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Results 351 - 400 of 1819
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Djuzenova Cholpon S - - 2008
In order to enhance the cytotoxicity of radiation, camptothecin (CPT), an inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase I, was added to the cultured glioma cell lines before irradiation (IR). Radiation responses of five glioblastoma cell lines (U87-MG, U373-MG, GHE, GaMG and SNB-19) treated with CPT were analyzed in terms of cell and ...
Buttiglione M - - 2007
Many environmental signals, including ionizing radiation and UV rays, induce activation of Egr-1 gene, thus affecting cell growth and apoptosis. The paucity and the controversial knowledge about the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMF) exposure of nerve cells prompted us to investigate the bioeffects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma ...
Mendonca Marc S - - 2007
Human cancers have multiple alterations in cell signaling pathways that promote resistance to cytotoxic therapy such as X rays. Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone that has been shown to inhibit several pro-survival cell signaling pathways, induce apoptosis, and enhance chemotherapy-induced cell killing. We investigated whether parthenolide would enhance X-ray-induced cell ...
Fernandes B F - - 2008
PURPOSE: To evaluate the proliferation rates of five human uveal melanoma (UM) cell lines after treatment with amfenac, a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, and subsequent radiation exposure. METHODS: Five human UM cell lines (92.1, SP6.5, MKT-BR, OCM-1, and UW-1) and one human fibroblast cell line (BJ) were incubated with amfenac. Treated ...
Yadav Abhay Singh - - 2008
The health concerns have been raised following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephones throughout the world. This investigation had been taken, with the motive to find out whether mobile phone radiations cause any in vivo effects on the frequency of micronucleated exfoliated cells in the exposed ...
Banuelos Carmen A - - 2007
PCI-24781 is a novel broad spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitor that is currently in phase I clinical trials. The ability of PCI-24781 to act as a radiation sensitizer and the mechanisms of radiosensitization were examined. Exponentially growing human SiHa cervical and WiDr colon carcinoma cells were exposed to 0.1 to 10 ...
Shen Wenyan - - 2007
Benzo(a)pyrene is an ubiquitous environmental carcinogen produced during incomplete combustion of organic substances, and anti-benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), is the most carcinogenic form of its ultimate metabolites. The goal of this study was to examine the response of human amniotic epithelial FL cells to increasing concentrations of BPDE and to find potential ...
Kitano, Masaharu
Movements of stomata responding to visible and infrared radiations were analyzed in an intact cucumber leaf by applying an improved heat balance method for evaluation of transpiration rate and leaf conductance. In step response to the visible radiation, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) induced dynamics of water balance in the whole ...
Sudo Hitomi - - 2007
Genomic instability is considered a hallmark of carcinogenesis, and dysfunction of DNA repair and cell cycle regulation in response to DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation are thought to be important factors in the early stages of genomic instability. We performed cell-based functional screening using an RNA interference library targeting ...
Simoens Cindy - - 2008
PURPOSE: Vinflunine is an innovative microtubule inhibitor belonging to the vinca alkaloid class that possesses radiosensitising properties, which could lead to promising activity in chemoradiation studies in the clinic. METHOD: In the current study, different incubation times with vinflunine, immediately before radiation and different time intervals between vinflunine treatment and ...
Natarajan M - - 2007
Studying the potential role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha in the initiation of genomic instability is necessary to understand whether TNFalpha can serve as a signalling mediator of radiation-induced genomic instability in non-irradiated bystander cells. In this study, we examined whether TNFalpha could initiate processes through oxidative stress signalling that ...
Zou Huichao - - 2007
Glioblastoma multiform is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults, but there remains no effective therapeutic approach. 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), which is a naturally occurring metabolite of 17beta-estradiol, was shown to enhance radiotherapeutic effect in certain tumors; however, whether 2-ME can also enhance the sensitivity of glioma cells to ...
