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Obioha, Fidelis I; University ...
Cells of<i> E.coli</i> B/r were x-irradiated (330Gy) in the presence of oxygen and immediately incubated in a non-lethal concentration of penicillin (10u/ml).This caused enhanced growth of the cell into filaments which later disintegrated (ghosts) and failed to form colonies. Irradiation (950Gy) of these cells under anoxic conditions and incubation in ...
Borgdorff, Viola
In this thesis the role of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) in the cellular response to several genotoxic agents is described. We show that MMR plays an important role in the protection against UVC-induced mutagenesis in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. UVC was shown to induce six times more mutations in ...
Berry C C - - 2006
Until now, nanotopography has been considered in 2D construct designs. This has been due to fabrication limitations with traditional lithographic processes relying on the ability to focus radiation that will expose a radiation sensitive resist (e.g. photolithography and electron beam lithography). More recently, alternative methods that offer rapid and cheap ...
Little John B - - 2006
Traditional thinking has been that the biological effects of ionizing radiation occur in irradiated cells as a consequence of the DNA damage they incur. This implies that (1) biological effects occur only in irradiated cells, (2) radiation traversal through the nucleus of the cell is a prerequisite to produce a ...
Urashima Tetsuro - - 2006
To clarify the contribution of apoptosis to cell death in four human solid tumor cell lines, clonogenic cell survival (indicator of radiosensitivity) and induction of caspase-3 (CASP-3)/caspase-3-like proteases (CASP-3LP) and the production of DNA fragmentation (markers for apoptosis) were studied in RKO, LS174T, MCF7 and TE671 cells exposed to DNA-incorporated ...
Hall Zach - - 2007
Johrei has been credited with healing thousands from radiation wounds after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs in 1945. This alternative medical therapy is becoming increasingly popular in the United States, as are other Energy Medicine modalities that purport to influence a universal healing energy. Human brain cells were cultured and ...
Bao Shideng - - 2006
Ionizing radiation represents the most effective therapy for glioblastoma (World Health Organization grade IV glioma), one of the most lethal human malignancies, but radiotherapy remains only palliative because of radioresistance. The mechanisms underlying tumour radioresistance have remained elusive. Here we show that cancer stem cells contribute to glioma radioresistance through ...
Panagopoulos Dimitris J - - 2007
In the present study, the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay--a well known technique widely used for detecting fragmented DNA in various types of cells--was used to detect cell death (DNA fragmentation) in a biological model, the early and mid stages of oogenesis of the insect Drosophila ...
Ahmad Mansur - - 2007
For successful tissue engineering in surgical radiotherapy patients, irradiated endothelial cells (EC) must form new blood vessels to nourish and build connections with the engineered segment. Therefore, it is critical to understand neovasculogenesis by irradiated EC. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of ionizing radiation on ...
Jaklevic Burnley - - 2006
Cell cycle checkpoints contribute to survival after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) by arresting the cell cycle and permitting repair. As such, yeast and mammalian cells lacking checkpoints are more sensitive to killing by IR. We reported previously that Drosophila larvae mutant for grp (encoding a homolog of Chk1) survive ...
Lu Hua-Rui - - 2006
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is involved in multi-pathways to respond to DNA damage. Lack of or inhibition of PARP-1 activity leads to slow progress of cell cycle and sensitization of cells to different stresses. Recently, it was reported that besides the Ku dependent main nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, there ...
Rajab Nor F - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Nuclear texture analysis measures phenotypic changes in chromatin distribution within a cell nucleus, while the alkaline Comet assay is a sensitive method for measuring the extent of DNA breakage in individual cells. The authors aim to use both methods to provide information about the sensitivity of cells to ionizing ...
Klising-Sireul Eve - - 2006
Experiments were designed to compare the transcriptional response to ionizing radiation (IR) of wild-type (WT) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) cells. mRNA levels were assessed 2, 4 and 24 h after exposure to equitoxic doses using cDNA microarrays. Data reveal distinct patterns of gene expression between AT and WT cells since ...
