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Results 351 - 400 of 1795
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Kataoka Yasushi - - 2007
Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) were exposed to ionizing radiation at doses ranging from 0 to 16 Gy in either the presence or absence of the active thiol forms of amifostine (WR1065), phosphonol (WR255591), N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), captopril or mesna. Each of these clinically relevant thiols, administered to HMEC at a ...
Min Sang Hee SH Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, - - 2008
Pemetrexed is a new generation antifolate approved for the treatment of mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer. Caffeine is known to augment radiation or chemotherapeutic drug-induced cell killing. The current study addresses the impact of caffeine on the activity of pemetrexed in mesothelioma cell lines. Caffeine enhanced pemetrexed activity in ...
Carapancea Mia - - 2007
Increased expression and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases frequently occur in human brain tumors, mediating a variety of growth-promoting pathways and leading to radioresistance; however, little is known about their motogenic potency relative to one another. In this study, we found co-expression of Insulin like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and ...
MATSUZAWA, Shin-ichiro
In order to improve the antenna gain, a composite right/left-handed (CRLH) leaky-wave (LW) antenna composed of symmetrical unit cells with short stubs terminated by vertical vias is designed. The use of symmetrical unit cells suppresses the cross-polarization of radiation to less than 23 dB. By comparing the measured radiation characteristics ...
Persaud Rudranath - - 2007
Radiation-induced bystander mutagenesis at a relatively low dose range was investigated using low LET beta-particles in a three-dimensional cell culture model. CHO cells were labeled with 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 5.0 muCi tritiated thymidine ((3)HdTTP) for 12 h and subsequently incubated with A(L) cells for 24 h at 11 degrees ...
Williams Patrick D - - 2007
Although extensive information is available on the effect ultraviolet (UV) radiation has on Gram-negative marine bacteria, there is a scarcity of data concerning UV radiation and Gram-positive marine bacteria. The focus of this paper is on Microbacterium maritypicum, with the Gram-negative Vibrio natriegens being used as a standard of comparison. ...
Liang Li - - 2007
There are a variety of mechanisms and pathways whereby cells safeguard their genomes in the face of environmental insults that damage DNA. Whether each of these pathways is equally robust at specific developmental stages in mammals and whether they are also modulated in a tissue-specific manner, however, are unclear. Here, ...
Höytö A - - 2007
PURPOSE: The effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on cellular ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity were studied in fibroblasts, two neural cell lines and primary astrocytes. Several exposure times and exposure levels were used, and the fields were either unmodulated or modulated according to the characteristics of the Global System for Mobile ...
Blickwedehl Jennifer - - 2007
Proteasome activator 200 kDa (PA200) forms nuclear foci after exposure of cells to ionizing radiation and enhances proteasome activity in vitro. Within cells, it is unclear whether PA200 responds to radiation alone or in association with proteasomes. In the present study, we identified three forms of cellular PA200 (termed PA200i, ...
Wang Zi-Bing - - 2007
The aim of the study was to investigate the sensitivity of AHH-1 human lymphoblastoid cells to radiation and its relevance to intracellular events, specifically alteration in cellular energy-producing systems. AHH-1 human lymphoblastoid cells were irradiated with 6 Gy of gamma radiation, and then were collected at the indicated time points. ...
Haydont Valérie - - 2007
Recent advances in cell and molecular radiobiology clearly showed that tissue response to radiation injury cannot be restricted to a simple cell-killing process, but depends upon continuous and integrated pathogenic processes, involving cell differentiation and crosstalk between the various cellular components of the tissue within the extracellular matrix. Thus, the ...
da Silva Ana Elisa - - 2007
This study aimed to investigate the effect of radiation from panoramic radiographs on the cells of the lateral border of the tongue by evaluating nuclear changes. Forty-two patients were included: 22 had one radiograph (Group I), and 20 required a repeat radiograph due to error in the first exposure (Group ...
Miyazaki Noriyuki - - 2007
The protective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) against cell killing by (137)Cs gamma-rays were investigated in XRCC4-deficient cell line M10, XRCC4-complemented M10 and the parental mouse leukemia cell line L5178Y. Cell survival was determined by the colony-forming ability. M10 cells were more sensitive to gamma-ray-induced cell death than L5178Y and ...
