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 Results 501 - 550 of 2236 < 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 > 501 Menge Bjoern A - - 2008 OBJECTIVE: beta-Cell regeneration has been proposed as a possible treatment for diabetes, but the capacity for new beta-cell formation in humans is yet unclear. In young rats, partial pancreatectomy prompts new beta-cell formation to restore beta-cell mass. We addressed the following questions: In adult humans: 1) Does partial pancreatectomy provoke ... 502 Zatyka Malgorzata - - 2008 Wolfram syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, is caused by mutations in the WFS1 gene encoding an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein, Wolframin. Although its precise functions are unknown, Wolframin deficiency increases ER stress, impairs cell cycle progression and affects calcium homeostasis. To gain ... 503 Kaneto Hideaki - - 2008 Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (PDX-1) plays a crucial role in pancreas development, beta-cell differentiation, and maintenance of mature beta-cell function. PDX-1 expression is maintained in pancreatic precursor cells during pancreas development but becomes restricted to beta-cells in mature pancreas. In mature beta-cells, PDX-1 transactivates the insulin and other genes ... 504 Levine Fred - - 2008 Both type I and type II diabetes are characterized by beta-cell loss and dysfunction. Therefore, a major goal of diabetes therapy is to promote the formation of new beta-cells, either in vitro for transplantation or in vivo, i.e., beta-cell regeneration. The question of whether beta-cell regeneration occurs by replication of ... 505 Kilkenny Dawn M - - 2008 Maintenance of pancreatic beta-cell mass depends on extracellular stimuli that promote survival and proliferation. In the islet, these stimuli come from the beta-cell microenvironment and include extracellular matrix deposited by associated vascular endothelial cells. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) has recently been implicated as a signaling pathway that is important ... 506 Heraud Philip - - 2007 An in vivo method for predicting the nutrient status of individual algal cells using Raman microspectroscopy is described. Raman spectra of cells using 780 nm laser excitation show enhanced bands mainly attributable to chlorophyll a and beta-carotene. The relative intensities of chlorophyll a and beta-carotene bands changed under nitrogen limitation, ... 507 Bhagavathula Narasimharao - - 2007 An siRNA directed against the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) was used to down-regulate this protein in CBS colon carcinoma cells. In additional studies, we utilized a variant of the parental CBS line that demonstrates CaSR expression but does not upregulate this protein in response to extracellular Ca(2+). In neither the ... 508 De Franceschi Lucia - - 2007 Cell volume changes are hallmarks of both cell maturation and apoptosis, and are paralleled by modulation of membrane ion transport pathways. We evaluated the possible role of K-Cl co-transport (KCC) in both normal and beta-thalassemic erythropoiesis in vitro. We studied the effects of the KCC inhibitor, DIOA, on cell proliferation ... 509 Jung Gwon-Ryul - - 2007 Primary or acquired resistance of tumours to established chemotherapeutic regimens is a major concern in oncology. Attempts to improve the survival of cancer patients largely depend on strategies to prevent tumour cell resistance. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy with a combination of other drugs such as irinotecan (IRT) and oxaliplatin (OXT) has ... 510 Zhong Lingwen - - 2007 Diabetes results from an inadequate mass of functional beta cells, due to either beta cell loss caused by immune assault or the lack of compensation to overcome insulin resistance. Elucidating the mechanisms that regulate beta cell mass has important ramifications for fostering beta cell regeneration and the treatment of diabetes. ... 511 Ishida Kazuya - - 2007 Treatment of Caco-2 cells with beta-naphthoflavone (beta-NF) and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (VD(3)) induces UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the metabolism of carvedilol in beta-NF- and VD(3)-treated Caco-2 cells. The metabolism of R-carvedilol was not significant in non-treated Caco-2 cells, whereas S-carvedilol was ... 512 Bulut Kerem - - 2008 Glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) exerts intestinotrophic actions, but the underlying mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Recent studies demonstrated the expression of the GLP-2 receptor on fibroblasts located in the subepithelial tissue, where it might induce the release of growth factors such as keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) or vascular ... 513 Semlali Abdelhabib - - 2008 Epithelial damage is an important pathophysiologic feature of asthma. Bronchial epithelium damage results in release of growth factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1) that may affect epithelial cell proliferation. The objective of our study is to evaluate the importance of TGF-beta(1) in regulating epithelial cell repair in asthma. We ... 