Sutherland John C - - 2006
The probability of survival of cells or viruses exposed to various forms of radiation is expressed as a function of the probability that a given cell will receive a certain number of lethal damages, the average probability that each such damage is repairable, and an upper bound on the repair ...
Balcer-Kubiczek Elizabeth K - - 2007
PURPOSE: The present study was designed to investigate the ability of N-[4-(5-bromo-2-pyrimidyloxy)-3-methylphenyl]-(dimemethylamino)-benzoylphenylurea (dimemethylamino benzoylphenylurea; BPU) to sensitize cells to radiation and to examine the relationship between phenotype versus survival, DNA damage, apoptosis, or cell cycle progression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. METHODS: Asynchronous cultures of three NSCLC ...
Toiyama Yuji - - 2007
AIM: This study was performed to investigate the range of optimal concentration and mechanisms of paclitaxel (PXL) radio-enhancement in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines HT29 and MKN45. METHODS: Cell growth inhibition by PXL pretreatment at various concentrations (0-10 microM) followed by irradiation was investigated using a modified MTT assay. To investigate ...
Zhang Bei - - 2006
The anticancer agent genistein inhibits cell growth of tumor cell lines from various malignancies. In our study, we investigated the effectiveness of combined treatment of ionizing radiation (IR) with genistein on cervical HeLa cells and its possible mechanism. It was found that the inhibitory rate in cells with combined treatment ...
Nylund Reetta - - 2006
We have examined in vitro cell response to mobile phone radiation (900 MHz GSM signal) using two variants of human endothelial cell line: EA.hy926 and EA.hy926v1. Gene expression changes were examined in three experiments using cDNA Expression Arrays and protein expression changes were examined in ten experiments using 2-DE and ...
Okunaga Tomohiro - - 2006
Radiotherapy is the primary and most important adjuvant therapy for malignant gliomas. Although the mechanism of radiation resistance in gliomas has been studied for decades, it is still not clear how the resistance is related with functions of molecular chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum. Calreticulin (CRT) is a Ca(2+)-binding molecular ...
Ohnishi Ken - - 2006
NBS1 is essential for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in yeast and higher vertebrate cells. In this study, we examined whether suppressed NBS1 expression by small interference RNA (siRNA) could enhance radiation sensitivity in cancer cells with different TP53 status. We used human non-small cell lung cancer ...
Whitehead Timothy D - - 2006
Experiments with cultured C3H 10T 1/2 cells were performed to determine if exposure to cell phone radiofrequency (RF) radiations induce changes in gene expression. Following a 24 h exposure of 5 W/kg specific adsorption rate, RNA was extracted from the exposed and sham control cells for microarray analysis on Affymetrix ...
Hu Meiduo - - 2006
In this study, we evaluated the ability of anti-p21 antibodies conjugated to 17-mer peptides [GRKKRRQRRRPPQGYGC] harboring the membrane-translocating and nuclear import sequences [underlined] of HIV-1 tat protein to inhibit the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(WAF-1/Cip-1) (p21) and differentially sensitize MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 human breast cancer (BC) cells to the antiproliferative effects ...
Alonso-Sáez Laura - - 2006
We studied the effects of natural sunlight on heterotrophic marine bacterioplankton in short-term experiments. We used a single-cell level approach involving flow cytometry combined with physiological probes and microautoradiography to determine sunlight effects on the activity and integrity of the cells. After 4 h of sunlight exposure, most bacterial cells ...
Adhikari, J. S.
The AT specific minor grove DNA binding ligands bisbenzimidazole derivatives like hoechst-33342 and hoechst-33258 which scavenge free radicals and stabilize macromolecular structure have been shown to afford radioprotection by reducing the induction of DNA damage. However, their ability to inhibit topoisomerases I & II, which play important roles in damage ...
Vorotnikova Ekaterina - - 2006
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine the optimal time of exposure and dose of heat and ionizing radiation that results in the killing of human cancer cells in vitro via apoptosis vs. necrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human mammary carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma and normal bovine capillary endothelial (BCE) ...
