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Results 451 - 500 of 2256
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Yamakawa Satoshi - - 2008
Our laboratory has been investigating the use of compounds which disrupt beta-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) binding to treat human colon cancer. There are several cysteine residues on the surface of beta-catenin where it binds to TCF. Some bis[2-(acylamino)phenyl] disulfides might have the ability to form a disulfide bond with the ...
Jin Lan L Division of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, 1450 E. Duarte Rd., Duarte, CA 91010, - - 2008
CEACAM1-4L (carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1, with 4 extracellular Ig-like domains and a long, 71 amino acid cytoplasmic domain) is expressed in epithelial cells and activated T-cells, but is down-regulated in most epithelial cell cancers and T-cell leukemias. A highly conserved sequence within the cytoplasmic domain has ca 50% ...
Lu Jingze - - 2008
Previously, we identified a clathrin-dependent slow endocytosis and a clathrin-independent fast endocytosis in pancreatic beta cells, both triggered by elevated cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration. In the current study, we attempted to explore the roles of different dynamin isoforms in these endocytotic processes. We first confirmed the existence of both neuron-specific dynamin ...
Kim Hyun-Jung - - 2008
Clinical studies have raised the possibility that elevated plasma levels of homocysteine increase the risk of atherosclerosis, stroke and possibly neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the direct impact of homocysteine on neuron cells and the mechanism by which it could induce neurodegeneration have yet to be clearly ...
During Alexandrine - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which carotenoids [xanthophylls vs. beta-carotene(beta-C)] are taken up by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The human RPE cell line, ARPE-19, was used. When ARPE-19 cells were fully differentiated (7-9 weeks), the xanthophylls lutein (LUT) and zeaxanthin (ZEA) were taken ...
Kawaguchi Tomohiro - - 2008
A simple, sensitive, and rapid cell-free assay system was developed for detection of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) autoinducers involved in bacterial quorum sensing (QS). The present approach improves upon previous whole-cell biosensor-based approaches in its utilization of a cell-free assay approach to conduct bioassays. The cell-free assay was derived from ...
Wang Xiumei - - 2009
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a world-wide health problem and its incidence accounts for 1.9-3.5% of all malignant tumors. Transforming growth factor beta/Smads (TGF-beta/Smads) signaling pathway plays an important role in oncogenesis, but its function and molecular mechanisms in OSCC remain unclear. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta receptor type ...
Chang Hao H The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2008
beta-Catenin, as an important effector of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and as a regulator of cell adhesion, has been demonstrated to be involved in multiple developmental processes and tumorigenesis. beta-Catenin expression was found mainly on the Sertoli cell membrane starting from embryonic day 15.5 in the developing testes. However, ...
Murata Tomiyasu - - 2008
We recently established adrenal medullary cell line tsAM5D, which was immortalized by use of a temperature-sensitive mutant of the oncogene simian virus 40 large T-antigen. In the present study, when co-treated with glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), tsAM5D cells proliferated at the permissive temperature ...
Chahdi Ahmed - - 2008
The phosphorylation of forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a by Akt is critical regulator of cell proliferation induced by serum. We show that endothelin-1 (ET-1) stimulation of primary human mesangial cells (HMCs) induces betaPix and p66Shc up-regulation, resulting in the formation of the betaPix/p66Shc complex. In transformed HMCs, ET-1 induces a biphasic ...
Richard Craig A H - - 2008
AIM: Identifying the factors responsible for reducing the proliferation, syncytialization, and invasiveness of trophoblast tissues, as seen with preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and spontaneous miscarriage, is a current challenge in reproductive biology. These factors, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta as an example, can work by altering trophoblast differentiation or proliferation. We ...
Murtaugh L Charles LC University of Utah; Department of Human Genetics; Salt Lake City, Utah - - 2008
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, conserved across the animal kingdom, is critical for the development of numerous tissues. Several recent studies have focused on the roles that this pathway plays at different stages of pancreatic organogenesis, including specification, proliferation, differentiation and function. Whereas, during early endoderm development, inhibition of the pathway ...
