Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1794
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Iwasa Tsutomu - - 2009
Therapeutic strategies that target the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-1R) hold promise for a wide variety of cancers. We have now investigated the effect of CP-751,871, a fully human monoclonal antibody specific for IGF-IR, on the sensitivity of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines to radiation. The ...
Ping Yehui - - 2010
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of antisense epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nanoparticles on cell survival and radiosensitivity in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line SCCVII. Experiments were performed using the murine head-and-neck tumor cell line, SCCVII. Nanoparticle encapsulated antisense EGFR oligonucleotides ...
Dickey Jennifer S - - 2009
When cells are exposed to ionizing radiation (IR), unexposed cells that share media with damaged cells exhibit similar effects to irradiated cells including increased levels of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Hypothesizing that this effect, known as the radiation-induced bystander effect, may be a specific instance of communication between damaged and ...
Lomonaco Stephanie L - - 2009
Malignant gliomas are characterized by a short median survival which is largely impacted by the resistance of these tumors tochemo- and radiotherapy. Recent studies suggest that a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells, which are highly resistant to gamma-radiation, has the capacity to repopulate the tumors and contribute to their ...
Chen Yun - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Tetrandrine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, has cancer cell cytotoxicity. The effects of combined tetrandrine and radiation, alone or combined, on human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A combination treatment, using either concomitant irradiation at the beginning or end of the tetrandrine treatment (designated as the RT-Tet and ...
Hamilton Julie J Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford, - - 2009
The activity of certain kinases can promote cell survival after DNA damage, but the role of phosphatases in determining cell fate, although documented, is much less well defined. We sought to define a role for phosphatases in radiation survival and identify potential targets for intervention. By using naturally occurring inhibitors ...
Romanenko Alina - - 2009
Urinary bladder urothelium as well as cells in the microenvironment of lamina propria (endothelial elements, fibroblasts and lymphocytes) demonstrate a number of responses to chronic persistent long-term, low-dose ionizing radiation (IR). Thus, oxidative stress occurs, accompanied by up-regulation of at least two signaling pathways (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear ...
Cao Yan - - 2009
To gain new insight into the biological function of the human augmenter of liver regeneration (hALR) in HCC, we studied its involvement in radiation-induced damage and recovery of HCC cells. We found that hALR expression was up-regulated in both HCC tissues and multiple hepatoma cell lines and correlated significantly with ...
Iliakis George - - 2009
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in cells of higher eukaryotes are predominantly repaired by a pathway of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) utilizing Ku, DNA-PKcs, DNA ligase IV, XRCC4 and XLF/Cernunnos (D-NHEJ) as central components. Work carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere shows that when this ...
Gupta Arun - - 2009
Chromosomes in PTEN deficient cells display both numerical as well as structural alterations including regional amplification. We found that PTEN deficient cells displayed a normal DNA damage response (DDR) as evidenced by the ionizing radiation (IR)-induced phosphorylation of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) as well as its effectors. PTEN deficient cells ...
Gupta Anjali K - - 2009
Human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cancers of the head and neck (H&N) are increasing in frequency and are often treated with radiation. There are conflicting data in the literature regarding the radiation response in the presence of HPV infection, with some data suggesting they may be more sensitive to radiation. There ...
Chakraborty Asima - - 2009
The bystander effect, whereby cells that are not traversed by ionizing radiation exhibit various responses when in proximity to irradiated cells, is well documented in the field of radiation biology, Here we demonstrate that considerable bystander responses are also observed after photodynamic stress using the membrane-localizing dye deuteroporphyrin (DP). Using ...
Ahsan Aarif - - 2009
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are increasingly used in combination with radiotherapy in the treatment of various EGFR-overexpressing cancers. However, little is known about the effects of cell cycle status on EGFR inhibitor-mediated radiosensitization. Using EGFR-overexpressing A431 and UMSCC-1 cells in culture, we found that radiation activated the EGFR ...
