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Results 301 - 350 of 1800
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Koll Thuy T - - 2008
Inhibition of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) leads to inappropriate processing of proteins involved in cell survival pathways. We found that HSP90 inhibitor, 17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (DMAG), is synergistic with radiation for non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, NCI-H460 and A549. To establish the optimal schedule for this combination, cells were radiated ...
Susanne Burdak-Rothkamm, Kai Rothkamm, ...
Ionising radiation-induced effects in nontargeted bystander cells may play an important role in low-dose cancer risk. Here, we briefly review the experimental systems used for bystander studies, the initiation and intercellular transmission of bystander signals and response mechanisms in recipient cells. Recent evidence that implicates the histone 2A variant X ...
Partridge Mike - - 2008
A cellular Monte Carlo model describing radiation damage and repair in normal epithelial tissues is presented. The deliberately simplified model includes cell cycling, cell motility and radiation damage response (cell cycle arrest and cell death) only. Results demonstrate that the model produces a stable equilibrium system for mean cell cycle ...
Iwabuchi Kuniyoshi - - 2008
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) plays a major role in the repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), especially during the G1-phase of the cell cycle. Using a flow cytometric cell sorter, we fractionated G1- and S/G2-phase cells based on size to assess the DSB-repair activity in NHEJ factor-deficient DT40 ...
Uma Devi P - - 2008
Withaferin A (WA), a plant withanolide, has shown significant radiosensitizing effect in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of DNA repair has been suggested as a mechanism of radiosensitization by WA. To test this, the effect of withaferin A on survival of DT40 chicken B-lymphocyte cell line and its repair deficient ...
Lee Yi-Yen - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, was recently reported to have radiosensitizing effects on medulloblastoma (MB) cells. However, the mechanisms of radiosensitivity involved in medulloblastoma cells are still unclear. The specific aim of this study was to investigate the role of CAPE-induced oxidative stress to ...
Takahashi, Momoko
Our previous study showed that ionizing radiation induced the expression of death receptor DR5 on the cell surface in tumor cell lines and that the death receptor of the TNF alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL enhanced the apoptotic pathway (Hamasu et al., (2005) Journal of Radiation Research, 46:103-110). The present experiments ...
Liu Stanley K - - 2008
The chemo- and radioresponse of tumor cells can be determined by genetic factors (e.g., those that modify cell cycle arrest, DNA damage repair or cell death) and microenvironmental factors, such as hypoxia. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a nuclear enzyme that rapidly recognizes and binds to DNA breaks to facilitate DNA ...
Demizu Yusuke - - 2008
Cancer cells often exhibit increased reactive oxygen species generation and altered redox regulation. The current study was conducted to investigate the biochemical and molecular events associated with redox alterations during chemical-induced malignant transformation and to evaluate their potential roles in radiation sensitivity. Immortalized nonmalignant human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed ...
Arlot-Bonnemains Yannick - - 2008
Anaplastic thyroid cancers (ATC) are aggressive tumors, which exhibit cell cycle misregulations leading to uncontrolled cellular proliferation and genomic instability. They fail to respond to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy, and most patients die within a few months of diagnosis. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effects ...
Yang Qing-Shan - - 2008
To investigate the effects of Ku80 depletion on cell growth and sensitization to gamma-radiation and MMC-induced apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma lines. Six human carcinoma cell lines (LNcaP, K562, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, EC9706, and K150) and normal HEK293 cell line were examined for basal levels of Ku80 protein by western ...
Hafer Kurt - - 2008
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many ionizing radiation-related phenomena, including bystander effects. The oxidation of 2'7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) to fluorescent 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) is commonly used for the detection of radiation-induced ROS. The DCF assay was adapted for efficient, systematic flow cytometry quantification of low-linear energy transfer (LET) gamma-radiation-induced ...
Yuan Tian - - 2008
Dosimetry of nonuniformly distributed 210Po,67Cu, and 123I was evaluated for a single cell, modeled as a homogeneous unity-density sphere with a radius of 7.7 mum, which is typical of a B-cell lymphoma cell. A Visual Basic program was used to calculate S factors and radial absorbed dose-rate profiles for these ...
Zeni O - - 2008
In the present study the third generation wireless technology of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) signal was investigated for the induction of genotoxic effects in human leukocytes. Peripheral blood from six healthy donors was used and, for each donor, intermittent exposures (6 min RF on, 2 h RF off) ...
Li Xiyi - - 2008
Although it is known that some cell types exhibit an adaptive response to low levels of cytotoxic agents, its molecular mechanism is still unclear and it has yet to be established whether this is a universal phenomenon that occurs in all cell types in response to exposure to every chemical. ...
Vermeulen Natasha - - 2008
The bactericidal radiation dosages at specific wavelengths in the ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrum are not well documented. Such information is important for the development of new monochromatic bactericidal devices to be operated at different wavelengths. In this study, radiation dosages required to cause mortality of an Escherichia coli strain, ATCC 25922, ...