Chung Won-Suk WS Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, and the Diabetes Center, University of California, San Francisco, 1550 4th Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, - - 2008
The cellular origin of signals that regulate pancreatic beta cell induction is not clearly defined. Here, we investigate the seeming paradox that Hedgehog/Smoothened signaling functions during gastrulation to promote pancreatic beta cell development in zebrafish, yet has an inhibitory role during later stages of pancreas development in amniotes. Our cell ...
Verbiest Vincent - - 2008
PRMT7 belongs to the protein arginine methyl-transferases family. We show that downregulation of PRMT7alpha and beta isoforms in DC-3F hamster cells was associated with increased sensitivity to the Top1 inhibitor camptothecin (CPT). This effect was not due to a change in Top1 contents or catalytic activity, or to a difference ...
Webster Nicola J - - 2008
Closure of pancreatic beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels links glucose metabolism to electrical activity and insulin secretion. It is now known that saturated, but not polyunsaturated, long-chain acyl-coenyzme A esters (acyl-CoAs) can potently activate K(ATP) channels when superfused directly across excised membrane patches, suggesting a plausible mechanism to account for ...
Baver Scott B - - 2008
Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) innervate the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN), providing irradiance information for entrainment of circadian rhythms and for stimulating the pupillary light reflex. In this study, mice were used in which the melanopsin gene was replaced with the tau-lacZ ...
de Koning Eelco J P - - 2008
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by progressive beta-cell dysfunction and a reduction in beta-cell mass. Pancreatic islets are a target for adverse effectors such as high concentrations of glucose, pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased free fatty acid concentrations - which are associated with adiposity, insulin resistance and the induction of beta-cell ...
Stukenbrock Hendrik - - 2008
Recently, the serine/threonine kinase glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) emerged as a regulator of pancreatic beta cell growth and survival. On the basis of the previous observation that GSK-3 inhibitors like 1-azakenpaullone promote beta cell protection and replication, paullone derivatives were synthesized including 1-aza-, 2-aza-, and 12-oxapaullone scaffolds. In enzymatic assays ...
Hwang Jae-Ho JH Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Salisbury Cove, ME 04672, - - 2008
The organic solute and steroid transporter (OST/Ost) is a unique membrane transport protein heterodimer composed of subunits designated alpha and beta, that transports conjugated steroids and prostaglandin E(2) across the plasma membrane. Ost was first identified in the liver of the cartilaginous fish Leucoraja erinacea, the little skate, and subsequently ...
Meier Juris J JJ Larry Hillblom Islet Research Center, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095-7073, - - 2008
Little is known about the capacity, mechanisms, or timing of growth in beta-cell mass in humans. We sought to establish if the predominant expansion of beta-cell mass in humans occurs in early childhood and if, as in rodents, this coincides with relatively abundant beta-cell replication. We also sought to establish ...
Meier J J - - 2008
Beta cell deficiency underlies both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and restoration or replacement of beta cell function is therefore the logical long-term solution to therapy. This review sets out to describe the defects in beta cell mass and function in both forms of diabetes, summarises current understanding of ...
Russ Holger A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Expansion of insulin-producing beta-cells from adult human islets could alleviate donor shortage for cell-replacement therapy of diabetes. A major obstacle to development of effective expansion protocols is the rapid loss of beta-cell markers in the cultured cells. Here, we report a genetic cell-lineage tracing approach for following the fate ...
Gess Burkhard - - 2008
N-cadherin and beta-catenin are involved in cell adhesion and cell cycle in tumor cells and neural crest. Both are expressed at key stages of Schwann cell (SC) development, but little is known about their function in the SC lineage. We studied the role of these molecules in adult rat derived ...
Stoika R S - - 2008
AIM: To compare the capability of methotrexate, cisplatin, doxorubicine and vincristine to induce production of the transforming growth factor beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) in two cell lines - MCF-7 and T47D - of human breast carcinoma, as well as to study sensitivity of these cells to TGF-beta(1) and mentioned anticancer drugs. MATERIALS ...
Howells Lynne M - - 2008
The primary aim of this study was to determine whether combination of the chemopreventive agent indole-3-carbinol (I3C) with oxaliplatin would decrease proliferative index and invasive potential of human colorectal tumour cells. Combination of the agents resulted in a 170-fold decrease in proliferative capacity in SW480 and SW620 cell lines, which ...
