimulated ...
Buslei Rolf - - 2007
Activation of the Wnt/wingless signalling cascade is a key mechanism in developmental morphogenesis, whereas aberrant nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in adult tissues seems to be associated with neoplastic transformation and tumour progression. Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas carry activating mutations in exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene, which results in a distinct pattern ...
Heart Emma - - 2007
Pulsatile insulin output, paralleled by oscillations in intracellular Ca(2+), reflect oscillating metabolism within beta-cells in response to secretory fuels. Here we question whether oscillatory periodicity is conserved or varied from stimulation to stimulation, whether glycolysis is essential for the manifestation of an oscillatory response, and if an environment of nutrient ...
Reinicke, Kathryn Estelle
beta-Lapachone, an o-naphthoquinone, is a novel chemotherapeutic and radiosensitizing agent that targets cancer versus normal cells due to endogenous overexpression (5- to 20-fold) of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). A deficiency, or inhibition, of NQO1 renders cells resistant to beta-lapachone. Since NQO1 is inducible in mammalian cells after ionizing or UV ...
Vasavada Rupangi C - - 2007
Animal studies show that G(1/S) regulatory molecules (D-cyclins, cdk-4, p18, p21, p27) are critical for normal regulation of beta-cell proliferation, mass, and function. The retinoblastoma protein, pRb, is positioned at the very end of a cascade of these regulatory proteins and is considered the final checkpoint molecule that maintains beta-cell ...
Kaneto Hideaki - - 2007
Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (PDX-1) plays a crucial role in pancreas development, beta-cell differentiation, and maintaining mature beta-cell function. At an early stage of embryonic development, PDX-1 is initially expressed in the gut region when the foregut endoderm becomes committed to common pancreatic precursor cells. During pancreas development, PDX-1 ...
Salaroli Roberta - - 2007
Gene mutations impairing the functions of the WNT signaling transduction pathway have been found in approximately 15% of human sporadic medulloblastomas. To understand the functional role of the WNT pathway in medulloblastoma, we have investigated the intracellular distribution of beta-catenin in a series of 17 human medulloblastomas to correlate such ...
Newsholme Philip - - 2007
Both stimulatory and detrimental effects of NEFAs (non-esterified fatty acids) on pancreatic beta-cells have been recognized. Acute exposure of the pancreatic beta-cell to high glucose concentrations and/or saturated NEFAs results in a substantial increase in insulin release, whereas chronic exposure results in desensitization and suppression of secretion, followed by induction ...
Klein-Scory Susanne - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Smad4 is a tumour suppressor frequently inactivated in pancreatic and colorectal cancers. We have recently reported loss of Smad4 in every fourth carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Smad4 transmits signals from the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines and functions as a versatile transcriptional co-modulator. The prevailing view suggests that the ...
Yermen Barbara - - 2007
We have previously shown that the Ca(2+)-dependent actin-severing protein gelsolin plays an important role in regulated insulin secretion. The aim of this study was to determine the role of gelsolin in beta-cell survival as it has been shown to play a dual role in apoptosis in other cell types. MIN6 ...
Nittala Aparna - - 2007
The oscillatory insulin release is fundamental to normal glycemic control. The basis of the oscillation is the intercellular coupling and bursting synchronization of beta cells in each islet. The functional role of islet beta cell mass organization with respect to its oscillatory bursting is not well understood. This is of ...
Wang M - - 2007
Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis plays an important role in the destruction of pancreatic beta-cell, and contributes to the development of type 1 diabetes. The chaperone molecule, glucose regulated proteins 78 (GRP78), is required to maintain ER function during toxic insults. In this study, we investigated the effect of GRP78 on ...
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