Chakravarti Arnab - - 2006
PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which temozolomide enhances radiation response in glioblastoma cells. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using a panel of four primary human glioblastoma cell lines with heterogeneous O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) protein expression, normal human astrocytes, and U87 xenografts, we investigated (a) the relationship of MGMT status ...
Hau Pok Man - - 2006
Polyploidization occurs during normal development as well as during tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated if the responses to genotoxic stress in cancer cells are influenced by the ploidy. Prolonged treatment of Hep3B cells with the spindle inhibitor nocodazole resulted in mitotic slippage, followed by re-replication of the DNA to ...
Laptev R - - 2006
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves a two-stage process. A light-absorbing photosensitiser (Ps) is endocytosed and then stimulated by light, inducing transfer of energy to a cytoplasmic acceptor molecule and the generation of reactive oxygen species that initiate damage to cellular membrane components and cytolysis. The expanded use of PDT in the ...
DeMasters, Gerald
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and vitamin D3 analogs such as EB 1089 potentiate the response to ionizing radiation in breast tumor cells. The current studies address the basis for this interaction by evaluating DNA damage and repair, the impact of interference with reactive oxygen generation, the involvement of p53 and caspase ...
Kato Takamitsu A - - 2006
We have investigated the use of the gamma-H2AX assay, reflecting the presence of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), as a possible means for identifying individuals who may be intermediate with respect to the extremes of hyper-radiosensitivity phenotypes. In this case, cells were studied from mice that were normal (Atm+/+), heterozygous (Atm+/-), ...
Li W - - 2006
The ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) protein, which is mutated in the inherited disease ataxia telangiectasia (AT), is a key activator of cell cycle checkpoint, initiating cell response to DNA damage and ensuring genomic stability. AT cells exhibit defects in all cellular responses to ionizing radiation and radiomimetic chemicals. Inactivation of ATM ...
Kalen Amanda L - - 2006
This study investigates the hypothesis that Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) influences cancer cell radiosensitivity by regulating the G(2)-checkpoint pathway. Human oral squamous carcinoma cells (SCC25) stably overexpressing MnSOD were irradiated (6 Gy) and assayed for cell survival, cell-cycle phase distributions, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) pulse-chase flow-cytometric measurements of cell-cycle phase transits. Electron ...
Benais-Pont Gaëlle - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could enhance the radiosensitivity of three different human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. To understand the underlying mechanisms, the effects of omega-3 PUFAs on the cell growth, survival, and apoptosis were evaluated alone or in combination with an antioxidant (vitamin E) ...
Daigaku Yasukazu - - 2006
A CAN1/can1Delta heterozygous allele that determines loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was used to study recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light at different points in the cell cycle. With this allele, recombination events can be detected as canavanine-resistant mutations after exposure of cells to UV radiation, since ...
Houston Peter L - - 2006
Cells repair most double-strand breaks (DSBs) that arise during replication or by environmental insults through homologous recombination, a high-fidelity process critical for maintenance of genomic integrity. However, neither the detailed mechanism of homologous recombination nor the specific roles of critical components of the recombination machinery-such as Bloom and Werner syndrome ...
German Matthew J - - 2006
PURPOSE: High-resolution synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis was used to investigate the characteristics of putative adult stem cell (SC), transiently amplified (TA) cell, and terminally differentiated (TD) cell populations of the corneal epithelium. METHODS: Spectra of individual cells in situ in cryosections of bovine ...
Pandita Tej K - - 2006
Eukaryotic cells have evolved DNA damage response mechanisms utilizing proficient DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints in order to maintain genomic stability. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rad9 gene was initially identified as encoding a cell cycle checkpoint protein. When the mammalian homologue of S. pombe Rad9 was inactivated, however, chromosomal instability ...
