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Liechti G W GW 1] Department of Microbiology and Immunology, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, Maryland 20814-4799, USA - - 2013
Peptidoglycan (PG), an essential structure in the cell walls of the vast majority of bacteria, is critical for division and maintaining cell shape and hydrostatic pressure. Bacteria comprising the Chlamydiales were thought to be one of the few exceptions. Chlamydia harbour genes for PG biosynthesis and exhibit susceptibility to 'anti-PG' ...
Gloeckl Sarina - - 2013
The mechanistic details of the pathogenesis of Chlamydia, an obligate intracellular pathogen of global importance, have eluded scientists due to the scarcity of traditional molecular genetic tools to investigate this organism. Here we report a chemical biology strategy that has uncovered the first essential protease for this organism. Identification and ...
Moore Elizabeth R - - 2012
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen, which lacks a system that allows genetic manipulation. Therefore, chlamydial researchers must manipulate the host cell to better understand chlamydial biology. Host-derived lipid acquisition is critical for chlamydial survival within the host. Hence, the ability to track and purify sphingolipids in/from chlamydial ...
Wenderska Iwona B - - 2012
In Streptococcus mutans, ComX, an alternative sigma factor, drives the transcription of the 'late-competence genes' required for genetic transformation. ComX activity is modulated by inputs from two signaling pathways, ComDE and ComRS, that respond to the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) and the SigX-inducing peptide (XIP), respectively. In particular, the comRS, encoding ...
Zhai Chunmei - - 2012
Quorum sensing (QS) is a system of cell-to-cell communication by means of intercellular signalling molecules to coordinate a set of targeted gene expression or repression in many Gram-negative bacteria; it plays important roles for bacteria in adaptation to adverse environmental conditions. In this study, we first demonstrated that Microcystis aeruginosa PCC-7820 ...
Lamanna Jason J - - 2012
: Clinical trials using stem cells to treat Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) have been promising. However, most of these trials lack an appropriate approach for tracking the cells. The goal of the present study is to develop and validate a rapidly translatable methodology for in vivo visualization and post-mortem identification ...
Toubi Elias - - 2012
Laquinimod is an orally administered drug under development for the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), lacking a fully elucidated mode of action. We assessed the immunomodulatory effects of laquinimod in vitro on human B cells from healthy or MS patients, cultured alone or with CD4(+) T cells. Laquinimod modulated B ...
Barkla Bronwyn J - - 2012
Plant epidermal trichomes are as varied in morphology as they are in function. In the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum specialized trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC) line the surface of leaves and stems, and increase dramatically in size and volume upon plant salt-treatment. These cells have been proposed to have roles ...
Ferrauto Giuseppe - - 2012
Conventional T(1) - or T(2) -MRI contrast agents do not allow to track the distribution of different cell populations simultaneously because the effects of relaxation enhancers are additive. Herein, it is shown that paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer agents offer the opportunity to visualize different cell populations in vitro and ...
Everest-Dass Arun V - - 2012
Mucosal epithelial surfaces, such as line the oral cavity, are common sites of microbial colonization by bacteria, yeast and fungi. The microbial interactions involve adherence between the glycans on the host cells and the carbohydrate binding proteins of the pathogen. Saliva constantly bathes the buccal cells of the epithelial surface ...
Mahjoub Moe R - - 2012
The primary cilium is a nexus of cell signaling, and ciliary dysfunction is associated with polycystic kidney disease, retinal degeneration, polydactyly, neural tube defects, and obesity (ciliopathies) [1]. Signaling molecules for cilium-associated pathways are concentrated in the cilium, and this is essential for efficient signaling. Cilia are nucleated from centrioles, ...
Bell Katharina - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Many contact lens wearers suffer from dry eye syndrome. Previous studies show significant changes in the protein composition of the tears depending on the lens-cleaning solution used. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect the influence of different lens solutions on conjunctival cells, cells also involved in ...
Holien Toril - - 2012
In multiple myeloma, c-MYC is activated and contributes to the malignant phenotype. Targeting c-MYC by short hairpin RNA induced cell death in myeloma cell lines however; cell lines are generated from samples taken in advanced stages of the disease and may not reflect patient cells adequately. In this study we ...