514 Bettelli Estelle - - 2007 T helper responses have now grown to include three T cell subsets: Th1, Th2 and Th17. Th17 cells have recently emerged as a third independent T cell subset that may play an essential role in protection against certain extracellular pathogens. However, Th17 cells with specificity for self-antigens are highly pathogenic ... 515 Fujinaka Yuichi - - 2007 One of the goals in the treatment for diabetes is to enhance pancreatic beta cell function, proliferation, and survival. This study explores the role of lactogenic hormones, prolactin (PRL) and placental lactogen (PL), in beta cell survival. We have previously shown that transgenic mice expressing mouse placental lactogen-1 (mPL1) in ... 516 Hasegawa Yoshimi - - 2007 ICAT, inhibitor of beta-catenin and T cell factor, or Ctnnbip1, is a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway that interferes with the interaction between beta-catenin and T cell factor. Some ICAT-deficient (ICAT-/-) embryos exhibit unilateral or bilateral renal agenesis. In this study, we investigated developmental processes in the ICAT-/- ... 517 Kraus Birgit - - 2007 As immunocompetent cells of the brain, microglia are able to counteract the damaging effects of amyloid-beta in Alzheimer's disease by phagocytosis-mediated clearance of protein aggregates. The survival and health of microglia are therefore critical for attenuating and preventing neurodegenerative diseases. In a microglial cell line pretreated with St. John's wort ... 518 Tanaka Akio - - 2007 BACKGROUND: Although it has been reported that ghost cells are present in odontomas, the generation mechanism of these cells is unclear. To evaluate the presence of ghost cells and involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway, we examined the expression of hard keratins, beta-catenin and Lef-1 in odontomas. METHODS: Sixty-nine cases ... 519 Erdogan Mete - - 2007 TC21(R-Ras2), a Ras-related GTPase with transforming potential similar to H-, K- and N-Ras, is implicated in the pathogenesis of human cancers. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), a cytokine that plays a significant role in modulating tumorigenesis, normally prevents uncontrolled cell proliferation but paradoxically induces proliferation in H-Ras-transformed cancer cells. Although ... 520 Qin Xiaoran - - 2007 Beta-catenin is a multifunctional protein acting as a key factor in the cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion system and in the Wnt signaling pathway. To demonstrate the molecular mechanisms of metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, we established a metastatic subclone of human HCC H7402 cells, termed M-H7402, by isolating from transplantation ... 521 Podcheko Alexey - - 2007 The pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) was originally identified as a 902-amino-acid (aa) protein that regulates insulin receptor-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in skeletal-muscle cells. Immunoblotting and immunohistological analyses of pancreatic beta-cells reveal prominent expression of a 206-kDa PHIP isoform restricted to the nucleus. Herein, we report the cloning of this larger, ... 522 Ortsäter Henrik - - 2007 The pancreatic beta-cell senses nutrients, neurotransmitters and hormones in the circulating blood. The unique function of the cell is to integrate all these ambient signals into an appropriate insulin secretory rate in order to maintain normal glucose homeostasis. A prerequisite for adequate insulin secretion is proper biosynthesis of the hormone. ... 523 Shimoda Kei - - 2007 Cultured suspension cells of Eucalyptus perriniana converted exogenously administered alpha-tocopherol into alpha-tocopheryl 6-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (46mug/gfr. wt of cells) and two biotransformation products: alpha-tocopheryl 6-O-(6-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (19mug/gfr. wt of cells) and alpha-tocopheryl 6-O-(6-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (6mug/gfr. wt of cells). On the other hand, two other compounds, i.e., delta-tocopheryl 6-O-(6-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (27mug/g fr. wt of cells) and ... 524 Schneider Stephan Q - - 2007 In response to Wnt signaling during animal development, beta-catenin accumulates in nuclei to mediate the transcriptional activation of target genes. Here, we show that a highly conserved beta-catenin in the annelid Platynereis dumerilii exhibits a reiterative, nearly universal embryonic pattern of nuclear accumulation remarkably similar to that observed in the ... 525 Cortés Juan Carlos G - - 2007 Cytokinesis is a crucial event in the cell cycle of all living cells. In fungal cells, it requires co-ordinated contraction of an actomyosin ring and synthesis of both plasmatic membrane and a septum structure that will constitute the new cell wall end. Schizosaccharomyces pombe contains four essential putative (1,3)beta-d-glucan synthase ... 