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Racanicchi Leda - - 2007
Beta (beta)-cell replacement represents an attractive approach for the possible cure of type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). In a search for potential sources of insulin-secreting cells for IDDM substitution therapy, we have focused on the neonatal pig liver, which is putatively enriched in multipotent stem cells. We then isolated ...
Dhawan Sangeeta - - 2007
The elaboration of the pancreas from epithelial buds to the intricate organ requires complex patterning information that controls fundamental cellular processes such as differentiation and proliferation of pancreatic progenitor cells. During pancreatic organogenesis, endocrine cells are generated from a population of pancreatic progenitor cells. The progenitor cells during the early ...
Upadhyaya K R - - 2007
In this communication, we report the efficacy of beta-carotene towards differentiation and apoptosis of leukemia cells. Dose (20 microM) and time dependence (12 h) tests of beta- carotene showed a higher magnitude of decrease (significance p < 0.05) in cell numbers and cell viability in HL-60 cells than U937 cells ...
Shiga Momotoshi - - 2008
The periodontal ligament (PDL) is situated between the tooth root and alveolar bone, thereby supporting the tooth, and is composed of collagen and elastic system fibers. Marfan syndrome type I (MFS1, MIM #154700) is caused by mutations in FBN1 encoding fibrillin-1, which is a major microfibrillar protein of elastic system ...
Wang Xiaoqin - - 2008
Purified native silk fibroin forms beta-sheet-rich, physically cross-linked, hydrogels from aqueous solution, in a process influenced by environmental parameters. Previously we reported gelation times of days to weeks for aqueous native silk protein solutions, with high ionic strength and temperature and low pH responsible for increasing gelation kinetics. Here we ...
Illies Christopher C Rolf Luft Research Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 76, Stockholm, - - 2007
Inositol pyrophosphates are recognized components of cellular processes that regulate vesicle trafficking, telomere length, and apoptosis. We observed that pancreatic beta cells maintain high basal concentrations of the pyrophosphate diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (InsP7 or IP7). Inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks) that can generate IP7 were overexpressed. This overexpression stimulated exocytosis of insulin-containing ...
Alejandro Emilyn U - - 2008
The serine threonine kinase Raf-1 plays a protective role in many cell types, but its function in pancreatic beta-cells has not been elucidated. In the present study, we examined whether primary beta-cells possess Raf-1 and tested the hypothesis that Raf-1 is critical for beta-cell survival. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, Western blot, ...
Parnaud G - - 2008
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to determine whether purified beta cells can replicate in vitro and whether this is enhanced by extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors. METHODS: Human beta cells were purified by FACS by virtue of their high zinc content using Newport Green, and excluding ductal ...
Larsen M O - - 2007
Increased knowledge about beta-cell mass and function is important for our understanding of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The relationship between the two is difficult to study in humans, whereas animal models allow studies of consequences of, for example, reduction of beta-cell mass and induction of obesity and ...
Movassat J - - 2007
Now that reduction in beta-cell mass has been clearly established in humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), the debate focuses on the possible mechanisms responsible for decreased beta-cell number. Appropriate inbred rodent models are essential tools for this purpose. The information available from the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, one of ...
Butler Peter C - - 2007
Replication of beta cells is an important source of beta-cell expansion in early childhood. The recent linkage of type 2 diabetes with several transcription factors involved in cell cycle regulation implies that growth of the beta-cell mass in early childhood might be an important determinant of risk for type 2 ...
Sathi Gul San Ara - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and Wnt signaling pathway molecules play important roles in cytodifferentiation and cell proliferation. We attempted to localize these signaling molecules in the granular cell ameloblastoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four samples of paraffin-embedded ameloblastoma with granular cells were studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect basement membrane ...
Buteau J - - 2007
Forkhead transcription factors of the FoxO family play a critical role in cellular differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and stress resistance. FoxO1 regulates glucose and lipid production in liver; food intake in the hypothalamus and cell differentiation in preadipocytes, myoblasts and vascular endothelium. In this review, we summarize recent literature on the ...