Zhang Li L Centers of Excellence in Environmental Toxicology and Cancer Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6084, - - 2012
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are environmental and tobacco carcinogens. Human aldo-keto reductases catalyze the metabolic activation of proximate carcinogenic PAH trans-dihydrodiols to yield electrophilic and redox-active o-quinones. Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dione a representative PAH o-quinone is reduced back to the corresponding catechol to generate a futile redox-cycle. We investigated whether sulfonation of PAH ...
Tep Samnang - - 2012
Within the biotechnology industry there is a continuous drive to better and more fully understand the biopharmaceutical process in order to achieve better process control. A method to monitor and quantitate glycomic changes that occur in CHO cells during a bioreactor campaign could help to address this. The goal of ...
Xu Jing - - 2012
Three new iridoids, jatairidoids A-C (1-3, resp.), have been isolated from the roots of Valeriana jatamansi (V. wallichii). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR). Compounds 1 and 2 are C(3)-epimers. The three compounds were evaluated for their neuroprotective effects against MPP(+) -induced neuronal ...
Davis Kimberley J - - 2012
The cytotoxicity of the metallointercalators, [Pt(5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)(trans-1R,2R-diaminocyclohexane)](2+) ([56MERR]) and [Pt(5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)(trans-1S,2S-diaminocyclohexane)](2+) ([56MESS]), towards A549 human lung cancer cells was examined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The IC(50) value obtained following exposure of A549 cells to [56MESS] for 4 h was approximately three times smaller than that obtained when [56MERR] was administered ...
Sahab Ziad Z Department of Pathology, Georgetown University Medical School, Washington, DC, - - 2012
The high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E5 protein (16E5) induces tumors in a transgenic mouse model and may contribute to early stages of cervical carcinogenesis. Although high-risk E5 expression is generally thought to be lost during the progression to cervical carcinoma following integration of HPV DNA into the host ...
Vasquez M I - - 2012
Ofloxacin (OFL), a broad-spectrum and widespread-used photolabile fluoroquinolone, is frequently found in treated wastewaters, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems leading to increasing concern during the past decades regarding its effects to the environment and human health. The elimination of OFL and other xenobiotics by the application of advanced oxidation processes using ...
Chen Xufeng - - 2012
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) have shown promise as candidate radiosensitizers for many types of cancers. However, the mechanisms of action are not well understood, and whether they could sensitize multiple myeloma (MM) to radiation therapy is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) at low concentrations ...
Lahaye Marc - - 2012
Cell wall composition, pectin and hemicellulose fine structure variation were assessed in peach and related genotypes with contrasted texture and fruit shape. Cell walls were prepared from four commercial peaches, eight genotypes from the Jalousia x Fantasia peach cross, and six genotypes from the Earlygold peach x Texas almond cross. ...
Campbell Graham R GR The Mitochondrial Research Group, Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, - - 2012
Mitochondrial DNA deletions (∆-mtDNA) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as ageing. Clonal expansion of ∆-mtDNA is the process by which a mutant mtDNA molecule increases to high levels within a single cell containing both wild-type and ...
Han Jia-Jia - - 2012
Xylem development is a process of xylem cell terminal differentiation, which includes initial cell division, cell expansion, secondary cell wall formation and programmed cell death (PCD). PCD in plants and apoptosis in animals share many common characteristics. Caspase-3, which displays DEVD specificity, is a crucial executioner during animal cells apoptosis. ...
Rzayev Zakir M O - - 2012
A novel carboxyl-trithiocarbonate functionalized polymer with a highly selective antitumor activity was synthesized by a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of maleic anhydride (MA) with benzoyl peroxide as an initiator and S-1-dodecyl-S-(α,α'-dimethyl-α″-acetic acid)trithiocarbonate as a RAFT agent with the aim to design and synthesize an effective anticancer agent with ...
Bauer Kerry M KM Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, - - 2012
A label-free mass spectrometric strategy was used to examine the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on the primary and metastatic colon carcinoma cell lines, SW480 and SW620, with and without treatment. 5-FU is the most common chemotherapeutic treatment for colon cancer. Pooled biological replicates were analyzed by nanoLC-MS/MS and protein quantification ...