Ma Hong-Bing - - 2007
AIM: To construct pcDNA3.1-Egr.1p-p16 recombinant plasmid and investigate the expression of p16 in pancreatic cancer JF305 cells induced by radiation and the feasibility of gene radiotherapy for pancreatic carcinoma. METHODS: Human p16 cDNA was ligated to the downstream of Egr-1 promotor to construct pcDNA3.1-Egr.1p-p16 plasmid by restriction enzyme digested. The ...
Philips Neena - - 2007
With aging and cancer there is increased expression or activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade and remodel the structural extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition, exposure of skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (photoaging) leads to loss of cell viability, membrane damage, and deposition of excessive elastotic material. Lutein has antioxidant, ...
Short Susan C - - 2007
We examined DNA damage responses and repair in four human glioma cell lines (A7, U87, T98G, and U373) and normal human astrocytes (NHAs) after clinically relevant radiation doses to establish whether we could identify differences among them that might suggest new approaches to selective radiosensitization. We used phosphorylation of histone ...
Fayolle Caroline - - 2008
Epidemiological and biological studies indicate that solar UVB radiation is involved in cutaneous malignant melanoma etiology. Indeed, melanocytes are very frequently exposed to solar UV radiation, which induces cell damage and may promote cell transformation. We previously showed that melanocytes and melanoma cells exposed to UVB radiation activates a p53-independent ...
Chiu Shu-Jun - - 2007
Securin has been shown to regulate genomic stability; nevertheless, the role of securin on the cytotoxicity after radiation is still unclear. Exposure to 1-10 Gy X-ray radiation induced cell death in RKO colorectal cancer cells. The protein levels of securin, p53, and p21 were elevated by radiation. The proteins of ...
Bladen Catherine L - - 2007
Quantitative studies of radiation cytotoxicity have been performed mostly in cells in culture. For a variety of reasons, however, the response of cells in culture may not reflect the response for cells in situ in a whole organism. We describe here an approach for quantification of radiation-induced cell death in ...
Liebermann Dan A DA Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, and Department of Biochemistry, Temple University School of Medicine, 3307 N Broad St. Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. - - 2007
Gadd45 genes have been implicated in stress signaling in response to physiological or environmental stressors, which results in either cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, cell survival and senescence, or apoptosis. Evidence accumulated implies that Gadd45 proteins function as stress sensors is mediated by a complex interplay of physical interactions with ...
Hamada Nobuyuki - - 2008
Ionizing radiation-induced genomic instability has been demonstrated in a variety of endpoints such as delayed reproductive death, chromosome instability and mutations, which occurs in the progeny of survivors many generations after the initial insult. Dependence of these effects on the linear energy transfer (LET) of the radiation is incompletely characterized; ...
Kowyama, Yasuo
The present study was carried out to examine the varietal difference in radiosensitivity of callus cells derived from root-tip segments of six rice varieties. The induced callus cells which were subcultured through three transfers were subjected to X-rays of 2.5 to 15kR at mid log phase of each variety. In ...
Sokolov Mykyta V - - 2007
The recent years have witnessed a rapid accumulation of experimental data showing that ionizing radiation elicits a plethora of biological effects in unirradiated cells receiving bystander signals from hit cells. This so-called radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) manifests in various ways including changes in gene expression, genetic and epigenetic alterations, as ...
Richter Peter R - - 2007
Diurnal vertical migration in the water column and the impact of solar radiation on motility were investigated in three marine phytoplankton species: Tetraselmis suecica, Dunaliella salina and Gymnodinium chlorophorum. Cells were exposed to solar radiation either in ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) transparent Plexiglas tubes (45 cm length, 10 cm ...
Wang Lu - - 2007
PURPOSE: In order to identify supportive evidence of radiation exposure to cells, we analyzed the relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and the induction of deletions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using human hepatoblastoma cell line, HepG2 and its derivatives, HepG2-A, -89 and -400, established after long term ...
Kataoka Yasushi Y Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, - - 2007
Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) were exposed to ionizing radiation at doses ranging from 0 to 16 Gy in either the presence or absence of the active thiol forms of amifostine (WR1065), phosphonol (WR255591), N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), captopril or mesna. Each of these clinically relevant thiols, administered to HMEC at a ...