Chu Francie H - - 2007
Disruption of axis specification leads to defects in dorsal tissue patterning and cell movements. Here, we examine how beta-catenin coordinately affects gastrulation movements and dorsal mesoderm differentiation. The reduction of beta-catenin protein levels by morpholino oligonucleotides complementary to beta-catenin mRNA causes a disruption in gastrulation movements. Time-lapse imaging of beta-catenin ...
Mao Tsui-Lien - - 2007
Choriocarcinoma is traditionally described as being composed of cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast. Microscopically, these 2 types of cells are intimately associated with each other, forming a characteristic biphasic plexiform pattern, however, the nature of these 2 types of trophoblastic cells is not well understood. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry for ...
Froemming Mary K - - 2007
In this paper, we describe the development of a fluorogenic substrate for 17beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 10 (17beta-HSD10), which is a multifunctional metabolic enzyme fulfilling several metabolic roles (beta-oxidation of fatty acids, catabolism of isoleucine, and metabolism of steroids). In recent years, it has emerged as an important stress and pathological marker ...
Menge Bjoern A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: beta-Cell regeneration has been proposed as a possible treatment for diabetes, but the capacity for new beta-cell formation in humans is yet unclear. In young rats, partial pancreatectomy prompts new beta-cell formation to restore beta-cell mass. We addressed the following questions: In adult humans: 1) Does partial pancreatectomy provoke ...
Zatyka Malgorzata - - 2008
Wolfram syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene encoding an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein, Wolframin. Although its precise functions are unknown, Wolframin deficiency increases ER stress, impairs cell cycle progression and affects calcium homeostasis. To gain ...
Kaneto Hideaki - - 2008
Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (PDX-1) plays a crucial role in pancreas development, beta-cell differentiation, and maintenance of mature beta-cell function. PDX-1 expression is maintained in pancreatic precursor cells during pancreas development but becomes restricted to beta-cells in mature pancreas. In mature beta-cells, PDX-1 transactivates the insulin and other genes ...
Levine Fred - - 2008
Both type I and type II diabetes are characterized by beta-cell loss and dysfunction. Therefore, a major goal of diabetes therapy is to promote the formation of new beta-cells, either in vitro for transplantation or in vivo, i.e., beta-cell regeneration. The question of whether beta-cell regeneration occurs by replication of ...
Kilkenny Dawn M - - 2008
Maintenance of pancreatic beta-cell mass depends on extracellular stimuli that promote survival and proliferation. In the islet, these stimuli come from the beta-cell microenvironment and include extracellular matrix deposited by associated vascular endothelial cells. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) has recently been implicated as a signaling pathway that is important ...
Heraud Philip - - 2007
An in vivo method for predicting the nutrient status of individual algal cells using Raman microspectroscopy is described. Raman spectra of cells using 780 nm laser excitation show enhanced bands mainly attributable to chlorophyll a and beta-carotene. The relative intensities of chlorophyll a and beta-carotene bands changed under nitrogen limitation, ...
Bhagavathula Narasimharao - - 2007
An siRNA directed against the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) was used to down-regulate this protein in CBS colon carcinoma cells. In additional studies, we utilized a variant of the parental CBS line that demonstrates CaSR expression but does not upregulate this protein in response to extracellular Ca(2+). In neither the ...
De Franceschi Lucia - - 2007
Cell volume changes are hallmarks of both cell maturation and apoptosis, and are paralleled by modulation of membrane ion transport pathways. We evaluated the possible role of K-Cl co-transport (KCC) in both normal and beta-thalassemic erythropoiesis in vitro. We studied the effects of the KCC inhibitor, DIOA, on cell proliferation ...
Jung Gwon-Ryul - - 2007
Primary or acquired resistance of tumours to established chemotherapeutic regimens is a major concern in oncology. Attempts to improve the survival of cancer patients largely depend on strategies to prevent tumour cell resistance. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy with a combination of other drugs such as irinotecan (IRT) and oxaliplatin (OXT) has ...
Zhong Lingwen - - 2007
Diabetes results from an inadequate mass of functional beta cells, due to either beta cell loss caused by immune assault or the lack of compensation to overcome insulin resistance. Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate beta cell mass has important ramifications for fostering beta cell regeneration and the treatment of diabetes. ...