Kořínek Marek - - 2013
We optimized and validated a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of six metabolites of homocysteine metabolism: homocysteine, methionine, cysteine, S-adenosylmethionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine and betaine. The detection limits for these metabolites were in the nanomolar range, and the intra- and inter-day precisions were lower than ...
Chen Lei - - 2012
Cell wall proteins (CWPs) play a vital role in the development of the different morphological stages including mycelium, fruiting body and sclerotium in mushrooms which are important human food sources. Using fractionation by detergents and reducing agents, mushroom cell wall fractions from the different developmental stages of Pleurotus tuber-regium (PTR) ...
Jansson Erik Tomas - - 2012
We have developed a microfluidic flow-cell where stepwise enzymatic digestion is performed on immobilized proteoliposomes and the resulting cleaved peptides are analysed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The flow-cell channels consist of two parallel gold surfaces mounted face-to-face with a thin spacer, and feature an inlet and an outlet ...
Almazi Juhura G - - 2012
PURPOSE: Human Raji cells treated with fludarabine nucleoside (2-FaraA, 3 μM) undergo apoptosis with accumulation of p53 in the nuclei as multiple phosphorylated isoforms and C-terminal truncated derivatives. Changes induced by 2-FaraA in the levels of p53, p63 and p73 in the nuclear, cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions have been determined ...
Reuel Nigel Forest - - 2012
Three-dimensional tracking of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) with an orbital tracking microscope is demonstrated. We determine the viscosity regime (above 250 cP) at which the rotational diffusion coefficient can be used for length estimation. We also demonstrate SWNT tracking within live HeLa cells and use these findings to spatially ...
Chevalier François - - 2012
Secreted proteins play a key role in cell signalling and communication. We recently showed that ionizing radiations induced a delayed cell death of breast cancer cells, mediated by the death receptor pathways through the expression of soluble forms of "death ligands". Using the same cell model, the objective of our ...
Sun Zheng - - 2012
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells show different responses to resveratrol, for unknown reasons. Our data from human medulloblastoma cells and primary cultures of rat brain cells revealed an inverse correlation of sulfonation activity with resveratrol sensitivities, providing a clue to the underlying mechanisms of the variable sensitivities of GBM cells to ...
Wang Feng - - 2012
The balance between mitochondrial fission and fusion is disrupted during mitosis, but the mechanism governing this phenomenon in plant cells remains enigmatic. Here, we used mitochondrial matrix-localized Kaede (mt-Kaede) to analyze the dynamics of mitochondrial fission in BY-2 suspension cells. Analysis of the photoactivatable fluorescence of mt-Kaede suggested that the ...
Soroka Joanna - - 2012
Comment on: Soroka J, et al. Mol Cell 2012; 45:517-28.
Fukano Yasufumi - - 2012
Aim: We investigated the heterogeneity of tafluprost metabolism in primary human hepatocytes at a single-cell level by live single-cell mass spectrometry (MS). Materials & methods: Picoliter volumes of cytoplasm were analyzed by nano-electrospray ionization MS in order to obtain single-cell metabolite profiles. The subcellular components of a single tafluprost-treated human ...
Barr Tom A TA Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. - - 2012
B cells have paradoxical roles in autoimmunity, exerting both pathogenic and protective effects. Pathogenesis may be antibody independent, as B cell depletion therapy (BCDT) leads to amelioration of disease irrespective of autoantibody ablation. However, the mechanisms of pathogenesis are poorly understood. We demonstrate that BCDT alleviates central nervous system autoimmunity ...
Park Hyeon-Soo - - 2012
Lonicera japonica Thunb. (L. japonica T.) has been used in Korean traditional medicine for long time because of its anti-cancer and hepatic protective effect. In this study, we investigated polyphenolic extract in L. japonica T. using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and its anti-cancer effect on ...
Rosenkranz P - - 2012
Two cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO(2) NPs) and one micro-sized CeO(2) particle were thoroughly characterized in their pristine form, in water and in cell culture medium. The particles were tested for cytotoxicity to the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell line or the RTG-2 rainbow trout gonadal cell line by means of four ...
Dhondge Alka - - 2012
PURPOSE: There are many arguments on the carcinogenic potential of bitumen extract. The mechanism of bitumen-induced damage is not well understood at the molecular level. Therefore, in the present study, cell-transforming and tumor-inducing potential of bitumen extract was studied using in vitro [human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells] and in vivo [nude ...