Zhou Guangming - - 2006
To investigate the protective effects of melatonin against high-LET ionizing radiation, V79 Chinese hamster cells were irradiated with 100 keV/microm carbon beam. Parallel experiments were performed with 200 kV X-rays. To avoid the impact from extra solvents, melatonin was dissolved directly in culture medium. Cells were cultured in melatonin medium ...
Chen Yun - - 2006
BACKGROUND: GL331 is a topoisomerase II inhibitor and its effects on cultured human T98G glioma cells were investigated in this study. The effects of combined GL331 and radiation treatment on human T98G glioma cells were also examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The glioma cells were treated with GL331 and the clonogenic ...
Warren Graham - - 2006
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of MG-132, a broad spectrum proteasome inhibitor, to selectively enhance radiation sensitivity in prostate cancer without affecting normal surrounding urothelial tissue. PC3 prostate cancer cells and normal URO-tsa bladder epithelial cells were treated with or without MG-132 and exposed to ...
Otsuka Shinji - - 2006
The underlying mechanisms associated with radiation-induced cognitive impairments remain elusive but may involve changes in hippocampal neural precursor cells. Proliferating neural precursor cells have been shown to be extremely sensitive to X rays, either from damage to the cells themselves and/or through microenvironmental factors, including the anatomical relationship with the ...
Wang Zhuan-Zi ZZ Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. - - 2006
To determine whether the number of non-rejoining G2-chromatid breaks can predict the radiosensitivity of human cell lines. Cell lines of human ovary carcinoma cells (HO8910), human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and liver cells (L02) were irradiated with a range of doses and assessed both of cell survival and non-rejoining G2-chromatid breaks ...
Nakamura Kyoko - - 2006
53BP1 (p53 binding protein) is a BRCT domain-containing protein that is rapidly recruited to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). To investigate the role of 53BP1 in the DNA damage response, we generated 53BP1(-/-) cells from the chicken DT40 cell line. As in mammalian cells, mutation of 53BP1 increased cellular sensitivity ...
Roy Kanaklata - - 2006
Glioblastomas are among the malignancies most resistant to radiation therapy. In contrast, cells lacking the ATM protein are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The relationship between ATM protein expression and radiosensitivity in 3 glioma cell lines was examined. T98G cells exhibited normal levels of ATM protein, whereas U118 and U87 ...
Stewart R D - - 2006
Microbeam, medium-transfer and low-dose experiments have demonstrated that intercellular signals can initiate many of the same biological events and processes as direct exposure to ionizing radiation. These phenomena cast doubt on cell-autonomous modes of action and the linear, no-threshold carcinogenesis paradigm. To account for the effects of intercellular signals, new ...
Cells form closely linked straight chains. Long, delicate threads radiate form the valve margins. Valve diameter 34-38 microns.
Kanao Tomoko - - 2006
We previously reported that to induce an early emergence effect with low-dose X-irradiation in Drosophila, exposure during the prepupae stage is necessary. The present study examined the mechanism by which low-dose radiation rapidly eliminates larval cells and activates the formation of the imaginal discs during metamorphosis. Upon exposure to 0.5 ...
Evans Paul M PM Institute of Child Health, University College London, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, - - 2006
Null mutations in Artemis confer a condition described as RS-SCID, in which patients display radiosensitivity combined with severe combined immunodeficiency. Here, we characterize the defect in Artemis in a patient who displayed progressive combined immunodeficiency (CID) and elevated lymphocyte apoptosis. The patient is a compound heterozygote with novel mutations in ...
Manti Lorenzo - - 2006
This review addresses the purported interplay between actual or simulated weightlessness and cellular response to ionizing radiation. Although weightlessness is known to alter several cellular functions and to affect signaling pathways implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation and death, its influence on cellular radiosensitivity has so far proven elusive. Renewed controversy ...
Sonnemann Jürgen - - 2006
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) are a promising new class of antineoplastic agents with the ability to induce apoptosis and growth arrest of cancer cells. In addition, HDIs have been suggested to enhance the anticancer efficacy of other therapeutic regimens, such as ionizing radiation (IR) or chemotherapy. The objective of this ...
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