526 Zhao Yu-Feng - - 2007 Adipokines, the bioactive factors derived mainly from adipocytes, regulate pancreatic beta-cell function including insulin secretion, gene expression and apoptosis. In this review, we propose that adipokines influence beta-cell function through three interdependent pathways. The first is through regulating lipid and glucose metabolism in beta-cells. The second implicates the change of ... 527 Brown James E P - - 2007 The adipokine resistin is known to induce insulin resistance in rodent tissues. Increases in adipose tissue mass are known to have a negative effect on pancreatic beta-cell function, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of resistin on insulin secretion, insulin receptor expression and cell viability ... 528 Heikkilä Eija - - 2007 Densin is a member of LAP (leucine-rich repeat and PDZ domain) protein family that localizes in kidney to slit diaphragms, which are essential components of the glomerular filtration barrier. We have previously shown that densin interacts with a crucial slit diaphragm protein, nephrin. Here, we searched for novel binding partners ... 529 King Aileen J F - - 2007 Islets are composed mostly of beta-cells, and therefore stem cell research has concentrated on generating purified beta-cells, neglecting the other endocrine cell types in the islet. We investigated the presence of endocrine non-beta-cells after islet transplantation. In addition, we studied whether the transplantation of pure beta-cells, in volumes similar to ... 530 Adsul Mukund - - 2007 Lactobacillus delbrueckii mutant Uc-3 utilizes both cellobiose and cellotriose efficiently, converting it into L(+) lactic acid. The enzyme activities of cellobiose and cellotriose utilization were determined for cell extracts, whole cells, and disrupted cells. Aryl-beta-glucosidase activity was detected only for whole cells and disrupted cells, suggesting that these activities are ... 531 Alibardi Lorenzo - - 2007 Beta-keratins form a large part of the proteins contained in the hard beta layer of reptilian scales. The expression of genes encoding glycine-proline-rich beta-keratins in normal and regenerating epidermis of two species of gecko lizards has been studied by in situ hybridization. The probes localize mRNAs in differentiating oberhautchen and ... 532 Brennand Kristen - - 2007 In healthy adult mice, the beta cell population is not maintained by stem cells but instead by the replication of differentiated beta cells. It is not known, however, whether all beta cells contribute equally to growth and maintenance, as it may be that some cells replicate while others do not. ... 533 Kitamura Tadahiro - - 2007 Forkhead transcription factors of the FoxO family have important roles in cellular proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and stress resistance. FoxO proteins also play important roles in metabolism of complex organisms. FoxO1 regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in liver, as well as preadipocyte, myoblast and vascular endothelial cell differentiation. In the hypothalamus, ... 534 Bodendorf S - - 2007 Wound fluids were collected up to 60 h after abdominal surgery. Immediately after obtaining the wound fluid by Robinson drainage, wound fluid was centrifuged to remove blood cells and inflammatory cells. The concentration of total protein as well as of thymosin beta(4) was determined in the cell-free supernatant solution. Total ... 535 Kirkpatrick, Nanda Duhe 5$\alpha$-Cholest-8(14)-en-3$\beta$-ol-15-one is a potent inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis in cultured cells. Cells derived from the CHO K-1 cell line have been isolated based on their ability to grow in high concentrations of 5$\alpha$-cholest-8(14)-en-3$\beta$-ol-15-one (up to 40 $\mu$M). These cells, designated as the 15-ketosterol-adapted or K(15) cells, accumulate cytoplasmic lipid-rich regions ... 536 Rodgers Melissa J - - 2007 The parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei contains two type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (alpha and beta). We have cloned the gene encoding the T. brucei type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase beta (TbPI4KIII-beta), expressed the protein in COS-7 cells, and confirmed that the protein catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol. Depletion of TbPI4KIII-beta in procyclic ... 537 Calderari S - - 2007 AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes. Defective beta cell mass detectable in late fetal age precedes the onset of hyperglycaemia. Our hypothesis was that an embryonic IGF production deficiency might be involved in beta cell mass anomaly in the diabetic GK rat. To ... 538 Ciurea Stefan O - - 2007 In order to investigate the biologic processes underlying and resulting from the megakaryocytic hyperplasia that characterizes idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF), peripheral blood CD34+ cells isolated from patients with IMF, polycythemia vera (PV), and G-CSF-mobilized healthy volunteers were cultured in the presence of stem cell factor and thrombopoietin. IMF CD34+ cells generated ... 