Williams Jerry R - - 2008
We describe variations of three radiation-induced endpoints on the basis of cell genotype: Clonogenic survival, expression of apoptosis and cell-cycle redistribution. Clonogenic survival, apoptosis and cell-cycle redistribution are measured in multiple cell lines after exposure to radiation between 2 and 16 Gy. Cell lines varied in clonogenic radiosensitivity and expression ...
Zölzer F - - 2008
The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons and other types of densely ionizing radiation appears to be close to 1.0 for the induction of strand breaks, but considerably higher RBEs have been found for cellular end points such as colony-forming ability. This may be due to differences in the processing ...
Vermeulen Christie - - 2008
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of DNA polymerase beta in repair and response after ionizing radiation in different phases of the cell cycle. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Synchronized cells deficient and proficient in DNA polymerase beta were irradiated in different phases of the cell ...
Steffen Ann-Charlott - - 2008
PURPOSE: HER2 is a potential target for radionuclide therapy, especially when HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cells are resistant to Herceptin(R) treatment. Therefore, it is of interest to analyse whether HER2 overexpressing tumour cells have different inherent radiosensitivity. METHODS: The radiosensitivity of three often used HER2 overexpressing cell lines, SKOV-3, SKBR-3 ...
Nuta Otilia - - 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between the bystander effect and the low-dose hypersensitivity/increased radio-resistance phenomenon in BJ fibroblast cells taking as response criteria different end points of radiation damage such as cell survival, chromosomal damage (as detected by using micronucleus assay) and double strand ...
Kurosawa Aya - - 2008
Artemis is a recently identified factor involved in V(D)J recombination and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we performed targeted disruption of the Artemis gene (ARTEMIS) in the human pre-B cell line Nalm-6. Unexpectedly, we found that cells lacking Artemis exhibit increased sensitivity to low ...
Zou Jian - - 2008
Treatment failure after radiotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) could be a significant problem. Our objective is to sensitize SCCVII cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo through inhibiting ATM expression using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs), and investigate the potential mechanism of radiosensitization. We designed and ...
Shao Chunlin - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced bystander responses, where cells respond to their neighbours being irradiated are being extensively studied. Although evidence shows that bystander responses can be induced in many types of cells, it is not known whether there is a radiation-induced bystander effect in breast cancer cells, where the radiosensitivity may be ...
Jones Pamala - - 2008
High energy X-rays are capable of interacting with biological membranes to cause both functional and structural modifications. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects human fibroblast cells exposed multiple times to 10 Gy over time. Following exposures of 2, 3, or 4 times to 10 Gy/10min ...
Lin Ching-Chung - - 2008
PURPOSE: To determine whether exposing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to low dose radiation increases the efficacy of dendritic cell-mediated immunotherapy for HCC. METHODS: Tumour specimens collected from 20 recruited patients with HCC were cultured in primary culture (half successfully) and then exposed to low-dose radiation (0.5 Gy). Immature DCs derived from ...
Simoens Cindy - - 2008
Vinca alkaloids are an important class of anticancer agents and semisynthetic vinca alkaloids are developed to improve the therapeutic index of this class of drugs. In the present study, a direct comparison was made between vinflunine and vinorelbine regarding their radiosensitizing and cell cycle effects. Four human tumour cell lines ...
Nakamura Hideaki - - 2008
To establish immortal human cells, we introduced the cDNA of the human telomere reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene into skin fibroblast cells obtained from normal and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) individuals of Japanese origin. hTERT-immortalized cells retained their original characteristics and radiosensitivity except for immortalization, suggesting that these cells might be useful ...
Usami, Noriko
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Tsukuba, (B), no. 748, 1992.3.25
Dardalhon Delphine - - 2008
UVA radiation, the most abundant solar UV radiation reaching Earth's surface, induces oxidative stress through formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage different cell components. Because of the broad spectrum of the possible targets of ROS, the cellular response to this radiation is complex. While extensive studies have ...
Ryan Lorna A - - 2008
There is considerable interest at present in low-dose radiation effects in non-human species. In this study gamma radiation-induced adaptive response, a low-dose radiation effect, was examined in three fish cell lines, (CHSE-214 (Chinook salmon), RTG-2 (rainbow trout) and ZEB-2J (zebrafish)). Cell survival after exposure to direct radiation with or without ...
Djuzenova Cholpon S - - 2008
In order to enhance the cytotoxicity of radiation, camptothecin (CPT), an inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase I, was added to the cultured glioma cell lines before irradiation (IR). Radiation responses of five glioblastoma cell lines (U87-MG, U373-MG, GHE, GaMG and SNB-19) treated with CPT were analyzed in terms of cell and ...
Buttiglione M - - 2007
Many environmental signals, including ionizing radiation and UV rays, induce activation of Egr-1 gene, thus affecting cell growth and apoptosis. The paucity and the controversial knowledge about the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMF) exposure of nerve cells prompted us to investigate the bioeffects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma ...
Mendonca Marc S - - 2007
Human cancers have multiple alterations in cell signaling pathways that promote resistance to cytotoxic therapy such as X rays. Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone that has been shown to inhibit several pro-survival cell signaling pathways, induce apoptosis, and enhance chemotherapy-induced cell killing. We investigated whether parthenolide would enhance X-ray-induced cell ...