Gewirtz David A - - 2007
Current studies to define the mechanism by which vitamin D3 and analogs of vitamin D3 enhance the response to ionizing radiation in breast tumor cells suggest that these effects are mediated, in large part, through the promotion of autophagic cell death. The residual surviving cell population remains in a senescent, ...
Yang H - - 2007
At the low particle fluences of radiation to which astronauts are exposed in space, "non-targeted" effects such as the bystander response may have increased significance. The radiation-induced bystander effect is the occurrence of biological responses in unirradiated cells near to or sharing medium with cells traversed by radiation. The objectives ...
Francis Richard - - 2007
Chromosomal translocations are a hallmark of hematopoietic malignancies. The initial molecular events or pathways that lead to translocations in hematopoietic cells are largely unknown, particularly in the stem cell-enriched population postulated to be the initial target for these events. We used in vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells ...
Sagan Daniel - - 2007
The molecular causes for enhanced radiosensitivity of Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome cells are unclear, especially as repair of DNA damage is hardly impeded in these cells. We clearly demonstrate that radiation hypersensitivity is accompanied by enhanced gamma-radiation-induced apoptosis in NBS1 deficient lymphoblastoid cell lines. Differences in the apoptotic behavior of NBS1 ...
Yee Su-Bog - - 2007
HS-1200, a synthetic chenodeoxycholic acid derivative, has cytotoxic activity in various human cancer cells. The present study was undertaken to examine whether HS-1200 sensitizes radiation-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. Clonogenic assay elucidated that the combination treatment with HS-1200 and radiation induced more cytotoxic effects than the radiation ...
Brush James - - 2007
Irradiation perturbs the homeostatic network linking parenchymal, mesenchymal, and vascular cells within tissues. Normal communication between cells through soluble, matrix, and cell-associated ligands and receptors is altered so as to set in motion a seemingly inexorable series of events aimed at tissue regeneration and healing. In late responding normal tissues ...
Chen Jennifer K - - 2007
PURPOSE: Treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) is limited by therapeutic ratio; therefore, successful therapy must be specifically cytotoxic to cancer cells. Hypoxic cells are ubiquitous in GBM, and resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, and, thus, are logical targets for gene therapy. In this study, we investigated whether cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) ...
Wilson G D - - 2007
Cell kinetic concepts have pervaded radiation therapy since the early part of the 20th century and have been instrumental in the development of modern radiotherapy. In this review, the fundamental radiobiological concepts that have been developed based on cell kinetic knowledge will be revisited and discussed in the context of ...
Tvegård Tonje - - 2007
Ultraviolet irradiation of fission yeast cells in G1 phase induced a delay in chromatin binding of replication initiation factors and, consistently, a transient delay in S-phase entry. The cell cycle delay was totally dependent on the Gcn2 kinase, a sensor of the nutritional status, and was accompanied by phosphorylation of ...
Kato Takamitsu A - - 2007
Cells from unaffected parents of retinoblastoma (RB) patients were previously shown to be hypersensitive to radiation induced G(1) arrest and cell killing [1]. The hypersensitivity was similar to that reported for cells from ATM heterozygotes. The latter was consistent with a mild DNA DSB rejoining defect which we demonstrated using ...
Sturgeon Christopher M - - 2007
Chemical inhibitors of the G2 checkpoint can sensitize p53-defective cancer cells to DNA damage and several are in preclinical or clinical development. These compounds are commonly thought to increase killing at the G2/M transition by forcing cells to divide with unrepaired DNA. We examined the effects of the ATM/ATR inhibitor ...
Popova L - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the possible genotoxic effect of radiation exposure for dental diagnostic purposes as measured by the formation of micronuclei. METHODS: The micronucleus test was applied to buccal epithelium cells, which are target cells for dental radiography. Specimens of exfoliated buccal cells were collected from patients subjected to panoramic ...