Lin Yu-Fen - - 2009
It has been argued that the cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction networks in normal tissues are disrupted by radiation and that this largely controls many of the most important cellular radiation responses. This has led to the broader assertion that individual cells in normal tissue or a 3D normal-tissue-like culture will ...
Frey Mary Anne - - 2009
Dr. Blakely and colleagues have conducted a series of experiments to explain the molecular basis by which space radiation causes cataracts, particularly with regard to elucidating how space radiation alters gene expression profiles in the process of lens cell differentiation. To do this, they "developed an in vitro model of ...
Niyazi Maximilian - - 2009
The detection of molecular targeted agents is a milestone in cancer treatment. Despite the achievements, the efficacy of single targeted agents in combination with radiotherapy is limited by putative treatment resistance. We therefore tested a rationally designed triple therapy consisting of an agonistic antibody against either TRAIL-R1 (mapatumumab/HGS-ETR1) or TRAIL-R2 ...
Brush James M - - 2009
The classical radiobiological paradigm is that DNA is the target for cell damage caused by ionising radiation. However, evidence is accumulating that other constituents, such as the membrane, organelles, and proteins, are also important targets. We have shown that the isolated 26S proteasome is one such target and here we ...
Hui Angela B Y - - 2009
PURPOSE: Seliciclib is a small-molecule cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which has been reported to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in EBV-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines. Because most nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients harbor EBV, we proceeded to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of seliciclib in EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma models. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Cytotoxicity of ...
Moon So Young - - 2009
Targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) active cells in tumors may be an excellent strategy to improve the outcome of radiation therapy. On the basis of the reported role of YC-1 as a HIF-1 inhibitor with anti-cancer activity, we tested the therapeutic efficacy of YC-1 against radioresistance in vitro. The AMC-HN3 cancer ...
Yang Yuh-Cheng - - 2009
Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is a standard treatment of locally advanced cervical carcinoma. The most widely used drug for chemoirradiation is cisplatin. However, its toxicity and drug resistance remain major concerns in clinical practice. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of oxaliplatin, another platinum compound, on enhancing radiosensitivity in cervical ...
Chiu Hui-Wen - - 2009
Malignant gliomas are resistant to many kinds of treatments including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and other adjuvant therapies. Autophagy is a novel response of cancer cells to ionizing radiation (IR) or chemotherapy, but its significance and underlying mechanism remains largely elusive. Induction of autophagy in glioma cells using irradiation and arsenic trioxide ...
Adamsen Birgitte Lid - - 2009
The cellular response to chemoradiotherapy was investigated in cells of the HCT116 (wild-type TP53) and HT29 (mutated TP53) human colorectal cancer cell lines to better understand how the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) acts as a radiosensitizer in vitro and how it contributes to the well-documented greater efficacy of chemoradiotherapy compared ...
Czembirek Cornelia - - 2009
BACKGROUND: No data are available on the effects of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor nimesulide in combination with irradiation on the survival of head-and-neck carcinoma cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two head-and-neck carcinoma cell lines (SCC9 and SCC25) were treated with nimesulide (50-600 microM) and irradiated concomitantly or sequentially. Early effects on ...
Gaillard Sylvain - - 2009
When cell populations are exposed to low-dose alpha-particle radiation, a significant fraction of the cells will not be traversed by a radiation track. However, stressful effects occur in both irradiated and bystander cells in the population. Characterizing these effects, and investigating their underlying mechanism(s), is critical to understanding human health ...
Sun Wenqing - - 2009
Overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), when combined with certain chemicals that inhibit peroxide removal, increases cancer cell cytotoxicity. Elevating MnSOD levels in cells enhances the conversion of superoxide (O(2)(*-)) to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), combined with inhibiting the removal of H(2)O(2), further increases H(2)O(2) levels, leading to increased cytotoxicity. We ...