Fernandes B F - - 2008
PURPOSE: To evaluate the proliferation rates of five human uveal melanoma (UM) cell lines after treatment with amfenac, a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, and subsequent radiation exposure. METHODS: Five human UM cell lines (92.1, SP6.5, MKT-BR, OCM-1, and UW-1) and one human fibroblast cell line (BJ) were incubated with amfenac. Treated ...
Yadav Abhay Singh - - 2008
The health concerns have been raised following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephones throughout the world. This investigation had been taken, with the motive to find out whether mobile phone radiations cause any in vivo effects on the frequency of micronucleated exfoliated cells in the exposed ...
Banuelos Carmen A - - 2007
PCI-24781 is a novel broad spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitor that is currently in phase I clinical trials. The ability of PCI-24781 to act as a radiation sensitizer and the mechanisms of radiosensitization were examined. Exponentially growing human SiHa cervical and WiDr colon carcinoma cells were exposed to 0.1 to 10 ...
Shen Wenyan - - 2007
Benzo(a)pyrene is an ubiquitous environmental carcinogen produced during incomplete combustion of organic substances, and anti-benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), is the most carcinogenic form of its ultimate metabolites. The goal of this study was to examine the response of human amniotic epithelial FL cells to increasing concentrations of BPDE and to find potential ...
Kitano, Masaharu
Movements of stomata responding to visible and infrared radiations were analyzed in an intact cucumber leaf by applying an improved heat balance method for evaluation of transpiration rate and leaf conductance. In step response to the visible radiation, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) induced dynamics of water balance in the whole ...
Sudo Hitomi - - 2007
Genomic instability is considered a hallmark of carcinogenesis, and dysfunction of DNA repair and cell cycle regulation in response to DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation are thought to be important factors in the early stages of genomic instability. We performed cell-based functional screening using an RNA interference library targeting ...
Simoens Cindy - - 2008
PURPOSE: Vinflunine is an innovative microtubule inhibitor belonging to the vinca alkaloid class that possesses radiosensitising properties, which could lead to promising activity in chemoradiation studies in the clinic. METHOD: In the current study, different incubation times with vinflunine, immediately before radiation and different time intervals between vinflunine treatment and ...
Natarajan M - - 2007
Studying the potential role of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha in the initiation of genomic instability is necessary to understand whether TNFalpha can serve as a signalling mediator of radiation-induced genomic instability in non-irradiated bystander cells. In this study, we examined whether TNFalpha could initiate processes through oxidative stress signalling that ...
Zou Huichao - - 2007
Glioblastoma multiform is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults, but there remains no effective therapeutic approach. 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), which is a naturally occurring metabolite of 17beta-estradiol, was shown to enhance radiotherapeutic effect in certain tumors; however, whether 2-ME can also enhance the sensitivity of glioma cells to ...
Ma Hong-Bing - - 2007
AIM: To construct pcDNA3.1-Egr.1p-p16 recombinant plasmid and investigate the expression of p16 in pancreatic cancer JF305 cells induced by radiation and the feasibility of gene radiotherapy for pancreatic carcinoma. METHODS: Human p16 cDNA was ligated to the downstream of Egr-1 promotor to construct pcDNA3.1-Egr.1p-p16 plasmid by restriction enzyme digested. The ...
Philips Neena - - 2007
With aging and cancer there is increased expression or activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade and remodel the structural extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition, exposure of skin to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (photoaging) leads to loss of cell viability, membrane damage, and deposition of excessive elastotic material. Lutein has antioxidant, ...
Short Susan C - - 2007
We examined DNA damage responses and repair in four human glioma cell lines (A7, U87, T98G, and U373) and normal human astrocytes (NHAs) after clinically relevant radiation doses to establish whether we could identify differences among them that might suggest new approaches to selective radiosensitization. We used phosphorylation of histone ...
Fayolle Caroline - - 2008
Epidemiological and biological studies indicate that solar UVB radiation is involved in cutaneous malignant melanoma etiology. Indeed, melanocytes are very frequently exposed to solar UV radiation, which induces cell damage and may promote cell transformation. We previously showed that melanocytes and melanoma cells exposed to UVB radiation activates a p53-independent ...
Chiu Shu-Jun - - 2007
Securin has been shown to regulate genomic stability; nevertheless, the role of securin on the cytotoxicity after radiation is still unclear. Exposure to 1-10 Gy X-ray radiation induced cell death in RKO colorectal cancer cells. The protein levels of securin, p53, and p21 were elevated by radiation. The proteins of ...
Bladen Catherine L - - 2007
Quantitative studies of radiation cytotoxicity have been performed mostly in cells in culture. For a variety of reasons, however, the response of cells in culture may not reflect the response for cells in situ in a whole organism. We describe here an approach for quantification of radiation-induced cell death in ...
Liebermann Dan A - - 2007
Gadd45 genes have been implicated in stress signaling in response to physiological or environmental stressors, which results in either cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, cell survival and senescence, or apoptosis. Evidence accumulated implies that Gadd45 proteins function as stress sensors is mediated by a complex interplay of physical interactions with ...
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