Ishida Kazuya - - 2007
Treatment of Caco-2 cells with beta-naphthoflavone (beta-NF) and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (VD(3)) induces UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the metabolism of carvedilol in beta-NF- and VD(3)-treated Caco-2 cells. The metabolism of R-carvedilol was not significant in non-treated Caco-2 cells, whereas S-carvedilol was ...
Bulut Kerem - - 2008
Glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) exerts intestinotrophic actions, but the underlying mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Recent studies demonstrated the expression of the GLP-2 receptor on fibroblasts located in the subepithelial tissue, where it might induce the release of growth factors such as keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) or vascular ...
Semlali Abdelhabib - - 2008
Epithelial damage is an important pathophysiologic feature of asthma. Bronchial epithelium damage results in release of growth factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1) that may affect epithelial cell proliferation. The objective of our study is to evaluate the importance of TGF-beta(1) in regulating epithelial cell repair in asthma. We ...
Bettelli Estelle - - 2007
T helper responses have now grown to include three T cell subsets: Th1, Th2 and Th17. Th17 cells have recently emerged as a third independent T cell subset that may play an essential role in protection against certain extracellular pathogens. However, Th17 cells with specificity for self-antigens are highly pathogenic ...
Fujinaka Yuichi - - 2007
One of the goals in the treatment for diabetes is to enhance pancreatic beta cell function, proliferation, and survival. This study explores the role of lactogenic hormones, prolactin (PRL) and placental lactogen (PL), in beta cell survival. We have previously shown that transgenic mice expressing mouse placental lactogen-1 (mPL1) in ...
Hasegawa Yoshimi - - 2007
ICAT, inhibitor of beta-catenin and T cell factor, or Ctnnbip1, is a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway that interferes with the interaction between beta-catenin and T cell factor. Some ICAT-deficient (ICAT-/-) embryos exhibit unilateral or bilateral renal agenesis. In this study, we investigated developmental processes in the ICAT-/- ...
Kraus Birgit - - 2007
As immunocompetent cells of the brain, microglia are able to counteract the damaging effects of amyloid-beta in Alzheimer's disease by phagocytosis-mediated clearance of protein aggregates. The survival and health of microglia are therefore critical for attenuating and preventing neurodegenerative diseases. In a microglial cell line pretreated with St. John's wort ...
Tanaka Akio - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Although it has been reported that ghost cells are present in odontomas, the generation mechanism of these cells is unclear. To evaluate the presence of ghost cells and involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway, we examined the expression of hard keratins, beta-catenin and Lef-1 in odontomas. METHODS: Sixty-nine cases ...
Erdogan Mete - - 2007
TC21(R-Ras2), a Ras-related GTPase with transforming potential similar to H-, K- and N-Ras, is implicated in the pathogenesis of human cancers. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), a cytokine that plays a significant role in modulating tumorigenesis, normally prevents uncontrolled cell proliferation but paradoxically induces proliferation in H-Ras-transformed cancer cells. Although ...
Qin Xiaoran - - 2007
Beta-catenin is a multifunctional protein acting as a key factor in the cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion system and in the Wnt signaling pathway. To demonstrate the molecular mechanisms of metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, we established a metastatic subclone of human HCC H7402 cells, termed M-H7402, by isolating from transplantation ...
Podcheko Alexey - - 2007
The pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) was originally identified as a 902-amino-acid (aa) protein that regulates insulin receptor-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in skeletal-muscle cells. Immunoblotting and immunohistological analyses of pancreatic beta-cells reveal prominent expression of a 206-kDa PHIP isoform restricted to the nucleus. Herein, we report the cloning of this larger, ...
Ortsäter Henrik - - 2007
The pancreatic beta-cell senses nutrients, neurotransmitters and hormones in the circulating blood. The unique function of the cell is to integrate all these ambient signals into an appropriate insulin secretory rate in order to maintain normal glucose homeostasis. A prerequisite for adequate insulin secretion is proper biosynthesis of the hormone. ...