Pollard Julianne M - - 2009
We tested several classes of antioxidant manganese compounds for radioprotective effects using human lymphoblastoid cells: six porphyrins, three salens, and two cyclic polyamines. Radioprotection was evaluated by seven assays: XTT, annexin V and propidium iodide flow cytometry analysis, gamma-H2AX immunofluorescence, the neutral comet assay, dichlorofluorescein and dihydroethidium staining, resazurin, and ...
Prise Kevin M - - 2009
Our understanding of how radiation kills normal and tumour cells has been based on an intimate knowledge of the direct induction of DNA damage and its cellular consequences. What has become clear is that, as well as responses to direct DNA damage, cell-cell signalling -- known as the bystander effect ...
Toyooka Tatsushi - - 2009
The use of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI), a promising new class of antineoplastic agents, in combination with cytotoxic agents, such as ionizing radiation and anticancer drugs, has been attracting attention. In this study, we found that sodium butyrate (SB), a widely studied HDACI, remarkably enhanced the cell killing effect of ...
Di Giambattista Lucia - - 2010
We have made a preliminary analysis of the results about the effects on tumoral cell line (lymphoid T cell line Jurkat) induced by UVB radiation (dose of 310 mJ/cm(2)) with and without a vegetable mixture. In the present study, we have used two techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ...
Pan Yan - - 2009
The combined exposure to environmental toxicants such as heavy metals and radiation is an important research area in health protection. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of DNA repair and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) family in the cadmium-induced adaptive response to toxicants or radiation. Using cells ...
Watson Christopher - - 2009
We have shown that parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a radiation sensitizer for human CGL1 hybrid cells that have constitutively activated NF-kappaB and wild-type p53. Since many malignant cells have nonfunctional p53, we investigated whether parthenolide could alter the X-ray sensitivity of PC-3 prostate cancer cells, a p53 null cell ...
Shckorbatov Yuriy G - - 2009
PURPOSE: To determine the possible biological effects of differently polarised microwave radiation on the chromatin state in human cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isolated human buccal epithelium cells were irradiated by microwaves of frequency f = 35 GHz and surface power density E = 30 microW/cm(2). The state of chromatin in ...
Jakob B - - 2009
Irradiation of cell nuclei with charged particles leads to the spatially defined production of DNA damage along the particle trajectories, thus facilitating studies on the dynamics of radiation-induced protein foci associated with lesion processing. Here we used visual inspection and computational analysis of the track morphology after immunodetection to describe ...
Mladenov Emil - - 2009
The repair of double-strand breaks in mammalian cells is carried out by two pathways: homologous recombination and nonhomologous end joining. The factors that regulate the mechanism through which a specific repair pathway is activated are still not clearly defined. To study whether the complexity of the double-strand break ends is ...
Scuric Zorica - - 2009
DNA double-strand breaks repaired through nonhomologous end joining require no extended sequence homology as a template for the repair. A subset of end-joining events, termed microhomology-mediated end joining, occur between a few base pairs of homology, and such pathways have been implicated in different human cancers and genetic diseases. Here ...
Batuello Christopher N - - 2009
The mechanism by which heat sensitizes mammalian cells to ionizing radiation remains to be elucidated. We determined whether base excision repair (BER) is involved in heat-radiosensitization and report novel findings that provide insight regarding the role of BER in the radiation response of HeLa cells. An siRNA approach was utilized ...
Ortega Richard - - 2009
Cobalt is known to be toxic at high concentration, to induce contact dermatosis, and occupational radiation skin damage because of its use in nuclear industry. We investigated the intracellular distribution of cobalt in HaCaT human keratinocytes as a model of skin cells, and its interaction with endogenous trace elements. Direct ...
Trosić Ivancica - - 2009
The aim of study was to determine the influence of mobile phone frequency radiation on the proliferation, cytoskeleton structure, and mitotic index of V79 cells after 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h of exposure. V79 cells were cultured in standard laboratory conditions and exposed to continuous-wave (CW) RF/MW radiation ...
