Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1819
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Borrelli Antonella - - 2009
Organisms exposed to ionizing radiation are mainly damaged by free radicals, which are generated by the radiolysis of water contained in the cells. Recently a significant reduction of tissue injury from irradiation damage was demonstrated by using MnSOD-plasmid/liposome treatments in the protection of murine lung. In this study we show ...
Dziegielewski Jaroslaw J Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, - - 2008
Compounds that can protect cells from the effects of radiation are important for clinical use, in the event of an accidental or terrorist-generated radiation event, and for astronauts traveling in space. One of the major concerns regarding the use of radio-protective agents is that they may protect cells initially, but ...
Glaviano A - - 2009
Genomic instability is considered to be an important component in carcinogenesis. It can be caused by low-dose exposure to agents, which appear to act through induction of stress-response pathways related to oxidative stress. These agents have been studied mostly in the radiation field but evidence is accumulating that chemicals, especially ...
Markkanen Ari - - 2008
PURPOSE: Effects on DNA damage response were investigated in murine L929 cells exposed to 50 Hz magnetic fields (MF) with or without ultraviolet B (UVB, wavelength 280-320 nm) radiation or menadione (MQ). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells were exposed to MF at 100 or 300 microT combined with MQ (150 microM, ...
Du Guanghua - - 2008
Intracellular calcium is an important second messenger that regulates many cell functions. Recent studies have shown that calcium ions can also regulate the cellular responses to ionizing radiation. However, previous data are restricted to cells treated with low-LET radiations (X rays, gamma rays and beta particles). In this work, we ...
Huang Tai-Qin - - 2008
PURPOSE: The biological effects of exposure to mobile phone emitted radiofrequency (RF) radiation are the subject of intense study, yet the hypothesis that RF exposure is a potential health hazard remains controversial. In this paper, we monitored cellular and molecular changes in Jurkat human T lymphoma cells after irradiating with ...
Kong Tao - - 2008
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and modified GNPs having two kinds of functional molecules, cysteamine (AET) and thioglucose (Glu), are synthesized. Cell uptake and radiation cytotoxicity enhancement in a breast-cancer cell line (MCF-7) versus a nonmalignant breast-cell line (MCF-10A) are studied. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that cancer cells take up ...
Tomita Masanori - - 2008
Radiation-induced DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs) lead to numerous biological effects. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in cellular responses to low dose and low dose-rate radiation, it is informative to clarify the roles of DSB repair related genes. In higher vertebrate cells, there are at least two major DSB repair ...
Zhang Feng - - 2008
Roscovitine has been reported to have anti-proliferative properties and is in process of undergoing clinical trials. In addition to its intrinsic anticancer properties, it has recently been suggested that roscovitine may also enhance the activity of traditional chemo- and radio- therapies in certain cancer cell lines. The purpose of this ...
Mancuso Mariateresa - - 2008
The central dogma of radiation biology, that biological effects of ionizing radiation are a direct consequence of DNA damage occurring in irradiated cells, has been challenged by observations that genetic/epigenetic changes occur in unexposed "bystander cells" neighboring directly-hit cells, due to cell-to-cell communication or soluble factors released by irradiated cells. ...
Mohlin Malin - - 2009
Nodularia spumigena is one of the dominating species during the extensive cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea. The blooms coincide with strong light, stable stratification, low ratios of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and dissolved inorganic phosphorus. The ability of nitrogen fixation, a high tolerance to phosphorus starvation, and different photo-protective strategies ...
Richard M - - 2009
It has been shown that the response of cells to low doses of radiation is not linear and cannot be accurately extrapolated from the high dose response. To investigate possible mechanisms involved in the behaviour of cells under very low doses of radiation, a cellular automaton (CA) model was created. ...
Sauvageot Claire Marie-Elisabeth - - 2009
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) arises from genetic and signaling abnormalities in components of signal transduction pathways involved in proliferation, survival, and the cell cycle axis. Studies to date with single-agent targeted molecular therapy have revealed only modest effects in attenuating the growth of these tumors, suggesting that targeting multiple aberrant pathways ...
Wei Qi-Chun - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To isolate an isogenic radioresistant cancer cell line after fractioned X-ray radiation and characterize the resistant cells. METHODS: D6 cells were exposed to repeated X-ray irradiation, and after a total dose of 5200 cGy in 8 fractions, a radioresistant monoclone D6-R was obtained. The radiosensitivity and drug sensitivity of ...
Boyd Marie - - 2008
The efficacy of radiotherapy may be partly dependent on indirect effects, which can sterilise malignant cells that are not directly irradiated. However, little is known of the influence of these effects in targeted radionuclide treatment of cancer. We determined bystander responses generated by the uptake of radioiodinated iododeoxyuridine ([*I]IUdR) and ...
Segerström Lova - - 2008
Effects of radiation on growth of two human tumour cell lines that survived a previous high dose, low dose-rate radionuclide exposure simulating intensive radionuclide therapy, were analyzed. The purpose was to investigate whether the survivors gained therapy induced changes in growth and radiation response. The U118MG, ParRes (parental resistant), and ...