539 Glauser Dominique A - - 2007 FOXO transcription factors critically control fundamental cellular processes, including metabolism, cell differentiation, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and other reactions to cellular stress. FOXO factors sense the balance between stimuli promoting growth and differentiation versus stress stimuli signaling damage. Integrated through the FOXO system, these divergent stimuli decide on cell ... 540 Amoyal Ilana - - 2007 Increased fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in erythroid precursors of patients with beta-hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia), in which adult hemoglobin synthesis is defective, ameliorates the clinical symptoms of the underlying diseases. The production of erythroid precursors depends on the action of erythropoietin (EPO), which prevents their apoptosis and stimulates their ... 541 Graham, Nicholas Alexander Precise and dynamic control of cell behaviors, including proliferation, adhesion, and migration, is required for proper tissue organization and homeostasis. A key element to understanding how these cellular functions are controlled lies in uncovering the topology of the molecular signaling networks that couple environmental signals to cellular responses. In this ... 542 Lillehoj Erik P - - 2007 beta-Catenin binds to the cytoplasmic region of the type 1 membrane glycoprotein MUC1. In the current study, we utilized HEK293T cells expressing the full-length MUC1 protein, or a CD8/MUC1 fusion protein containing only the MUC1 cytoplasmic tail, to investigate the effects of beta-catenin binding to MUC1 on downstream beta-catenin-dependent events. ... 543 Shimoda Kei - - 2007 The glycosylation of capsaicin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin was investigated using cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus. In addition to capsaicin 4-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (170 microg/g fr. wt of cells), the biotransformation products, capsaicin 4-O-(6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (116 microg/g fr. wt of cells) and capsaicin 4-O-(6-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (83 microg/g fr. wt of cells), were isolated from the cell ... 544 Kulkarni Rohit N - - 2007 How insulin-secreting beta cells of the pancreas communicate with each other is largely unknown. In this issue of Cell, Konstantinova et al. (2007) show that the signaling proteins EphA and ephrin-A modulate insulin secretion, providing fresh insights into the functional significance of the clustering of beta cells, which occurs in ... 545 Ryu Soo-In - - 2007 beta-Galactosyl-trehalose oligosaccharides (beta-GTOs) were enzymatically prepared as a mixture of 6-beta-galactosyl-trehalose (1) and 4-beta-galactosyl-trehalose (2) with a 9:1 ratio (w/w). The beta-GTO mixture showed a highly enhanced hygroscopicity as compared to those of trehalose and other sugars used. At 72 h of incubation under 90% relative humidity and room temperature, ... 546 Wong Helen Pui Shan - - 2007 Cigarette smoking has been implicated in colon cancer. Nicotine is a major alkaloid in cigarette smoke. In the present study, we showed that nicotine stimulated HT-29 cell proliferation and adrenaline production in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulatory action of nicotine was reversed by atenolol and ICI 118,551, a beta(1)- and ... 547 Waisman Ari - - 2007 We describe a mouse strain in which B cell development relies either on the expression of membrane-bound immunoglobulin (Ig) gamma1 or mu heavy chains. Progenitor cells expressing gamma1 chains from the beginning generate a peripheral B cell compartment of normal size with all subsets, but a partial block is seen ... 548 Speier Stephan - - 2007 We studied the effect of gap junctional coupling on the excitability of beta-cells in slices of pancreas, which provide a normal environment for islet cells. The electrophysiological properties of beta-cells from mice (C57Bl/6 background) lacking the gap junction protein connexin36 (Cx36(-/-)) were compared with heterozygous (Cx36(+/-)) and wild-type littermates (Cx36(+/+)) ... 549 Hu Da-Lin - - 2007 OBJECTIVE: To explore the toxicological mechanism of hydroquinone in human bronchial epithelial cells and to investigate whether DNA polymerase beta is involved in protecting cells from damage caused by hydroquinone. METHODS: DNA polymerase beta knock-down cell line was established via RNA interference as an experimental group. Normal human bronchial epithelial ... 550 Kupriyanova Elena - - 2007 Active extracellular carbonic anhydrases (CAs) were found in the alkaliphilic stromatolite-forming cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes. Enzyme activity was detected in intact cells and in the cell envelope fraction. Western blot analysis of polypeptides from the cell envelope suggested the presence of at least two polypeptides cross-reacting with antibodies against both alpha ... < 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 >