Mann Monica K - - 2012
A dual role of B cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of the human autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS), has been established. In the first role, B cells contribute to the pathogenesis of EAE through the production of anti-myelin antibodies that contribute to demyelination. On the contrary, ...
Ma Hai-Ying - - 2012
Three new triterpenoid derivatives, 3-O-β-D: -glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxtriol (1), 3-formyloxy-20-O-β-D: -glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxtriol (2) and 26-hydroxyl-24(E)-20(S)-protopanaxtriol (3), along with six known ginsenosides, were isolated from leaves of Panax ginseng. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis (IR, 1D and 2D NMR, HRESI-MS). Compounds 1-3 exhibited various degree of cytotoxicity towards human ...
Al-Quadan Tasneem - - 2012
Legionella pneumophila proliferates within various protists and metazoan cells, where a cadre of ∼300 effectors is injected into the host cell by the defect in organelle trafficking/intracellular multiplication (Dot/Icm) type IVB translocation system. Interkingdom horizontal gene transfer of genes of protists and their subsequent convergent evolution to become translocated effectors ...
Zhang Xian-Tao - - 2012
Two new cycloartane glycosides were isolated from the aerial parts of Thalictrum fortunei (Ranunculaceae). The chemical structures of these compounds were elucidated as 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1 → 4)-β-d-fucopyranosyl-(22S,24Z)-cycloart-24-en-3β,22,26,30-tetraol 26-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl (1 → 4)-β-d-fucopyranosyl-(22S,24Z)-cycloart-24-en-3β,22,26,29-tetraol 26-O-β-d-glucopyranoside by extensive 1D and 2D NMR methods, HR-ESI-MS, and hydrolysis. Their cytotoxic activities toward human hepatoma Bel-7402 cells, human colon ...
Gaude Nicole - - 2012
The development of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is a non-synchronous process with typical mycorrhizal root containing different symbiotic stages at one time. Methods providing cell type-specific resolution are therefore required to separate these stages and analyze each particular structure independently from each other. We established an experimental system for ...
Lisak Robert P - - 2012
B cells are important in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and some of the effects are not dependent on maturation of B cells into immunoglobulin (Ig) producing plasmablasts and plasma cells. B cells present antigen, activate T cells, and are involved in immunoregulation and cytokine secretion. To determine if ...
Raffa V - - 2012
Irreversible lethal electroporation (IRE) is a new non-thermal ablation modality that uses short pulses of high amplitude static electric fields (up 1000 V/cm) to create irreversible pores in the cell membrane, thus, causing cell death. Recently, IRE has emerged as a promising clinical modality for cancer disease treatment. Here, we investigated ...
Chan Hsiu-Hui - - 2012
Two new drimane-type compounds, nigrofomins A ( 1) and B ( 2), possessing a rare dioxabicyclooctane moiety, were purified from the fruiting bodies of NIGROFOMES MELANOPORUS. Their structures were determined using 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS spectroscopic analyses. In addition, 1 was established by X-ray crystallographic studies. Both nigrofomins A ( ...
Shen Shuo - - 2012
Five new steroidal saponins, Pallidifloside D (1), Pallidifloside E (2), Pallidifloside G (5), Pallidifloside H (6) and Pallidifloside I (7), together with seven other steroidal saponins (3, 4, 8-12) were isolated from the dry bulbs of Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk. Their structures were established by spectroscopic techniques (IR, MS, 1D and ...
Disanto G G Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford, - - 2012
Understanding the pathogenesis of complex immunologic disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) is challenging. Abnormalities in many different cell types are observed in the immune system and CNS of patients with MS and the identification of the primary and secondary events is difficult. Recent studies suggest that the model of ...
Tian Junmian - - 2012
Five new carboline alkaloids, tunicoidines A-E ( 1- 5), and two known carboline alkaloids, 1-acetyl- β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid ( 6) and 1-acetyl-3-carbomethoxyl- β-carboline ( 7), were isolated for the first time from the root of PSAMMOSILENE TUNICOIDES. The structures of the new carboline alkaloids were established on the basis of 1D- ...
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