Wu Feng - - 2007
The purpose of the present work was to examine gene expression patterns in a rat keratinocyte line exposed to a (56)Fe ion beam. The cells were exposed to 1.01 geV/nucleon (56)Fe ions generated by the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory facility. Data from Affymetrix rat microarrays (RAT 230_2) were processed by ...
Krueger S A - - 2007
Little is known about the mode of cell killing associated with low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity, the radiation response that describes the enhanced sensitivity of cells to small doses of ionizing radiation. Using a technique that measures the activation of caspase 3, we have established a relationship between apoptosis detected 24 h after ...
Finch Stuart C - - 2007
Beginning in 1895, with the discovery of x-rays, alpha and beta radiation, uranium, radium, thorium, and polonium, the fascinating story of the beginning of knowledge concerning the existence of ionizing radiation unfolds. This brief history of radiation and leukemia is divided into two main parts: the first 50 years, which ...
Nayak Tapan K - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Advance clinical cancer therapy studies of patients treated with somatostatin receptor (sstr)-targeted [DOTA(0)-Tyr(3)]octreotide (DOTATOC) labeled with low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) beta(-)-emitters have shown overall response rates in the range of 15-33%. In order to improve outcomes, we sought to compare the therapeutic effectiveness of sstr-targeted high-LET alpha-emitting (213)Bi to that of ...
Jin C - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The inability of radiotherapy to eradicate completely certain human tumours may be due to the presence of resistant hypoxic cells. Several studies have confirmed the radiosensitizing effect of paclitaxel, a microtubular inhibitor. The object of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles, and ...
Yasui Linda S - - 2007
We have explored the use of Hoechst 33342 (H33342) to carry radioactivity to the cell nucleus. H33342 enters cells and targets DNA at adenine-thymine-rich regions of the minor groove. Considerable membrane blebbing and ruffling occur in CHO cells within minutes after its addition to the culture medium in micromolar quantities. ...
Beickelman, Amy C.
Hypoxia within a solid tumor is known to cause resistance to radiation therapy. It is the biggest problem that cancer patients face during radiation treatment. In this study, a potential hypoxic cell sensitizer, AB2, was synthesized and then investigated for its ability to sensitize hypoxic cells to radiotherapy. The study ...
Rao B S Satish - - 2007
To understand the role of proteins involved in DSB repair modulating SLD recovery, chicken B lymphoma (DT 40) cell lines either proficient or deficient in RAD52, XRCC2, XRCC3, RAD51C and RAD51D were subjected to fractionated irradiation and their survival curves charted. Survival curves of both WT DT40 and RAD52 (-/-) ...
Jones Pamala - - 2007
The primary mechanism of biological damage to macromolecules from ionizing radiation is an indirect interaction that begins with the radiolysis of water. Ionization of water molecules causes them to split by a process called radiolysis. The event is a cascade of chemical transformations that result in the formation of free ...
Rave-Fränk Margret - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To test the combined effects of oxaliplatin and radiation versus cisplatin and radiation using human cervical and lung cancer cell lines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CaSki cervical cancer cells, and A549 lung cancer cells were cultured under standard conditions. Cells were treated with escalating doses of gamma-irradiation (0-6 ...
Hill Jeff W - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Mutations and polymorphisms of OGG1, the major mammalian 8-oxoguanine repair activity, are associated with increased risk for several cancers. Decreased 8-oxoguanine repair capacity due to variant forms of the OGG1 gene is a common feature of numerous cancer cell lines. One such cell line, human KG-1 leukemia cells, has ...
Hofmann Werner - - 2007
The objective of the present study was to identify advantages and limitations of the application of microdosimetric concepts for inhaled radon progeny activities in the lungs. The methods employed for this analysis were a recently developed Monte-Carlo microdosimetry code for the calculation of energy deposition in bronchial target cells and ...
Schilling Daniela - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) often contain highly radioresistant hypoxic regions, nonetheless, radiotherapy is a common treatment modality for these tumours. Reoxygenation during fractionated radiotherapy is desired to render these hypoxic tumour regions more radiosensitive. Hypoxia additionally leads to up-regulation of PAI-1, a protein involved ...