Kang Mi-Hyun - - 2009
Radiation therapy causes varying degrees of damage to biological systems. Many groups are investigating the mechanism underlying radiation-induced cellular damage but there are limited therapeutic solutions for affected patients. Recent studies show that substance P (SP) participates in cell proliferation. In the present study, we characterized the mechanism underlying SP-induced ...
Durante Marco - - 2009
Galactic cosmic radiation is acknowledged as one of the major barriers to human space exploration. In space, astronauts are exposed to charged particles from Z = 1 (H) up to Z = 28 (Ni), but the probability of a hit to a specific single cell in the human body is ...
Kawamura Hidemasa - - 2009
Cells exposed to genotoxic stress, such as ionizing radiation and DNA damaging reagents, either arrest the cell cycle to repair the genome, or undergo apoptosis, depending on the extent of the DNA damage. DNA damage also has been implicated in various differentiation processes. It has been reported that gamma-ray exposure ...
Huang S-Y - - 2009
Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) and Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase (CD) can convert innocuous prodrugs into cytotoxic metabolites and are being investigated for use in gene therapy for cancer. Human adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC-2) cells transduced with a CD/HSV-TK fusion gene (ACC-2/CD-TK cells) were found to be more sensitive ...
Hei Tom K TK Center for Radiological Research, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. - - 2009
Recent developments in microbeam technology have made drastic improvements in particle delivery, focusing, image processing and precision to allow for rapid advances in our knowledge in radiation biology. The unequivocal demonstration that targeted cytoplasmic irradiation results in mutations in the nuclei of hit cells and the presence of non-targeted effects, ...
Basti David - - 2009
Hermatypic (reef building) corals live in an environment characterized by high ambient levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Photoadaptive mechanisms have evolved to protect the sensitive cell structures of the host coral and their photosynthetic, endosymbiotic zooxanthellae. Environmental stressors may destabilize the coral-zooxanthellae system resulting in ...
Ding Ku-Ke - - 2009
The immediate-early response gene 5 (IER5) was previously shown, using microarray analysis, to be upregulated by ionizing radiation. Here we further characterized the dose- and time-dependency of radiation-induced expression of IER5 at doses from 0.5 to 15 Gy by quantitative real-time PCR analyses in HeLa cells and human lymphoblastoid AHH-1 ...
Lu Kai-Hsi - - 2009
Resveratrol (RV), a natural polyphenol derived from red wine, recently showed the potential of anticancer and radiosensitizing effects. A recent study has suggested that the cancer stem cells (CSCs) may reflect the clinical refractory malignancy of brain tumors, including medulloblastoma (MB). The aim of the present study is to investigate ...
Claudia M. Kacher, Herbert ...
HeLa-cells have been irradiated with a HeNe-laser of 633 nm in the lag-phase at initial cell densities of 10<SUP align=right>4</SUP> cells per ml. It is shown that cancer cells react differently to the 633 nm laser light (100 or 200 J&#47;m&#178;). Energy densities of 100 and 200 J&#47;m&#178; and different ...
Terry Samantha Y A - - 2009
The mechanism behind chromatid break formation is as yet unclear, although it is known that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the initiating lesions. Chromatid breaks formed in cells in the G2-phase of the cell-cycle disappear ('rejoin') as a function of time between radiation exposure and cell fixation. However, the kinetics ...
Tak Jean Kyoung - - 2009
Ionizing radiation induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play an important causative role in cell death. Therefore, compounds that control the level of ROS may confer radioprotective effects. Ebselen, a seleno-organic compound, has been shown to protect against cell injury caused by ROS. The objective of this ...
Kuwahara Yoshikazu - - 2009
Radiotherapy is one of the major therapeutic modalities for eradicating malignant tumors. However, the existence of radioresistant cells remains one of the most critical obstacles in radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy. Standard radiotherapy for tumor treatment consists of approximately 2 Gy once a day, 5 days a week, over a period of ...
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