Leone Stefano - - 2008
Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenol synthesized by a wide variety of plant species in response to injury, UV irradiation and fungal attack. Many studies have revealed a variety of resveratrol intracellular targets whose modulation gives rise to overlapping responses leading to growth arrest and death. Many authors have reported different ...
Albi E - - 2008
Intranuclear lipid metabolism modifications in relation to cell proliferation and/or apoptosis were demonstrated in hepatocytes. The aim of this study was to establish whether nuclear lipid metabolites influence cell function in different experimental models using a rat thyroid cell line (FRTL-5) treated with UV-C radiation. After UV-C irradiation cells proliferate ...
Vallotton Nathalie - - 2008
In streams and creeks, the aquatic flora is exposed to fluctuating concentrations of herbicides during and following their application. Peak concentrations of herbicides, like the chloroacetanilide S-metolachlor, are usually detected following rain events. In this study, we assessed the effect of S-metolachlor pulse exposure on the algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus. We ...
Koll Thuy T - - 2008
Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) leads to inappropriate processing of proteins involved in cell survival pathways. We found that HSP90 inhibitor, 17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (DMAG), is synergistic with radiation for non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, NCI-H460 and A549. To establish the optimal schedule for this combination, cells were radiated ...
Susanne Burdak-Rothkamm, Kai Rothkamm, ...
Ionising radiation-induced effects in nontargeted bystander cells may play an important role in low-dose cancer risk. Here, we briefly review the experimental systems used for bystander studies, the initiation and intercellular transmission of bystander signals and response mechanisms in recipient cells. Recent evidence that implicates the histone 2A variant X ...
Partridge Mike - - 2008
A cellular Monte Carlo model describing radiation damage and repair in normal epithelial tissues is presented. The deliberately simplified model includes cell cycling, cell motility and radiation damage response (cell cycle arrest and cell death) only. Results demonstrate that the model produces a stable equilibrium system for mean cell cycle ...
Iwabuchi Kuniyoshi - - 2008
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) plays a major role in the repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), especially during the G1-phase of the cell cycle. Using a flow cytometric cell sorter, we fractionated G1- and S/G2-phase cells based on size to assess the DSB-repair activity in NHEJ factor-deficient DT40 ...
Uma Devi P - - 2008
Withaferin A (WA), a plant withanolide, has shown significant radiosensitizing effect in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of DNA repair has been suggested as a mechanism of radiosensitization by WA. To test this, the effect of withaferin A on survival of DT40 chicken B-lymphocyte cell line and its repair deficient ...
Lee Yi-Yen - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, was recently reported to have radiosensitizing effects on medulloblastoma (MB) cells. However, the mechanisms of radiosensitivity involved in medulloblastoma cells are still unclear. The specific aim of this study was to investigate the role of CAPE-induced oxidative stress to ...
Takahashi, Momoko
Our previous study showed that ionizing radiation induced the expression of death receptor DR5 on the cell surface in tumor cell lines and that the death receptor of the TNF alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL enhanced the apoptotic pathway (Hamasu et al., (2005) Journal of Radiation Research, 46:103-110). The present experiments ...
Liu Stanley K - - 2008
The chemo- and radioresponse of tumor cells can be determined by genetic factors (e.g., those that modify cell cycle arrest, DNA damage repair or cell death) and microenvironmental factors, such as hypoxia. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a nuclear enzyme that rapidly recognizes and binds to DNA breaks to facilitate DNA ...
Demizu Yusuke Y Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2008
Cancer cells often exhibit increased reactive oxygen species generation and altered redox regulation. The current study was conducted to investigate the biochemical and molecular events associated with redox alterations during chemical-induced malignant transformation and to evaluate their potential roles in radiation sensitivity. Immortalized nonmalignant human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed ...
Arlot-Bonnemains Yannick - - 2008
Anaplastic thyroid cancers (ATC) are aggressive tumors, which exhibit cell cycle misregulations leading to uncontrolled cellular proliferation and genomic instability. They fail to respond to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy, and most patients die within a few months of diagnosis. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effects ...
Yang Qing-Shan - - 2008
To investigate the effects of Ku80 depletion on cell growth and sensitization to gamma-radiation and MMC-induced apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma lines. Six human carcinoma cell lines (LNcaP, K562, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, EC9706, and K150) and normal HEK293 cell line were examined for basal levels of Ku80 protein by western ...
Hafer Kurt - - 2008
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many ionizing radiation-related phenomena, including bystander effects. The oxidation of 2'7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) to fluorescent 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) is commonly used for the detection of radiation-induced ROS. The DCF assay was adapted for efficient, systematic flow cytometry quantification of low-linear energy transfer (LET) gamma-radiation-induced ...
Yuan Tian - - 2008
Dosimetry of nonuniformly distributed 210Po,67Cu, and 123I was evaluated for a single cell, modeled as a homogeneous unity-density sphere with a radius of 7.7 mum, which is typical of a B-cell lymphoma cell. A Visual Basic program was used to calculate S factors and radial absorbed dose-rate profiles for these ...