Min Sang Hee SH Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, - - 2008
Pemetrexed is a new generation antifolate approved for the treatment of mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer. Caffeine is known to augment radiation or chemotherapeutic drug-induced cell killing. The current study addresses the impact of caffeine on the activity of pemetrexed in mesothelioma cell lines. Caffeine enhanced pemetrexed activity in ...
Carapancea Mia - - 2007
Increased expression and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases frequently occur in human brain tumors, mediating a variety of growth-promoting pathways and leading to radioresistance; however, little is known about their motogenic potency relative to one another. In this study, we found co-expression of Insulin like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and ...
MATSUZAWA, Shin-ichiro
In order to improve the antenna gain, a composite right/left-handed (CRLH) leaky-wave (LW) antenna composed of symmetrical unit cells with short stubs terminated by vertical vias is designed. The use of symmetrical unit cells suppresses the cross-polarization of radiation to less than 23 dB. By comparing the measured radiation characteristics ...
Persaud Rudranath - - 2007
Radiation-induced bystander mutagenesis at a relatively low dose range was investigated using low LET beta-particles in a three-dimensional cell culture model. CHO cells were labeled with 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 5.0 muCi tritiated thymidine ((3)HdTTP) for 12 h and subsequently incubated with A(L) cells for 24 h at 11 degrees ...
Williams Patrick D - - 2007
Although extensive information is available on the effect ultraviolet (UV) radiation has on Gram-negative marine bacteria, there is a scarcity of data concerning UV radiation and Gram-positive marine bacteria. The focus of this paper is on Microbacterium maritypicum, with the Gram-negative Vibrio natriegens being used as a standard of comparison. ...
Liang Li L Department of Genetics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, United - - 2007
There are a variety of mechanisms and pathways whereby cells safeguard their genomes in the face of environmental insults that damage DNA. Whether each of these pathways is equally robust at specific developmental stages in mammals and whether they are also modulated in a tissue-specific manner, however, are unclear. Here, ...
Höytö A - - 2007
PURPOSE: The effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on cellular ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity were studied in fibroblasts, two neural cell lines and primary astrocytes. Several exposure times and exposure levels were used, and the fields were either unmodulated or modulated according to the characteristics of the Global System for Mobile ...
Blickwedehl Jennifer - - 2007
Proteasome activator 200 kDa (PA200) forms nuclear foci after exposure of cells to ionizing radiation and enhances proteasome activity in vitro. Within cells, it is unclear whether PA200 responds to radiation alone or in association with proteasomes. In the present study, we identified three forms of cellular PA200 (termed PA200i, ...
Wang Zi-Bing - - 2007
The aim of the study was to investigate the sensitivity of AHH-1 human lymphoblastoid cells to radiation and its relevance to intracellular events, specifically alteration in cellular energy-producing systems. AHH-1 human lymphoblastoid cells were irradiated with 6 Gy of gamma radiation, and then were collected at the indicated time points. ...
Haydont Valérie V Laboratoire UPRES EA 27-10, Radiosensibilite des tumeurs et tissus sains, Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire/Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, - - 2007
Recent advances in cell and molecular radiobiology clearly showed that tissue response to radiation injury cannot be restricted to a simple cell-killing process, but depends upon continuous and integrated pathogenic processes, involving cell differentiation and crosstalk between the various cellular components of the tissue within the extracellular matrix. Thus, the ...
da Silva Ana Elisa - - 2007
This study aimed to investigate the effect of radiation from panoramic radiographs on the cells of the lateral border of the tongue by evaluating nuclear changes. Forty-two patients were included: 22 had one radiograph (Group I), and 20 required a repeat radiograph due to error in the first exposure (Group ...
Miyazaki Noriyuki - - 2007
The protective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) against cell killing by (137)Cs gamma-rays were investigated in XRCC4-deficient cell line M10, XRCC4-complemented M10 and the parental mouse leukemia cell line L5178Y. Cell survival was determined by the colony-forming ability. M10 cells were more sensitive to gamma-ray-induced cell death than L5178Y and ...