Chan Judy Yuet-Wa - - 2008
Hyperglycemia is one of the main causes of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus. During hyperglycemia, the increased level of various reducing sugars in the blood enhances the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and triggers tissue damage, especially in pancreatic beta-cells. Streptozotocin (STZ) is a diabetogen that causes ...
Homaeigohar S Sh - - 2008
Beta-tricalcium phosphate reinforced high density polyethylene (beta-TCP/HDPE) was prepared to simulate bone composition and to study its capacity to act as bone tissue. This material was produced by replacing the mineral component and collagen soft tissue of the bone with beta-TCP and HDPE, respectively. The biocompatibility of the composite samples ...
Choi, Yang-Soo
Periosteum-derived progenitor cells (PDPCs) were isolated using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter and their chondrogenic potential in biomaterials was investigated for the treatment of defective articular cartilage as a cell therapy. The chondrogenesis of PDPCs was conducted in a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP), which is a block copolymer composed of temperature-responsive ...
Jetton Thomas L - - 2008
The physiological mechanisms underlying pancreatic beta-cell mass (BCM) homeostasis are complex and not fully resolved. Here we examined the factors contributing to the increased BCM following a mild glucose infusion (GI) whereby normoglycemia was maintained through 96 h. We used morphometric and immunochemical methods to investigate enhanced beta-cell growth and ...
Takai Noriyuki - - 2008
Beta-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin (beta-HIVS), a compound isolated from the traditional oriental medicinal herb Lithospermum radix, is an ATP non-competitive inhibitor of protein-tyrosine kinases, such as v-Src and EGFR, and it induces apoptosis in some lines of human tumor cells. We investigated the effect of beta-HIVS on three endometrial cancer cell lines, two ...
Oxmann D - - 2008
Endoglin is a cell-surface adhesion protein as well as a coreceptor for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). It is located on endothelial and few other cells, but also found on certain tumor cells. Brain metastatic breast tumor cells derived from the MDA-MB-231 cell line heavily express endoglin in contrast to the ...
Sato Toshinori - - 2008
Syntheses of oligosaccharides expressed on cells are indispensable for the improvement of the functional analyses of the oligosaccharides and their applications. We are developing saccharide primers for synthesizing oligosaccharides using living cells. In this study, dodecyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside (GlcNAc-C12) and dodecyl beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside (LacNAc-C12) were examined for their abilities to prime the ...
Beith Jennifer L JL Laboratory of Molecular Signalling in Diabetes, Diabetes Research Group, Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T - - 2008
A relative decrease in beta-cell mass is key in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and in the failure of transplanted islet grafts. It is now clear that beta-cell duplication plays a dominant role in the regulation of adult beta-cell mass. Therefore, knowledge of the endogenous regulators ...
Al-Awqati Qais - - 2008
The intercalated cell of the cortical collecting tubule exists in two functional and morphologic forms: alpha cells secrete acid, while beta cells secrete HCO(3). It was found that beta cells convert to alpha type when the animal ingests an acid diet or when isolated perfused tubules are exposed to acid. ...
Bai Ji-Zhong - - 2008
Amyloid deposition is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes related to beta-amyloid peptides (betaA) and human amylin (hA), respectively. Both betaA and hA form aggregates and fibrils and kill cultured cells. To investigate whether betaA and hA display peptide-specific toxicity on cultured islet beta-cells, we examined ...
Mziaut Hassan - - 2008
Changes in metabolic demands dynamically regulate the total mass of adult pancreatic beta-cells to adjust insulin secretion and preserve glucose homeostasis. Glucose itself is a major regulator of beta-cell proliferation by inducing insulin secretion and activating beta-cell insulin receptors. Here, we show that islet cell autoantigen 512 (ICA512)/IA-2, an intrinsic ...
Kuo Chan-Yen - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays critical roles in cell survival via modulation of signaling pathways. In our previous studies, we reported that HBx inhibited the growth of CCL13-HBx-stable cells (Chang-HBx cells) in vitro and tumor formation in vivo in CCL13-HBx-cell-injected nude mice; however, this inhibition mechanism ...