Zeni O - - 2008
In the present study the third generation wireless technology of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) signal was investigated for the induction of genotoxic effects in human leukocytes. Peripheral blood from six healthy donors was used and, for each donor, intermittent exposures (6 min RF on, 2 h RF off) ...
Li Xiyi - - 2008
Although it is known that some cell types exhibit an adaptive response to low levels of cytotoxic agents, its molecular mechanism is still unclear and it has yet to be established whether this is a universal phenomenon that occurs in all cell types in response to exposure to every chemical. ...
Vermeulen Natasha - - 2008
The bactericidal radiation dosages at specific wavelengths in the ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrum are not well documented. Such information is important for the development of new monochromatic bactericidal devices to be operated at different wavelengths. In this study, radiation dosages required to cause mortality of an Escherichia coli strain, ATCC 25922, ...
Williams Jerry R - - 2008
We describe variations of three radiation-induced endpoints on the basis of cell genotype: Clonogenic survival, expression of apoptosis and cell-cycle redistribution. Clonogenic survival, apoptosis and cell-cycle redistribution are measured in multiple cell lines after exposure to radiation between 2 and 16 Gy. Cell lines varied in clonogenic radiosensitivity and expression ...
Zölzer F - - 2008
The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons and other types of densely ionizing radiation appears to be close to 1.0 for the induction of strand breaks, but considerably higher RBEs have been found for cellular end points such as colony-forming ability. This may be due to differences in the processing ...
Vermeulen Christie - - 2008
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of DNA polymerase beta in repair and response after ionizing radiation in different phases of the cell cycle. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Synchronized cells deficient and proficient in DNA polymerase beta were irradiated in different phases of the cell ...
Steffen Ann-Charlott - - 2008
PURPOSE: HER2 is a potential target for radionuclide therapy, especially when HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cells are resistant to Herceptin(R) treatment. Therefore, it is of interest to analyse whether HER2 overexpressing tumour cells have different inherent radiosensitivity. METHODS: The radiosensitivity of three often used HER2 overexpressing cell lines, SKOV-3, SKBR-3 ...
Nuta Otilia - - 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between the bystander effect and the low-dose hypersensitivity/increased radio-resistance phenomenon in BJ fibroblast cells taking as response criteria different end points of radiation damage such as cell survival, chromosomal damage (as detected by using micronucleus assay) and double strand ...
Kurosawa Aya - - 2008
Artemis is a recently identified factor involved in V(D)J recombination and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we performed targeted disruption of the Artemis gene (ARTEMIS) in the human pre-B cell line Nalm-6. Unexpectedly, we found that cells lacking Artemis exhibit increased sensitivity to low ...
Zou Jian - - 2008
Treatment failure after radiotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) could be a significant problem. Our objective is to sensitize SCCVII cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo through inhibiting ATM expression using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs), and investigate the potential mechanism of radiosensitization. We designed and ...
Shao Chunlin - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced bystander responses, where cells respond to their neighbours being irradiated are being extensively studied. Although evidence shows that bystander responses can be induced in many types of cells, it is not known whether there is a radiation-induced bystander effect in breast cancer cells, where the radiosensitivity may be ...
Jones Pamala - - 2008
High energy X-rays are capable of interacting with biological membranes to cause both functional and structural modifications. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects human fibroblast cells exposed multiple times to 10 Gy over time. Following exposures of 2, 3, or 4 times to 10 Gy/10min ...
Lin Ching-Chung - - 2008
PURPOSE: To determine whether exposing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to low dose radiation increases the efficacy of dendritic cell-mediated immunotherapy for HCC. METHODS: Tumour specimens collected from 20 recruited patients with HCC were cultured in primary culture (half successfully) and then exposed to low-dose radiation (0.5 Gy). Immature DCs derived from ...
Simoens Cindy - - 2008
Vinca alkaloids are an important class of anticancer agents and semisynthetic vinca alkaloids are developed to improve the therapeutic index of this class of drugs. In the present study, a direct comparison was made between vinflunine and vinorelbine regarding their radiosensitizing and cell cycle effects. Four human tumour cell lines ...
Nakamura Hideaki - - 2008
To establish immortal human cells, we introduced the cDNA of the human telomere reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene into skin fibroblast cells obtained from normal and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) individuals of Japanese origin. hTERT-immortalized cells retained their original characteristics and radiosensitivity except for immortalization, suggesting that these cells might be useful ...
Usami, Noriko
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Tsukuba, (B), no. 748, 1992.3.25
Dardalhon Delphine - - 2008
UVA radiation, the most abundant solar UV radiation reaching Earth's surface, induces oxidative stress through formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage different cell components. Because of the broad spectrum of the possible targets of ROS, the cellular response to this radiation is complex. While extensive studies have ...
Ryan Lorna A - - 2008
There is considerable interest at present in low-dose radiation effects in non-human species. In this study gamma radiation-induced adaptive response, a low-dose radiation effect, was examined in three fish cell lines, (CHSE-214 (Chinook salmon), RTG-2 (rainbow trout) and ZEB-2J (zebrafish)). Cell survival after exposure to direct radiation with or without ...
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