Gewirtz David A - - 2007
Current studies to define the mechanism by which vitamin D3 and analogs of vitamin D3 enhance the response to ionizing radiation in breast tumor cells suggest that these effects are mediated, in large part, through the promotion of autophagic cell death. The residual surviving cell population remains in a senescent, ...
Yang H - - 2007
At the low particle fluences of radiation to which astronauts are exposed in space, "non-targeted" effects such as the bystander response may have increased significance. The radiation-induced bystander effect is the occurrence of biological responses in unirradiated cells near to or sharing medium with cells traversed by radiation. The objectives ...
Francis Richard - - 2007
Chromosomal translocations are a hallmark of hematopoietic malignancies. The initial molecular events or pathways that lead to translocations in hematopoietic cells are largely unknown, particularly in the stem cell-enriched population postulated to be the initial target for these events. We used in vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells ...
Sagan Daniel - - 2007
The molecular causes for enhanced radiosensitivity of Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome cells are unclear, especially as repair of DNA damage is hardly impeded in these cells. We clearly demonstrate that radiation hypersensitivity is accompanied by enhanced gamma-radiation-induced apoptosis in NBS1 deficient lymphoblastoid cell lines. Differences in the apoptotic behavior of NBS1 ...
Yee Su-Bog - - 2007
HS-1200, a synthetic chenodeoxycholic acid derivative, has cytotoxic activity in various human cancer cells. The present study was undertaken to examine whether HS-1200 sensitizes radiation-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. Clonogenic assay elucidated that the combination treatment with HS-1200 and radiation induced more cytotoxic effects than the radiation ...
Brush James - - 2007
Irradiation perturbs the homeostatic network linking parenchymal, mesenchymal, and vascular cells within tissues. Normal communication between cells through soluble, matrix, and cell-associated ligands and receptors is altered so as to set in motion a seemingly inexorable series of events aimed at tissue regeneration and healing. In late responding normal tissues ...
Chen Jennifer K - - 2007
PURPOSE: Treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) is limited by therapeutic ratio; therefore, successful therapy must be specifically cytotoxic to cancer cells. Hypoxic cells are ubiquitous in GBM, and resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, and, thus, are logical targets for gene therapy. In this study, we investigated whether cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) ...
Wilson G D - - 2007
Cell kinetic concepts have pervaded radiation therapy since the early part of the 20th century and have been instrumental in the development of modern radiotherapy. In this review, the fundamental radiobiological concepts that have been developed based on cell kinetic knowledge will be revisited and discussed in the context of ...
Tvegård Tonje - - 2007
Ultraviolet irradiation of fission yeast cells in G1 phase induced a delay in chromatin binding of replication initiation factors and, consistently, a transient delay in S-phase entry. The cell cycle delay was totally dependent on the Gcn2 kinase, a sensor of the nutritional status, and was accompanied by phosphorylation of ...
Kato Takamitsu A - - 2007
Cells from unaffected parents of retinoblastoma (RB) patients were previously shown to be hypersensitive to radiation induced G(1) arrest and cell killing [1]. The hypersensitivity was similar to that reported for cells from ATM heterozygotes. The latter was consistent with a mild DNA DSB rejoining defect which we demonstrated using ...
Sturgeon Christopher M - - 2007
Chemical inhibitors of the G2 checkpoint can sensitize p53-defective cancer cells to DNA damage and several are in preclinical or clinical development. These compounds are commonly thought to increase killing at the G2/M transition by forcing cells to divide with unrepaired DNA. We examined the effects of the ATM/ATR inhibitor ...
Popova L - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the possible genotoxic effect of radiation exposure for dental diagnostic purposes as measured by the formation of micronuclei. METHODS: The micronucleus test was applied to buccal epithelium cells, which are target cells for dental radiography. Specimens of exfoliated buccal cells were collected from patients subjected to panoramic ...
Wu Feng - - 2007
The purpose of the present work was to examine gene expression patterns in a rat keratinocyte line exposed to a (56)Fe ion beam. The cells were exposed to 1.01 geV/nucleon (56)Fe ions generated by the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory facility. Data from Affymetrix rat microarrays (RAT 230_2) were processed by ...
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