Shimoda Kei - - 2007
Cultured suspension cells of Eucalyptus perriniana converted exogenously administered alpha-tocopherol into alpha-tocopheryl 6-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (46mug/gfr. wt of cells) and two biotransformation products: alpha-tocopheryl 6-O-(6-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (19mug/gfr. wt of cells) and alpha-tocopheryl 6-O-(6-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (6mug/gfr. wt of cells). On the other hand, two other compounds, i.e., delta-tocopheryl 6-O-(6-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (27mug/g fr. wt of cells) and ...
Schneider Stephan Q - - 2007
In response to Wnt signaling during animal development, beta-catenin accumulates in nuclei to mediate the transcriptional activation of target genes. Here, we show that a highly conserved beta-catenin in the annelid Platynereis dumerilii exhibits a reiterative, nearly universal embryonic pattern of nuclear accumulation remarkably similar to that observed in the ...
Cortés Juan Carlos G - - 2007
Cytokinesis is a crucial event in the cell cycle of all living cells. In fungal cells, it requires co-ordinated contraction of an actomyosin ring and synthesis of both plasmatic membrane and a septum structure that will constitute the new cell wall end. Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains four essential putative (1,3)beta-d-glucan synthase ...
Zhao Yu-Feng - - 2007
Adipokines, the bioactive factors derived mainly from adipocytes, regulate pancreatic beta-cell function including insulin secretion, gene expression and apoptosis. In this review, we propose that adipokines influence beta-cell function through three interdependent pathways. The first is through regulating lipid and glucose metabolism in beta-cells. The second implicates the change of ...
Brown James E P - - 2007
The adipokine resistin is known to induce insulin resistance in rodent tissues. Increases in adipose tissue mass are known to have a negative effect on pancreatic beta-cell function, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of resistin on insulin secretion, insulin receptor expression and cell viability ...
Heikkilä Eija - - 2007
Densin is a member of LAP (leucine-rich repeat and PDZ domain) protein family that localizes in kidney to slit diaphragms, which are essential components of the glomerular filtration barrier. We have previously shown that densin interacts with a crucial slit diaphragm protein, nephrin. Here, we searched for novel binding partners ...
King Aileen J F - - 2007
Islets are composed mostly of beta-cells, and therefore stem cell research has concentrated on generating purified beta-cells, neglecting the other endocrine cell types in the islet. We investigated the presence of endocrine non-beta-cells after islet transplantation. In addition, we studied whether the transplantation of pure beta-cells, in volumes similar to ...
Adsul Mukund - - 2007
Lactobacillus delbrueckii mutant Uc-3 utilizes both cellobiose and cellotriose efficiently, converting it into L(+) lactic acid. The enzyme activities of cellobiose and cellotriose utilization were determined for cell extracts, whole cells, and disrupted cells. Aryl-beta-glucosidase activity was detected only for whole cells and disrupted cells, suggesting that these activities are ...
Alibardi Lorenzo - - 2007
Beta-keratins form a large part of the proteins contained in the hard beta layer of reptilian scales. The expression of genes encoding glycine-proline-rich beta-keratins in normal and regenerating epidermis of two species of gecko lizards has been studied by in situ hybridization. The probes localize mRNAs in differentiating oberhautchen and ...
Brennand Kristen - - 2007
In healthy adult mice, the beta cell population is not maintained by stem cells but instead by the replication of differentiated beta cells. It is not known, however, whether all beta cells contribute equally to growth and maintenance, as it may be that some cells replicate while others do not. ...
Kitamura Tadahiro - - 2007
Forkhead transcription factors of the FoxO family have important roles in cellular proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and stress resistance. FoxO proteins also play important roles in metabolism of complex organisms. FoxO1 regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in liver, as well as preadipocyte, myoblast and vascular endothelial cell differentiation. In the hypothalamus, ...
Bodendorf S - - 2007
Wound fluids were collected up to 60 h after abdominal surgery. Immediately after obtaining the wound fluid by Robinson drainage, wound fluid was centrifuged to remove blood cells and inflammatory cells. The concentration of total protein as well as of thymosin beta(4) was determined in the cell-free supernatant solution. Total ...
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