Fike John R - - 2007
Considerable data are now available regarding the radiation responsiveness of neural precursor cells that exist in the neurogenic regions of the mammalian forebrain. These cells and their progeny are extremely sensitive to irradiation, undergoing apoptosis after clinically relevant doses that do not result in overt tissue injury. In addition, there ...
Mairs Robert J - - 2007
Indirect effects may contribute to the efficacy of radiotherapy by sterilizing malignant cells that are not directly irradiated. However, little is known of the influence of indirect effects in targeted radionuclide treatment. We compared gamma-radiation-induced bystander effects with those resulting from exposure to three radiohaloanalogues of meta-iodoben-zylguanidine (MIBG): [(131)I]MIBG (low ...
Cassidy Cheryl L - - 2007
Chinook salmon cells were exposed to gamma radiation and chromosome damage was assessed using the micronucleus assay. The salmon cells were resistant to radiation at all doses compared to human and mammalian cells. We used an indirect approach to determine if prior low dose exposures at environmental dose levels might ...
Darroudi Firouz - - 2007
We analyzed the phenotype of cells derived from SCID patients with different mutations in the Artemis gene. Using clonogenic survival assay an increased sensitivity was found to X-rays (2-3-fold) and bleomycin (2-fold), as well as to etoposide, camptothecin and methylmethane sulphonate (up to 1.5-fold). In contrast, we did not find ...
Kurvinen Kaisa - - 2006
PURPOSE: Telomerase activation in response to irradiation might enhance the radioresistance of cells. Thus, we have investigated radiation-induced effects on telomerase in six gynecological cancer cell lines, with different intrinsic radiosensitivity and capacity for sublethal damage repair (SLDR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three endometrial adenocarcinoma (UM-EC-1, UT-EC-2B and UT-EC-3) and three ...
Ma Yunzhi - - 2006
The study of the radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy is based on the cellular level dosimetry of boron-10's thermal neutron capture reaction 10B(n,alpha)7Li, in which one 1.47 MeV helium-4 ion and one 0.84 MeV lithium-7 ion are spawned. Because of the chemical preference of boron-10 carrier molecules, the dose ...
Morgan William F - - 2007
Radiation-induced bystander effects refer to those responses occurring in cells that were not subject to energy deposition events following ionizing radiation. These bystander cells may have been neighbors of irradiated cells, or physically separated but subject to soluble secreted signals from irradiated cells. Bystander effects have been observed in vitro ...
Obioha, Fidelis I; University ...
Cells of<i> E.coli</i> B/r were x-irradiated (330Gy) in the presence of oxygen and immediately incubated in a non-lethal concentration of penicillin (10u/ml).This caused enhanced growth of the cell into filaments which later disintegrated (ghosts) and failed to form colonies. Irradiation (950Gy) of these cells under anoxic conditions and incubation in ...
Borgdorff, Viola
In this thesis the role of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) in the cellular response to several genotoxic agents is described. We show that MMR plays an important role in the protection against UVC-induced mutagenesis in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. UVC was shown to induce six times more mutations in ...
Berry C C - - 2006
Until now, nanotopography has been considered in 2D construct designs. This has been due to fabrication limitations with traditional lithographic processes relying on the ability to focus radiation that will expose a radiation sensitive resist (e.g. photolithography and electron beam lithography). More recently, alternative methods that offer rapid and cheap ...
Little John B - - 2006
Traditional thinking has been that the biological effects of ionizing radiation occur in irradiated cells as a consequence of the DNA damage they incur. This implies that (1) biological effects occur only in irradiated cells, (2) radiation traversal through the nucleus of the cell is a prerequisite to produce a ...
Urashima Tetsuro - - 2006
To clarify the contribution of apoptosis to cell death in four human solid tumor cell lines, clonogenic cell survival (indicator of radiosensitivity) and induction of caspase-3 (CASP-3)/caspase-3-like proteases (CASP-3LP) and the production of DNA fragmentation (markers for apoptosis) were studied in RKO, LS174T, MCF7 and TE671 cells exposed to DNA-incorporated ...
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