Klöppel Günter - - 2008
Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults is usually caused by solitary benign insulinomas. Nesidioblastosis, a term that has been used to designate a functional disorder of the beta cells, is a rare cause of persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults, but seems to have increased in frequency. The histopathologic criteria for adult ...
Quélard Delphine - - 2008
Collagens contain cryptic polypeptide modules that regulate major cell functions, such as cell proliferation or death. Collagen XVIII (C18) exists as three amino terminal end variants with specific amino terminal polypeptide modules. We investigated the function of the variant 3 of C18 (V3C18) containing a frizzled module (FZC18), which carries ...
Yao Ke - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of postoperative remnants of lens epithelial cells (LECs) can lead to posterior capsule opacification. This study was designed to determine the effect of signaling pathways that contribute to TGF-beta2-mediated EMT in human lens epithelial B-3 cells (HLEB-3 cells). METHODS: The HLEB-3 cells were cultured and ...
Minami Kohtaro - - 2008
Although accumulating evidence indicates that proliferation of pre-existing beta-cells is the major mechanism of the maintenance of postnatal beta-cell mass, new beta-cells can be generated from non-beta-cells under certain conditions in vitro. We have recently shown directly by Cre/loxP-based cell lineage tracing that adult mouse pancreatic acinar cells can be ...
Suckale Jakob - - 2008
The Islets of Langerhans form a nutrient sensing network spread throughout the pancreas. They are tightly connected to the source organ, the intestine, and the target organs--liver, muscle, and fat cells. The expression of a unique set of proteins enables beta cells, the most frequent islet cell type, to detect ...
He Yan - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kd (SNAP-25) regulates pancreatic islet beta-cell-delayed rectifier K channels (Kv2.1) in addition to insulin exocytosis. Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) and E (BoNT/E) cleavage and presumed deletion of SNAP-25 have been used to examine SNAP-25 function. We hypothesized that proteolytic products of SNAP-25 (206 amino acids) ...
Smelt M J - - 2008
Isolation of primary beta cells from other cells within in the pancreatic islets is of importance for many fields of islet research. However, up to now, no satisfactory method has been developed that gained high numbers of viable beta cells, without considerable alpha-cell contamination. In this study, we investigated whether ...
Tisch R - - 2008
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease in which the insulin producing beta cells are destroyed. The breakdown of beta cell-specific self-tolerance by T cells involves a number of dysregulated events intrinsic and extrinsic to T cells. Herein, we review the key mechanisms that drive beta cell ...
Aldibbiat A - - 2008
Generation of new beta-cells from the adult pancreas or the embryonic stem cells is being pursued by research groups worldwide. Success will be dependent on confirmation of true beta-cell phenotype evidenced by capacity to process and store proinsulin. The aim of these studies was to robustly determine endocrine characteristics of ...
Saudek Frantisek - - 2008
Diabetes is a disorder characterized by beta-cell loss or exhaustion and insulin deficiency. At present, knowledge is lacking on the underlying causes and for the therapeutic recovery of the beta-cell mass. A better understanding of diabetes pathogenesis could be obtained through exact monitoring of the fate of beta-cells under disease ...
Efrat Shimon - - 2008
Ex-vivo generation of human insulin-producing cells is considered a promising approach to providing an abundant source of cells for beta-cell replacement therapy in diabetes. Expansion of adult beta-cells from the limited number of islet donors is an attractive prospect. However, while evidence supports the replicative capacity of both rodent and ...
Jun Hee-Sook - - 2008
Diabetes mellitus results from inadequate mass of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by absolute loss of beta cells due to autoimmune-mediated destruction. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by relative deficiency of beta cells due to lack of compensation for insulin resistance. Restoration of deficient beta cell ...
Han Seung Jin - - 2008
AIM: We investigated whether rosiglitazone protects beta-cells from glucolipotoxicity directly. METHODS: INS-1 cells were incubated with 25 mM glucose and 0.5 mM palmitate in the absence or presence of 2.5 microM rosiglitazone. We evaluated caspase-3 expression and nuclear DAPI staining. An in vivo study was performed, in which 18-week-old Otsuka ...
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