Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1822
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Ranza E - - 2009
Imatinib mesylate (STI571), an inhibitor of alpha- and beta-platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR) and other tyrosine kinases, is a well established treatment for chronic myeloid leukaemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Moreover, it is under investigation for the therapy of several other malignant tumours since protein kinases are frequently mutated or ...
Cho Heunglae - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Imexon is an aziridine-containing small pro-oxidant molecule with promising antitumor activity in myeloma, lymphoma and lung and pancreatic cancer. Imexon is already in clinical trials in patients with advanced solid tumors. The present study examined the effects of imexon on H9 and Raji lymphoma cell lines in vitro when ...
Smith Laura - - 2009
We aimed to identify putative predictive protein biomarkers of radioresistance. Three breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231, and T47D) were used as in vitro models to study radioresistance. Inherent radiosensitivities were examined using a clonogenic survival assay. It was revealed that each cell line differed in their response to radiotherapy. ...
Hamilton Julie J Oxford University, Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology & Biology, Oxford, - - 2009
This review will examine the role of phosphatases in cancer cell signalling and also outline emerging findings regarding the influence of phosphatases on tumor cell survival after ionising radiation. The exposure of tumour cells to clinically relevant doses of ionising radiation causes DNA damage and rapidly activates a series of ...
Yan Tao - - 2009
MLH1 is a key DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein involved in maintaining genomic stability by participating in the repair of endogenous and exogenous mispairs in the daughter strands during S phase. Exogenous mispairs can result following treatment with several classes of chemotherapeutic drugs, as well as with ionizing radiation. In ...
Krasny Lina L Department of Medicine, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, - - 2010
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is considered resistant to ionizing radiation. Recently, the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been shown to play a role in both drug resistance and radiation resistance (RR). While fibronectin has been extensively investigated in the context of RR, the role of type I collagen [col(I)], a principal ...
Archana P R - - 2009
The effect of thymol (TOH), a dietary compound was investigated for its ability to protect against radiation-induced cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells growing in vitro. Treatment of V79 cells with 25 microg/ml of TOH prior to 10 Gy gamma radiation resulted increase in the cell viability than ...
Bacquart Thomas - - 2010
Identification of arsenic chemical species at a sub-cellular level is a key to understanding the mechanisms involved in arsenic toxicology and antitumor pharmacology. When performed with a microbeam, X-ray absorption near-edge structure (mu-XANES) enables the direct speciation analysis of arsenic in sub-cellular compartments avoiding cell fractionation and other preparation steps ...
Martin Andrew - - 2009
Experiments simulating the sea ice cycle were conducted by exposing microbes from Antarctic fast ice to saline and irradiance regimens associated with the freeze-thaw process. In contrast to hypersaline conditions (ice formation), the simulated release of bacteria into hyposaline seawater combined with rapid exposure to increased UV-B radiation significantly reduced ...
Angelieri Fernanda - - 2010
The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated oral mucosa cells from smokers and non-smokers submitted to dental X-ray using two anatomic sites: buccal mucosa and lateral border of the tongue. A total of 15 heavy ...
Khafif Avi - - 2009
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate whether curcumin enhances the cytotoxic effect of radiotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: HNSCC cell lines SCC-1, SCC-9, KB, as well as A431 cell line were treated with curcumin, irradiation, or their combination. Cell viability was evaluated by XTT assay. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), epithelial ...
Cha Hwa Jun - - 2009
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate the stability or translational efficiency of target messenger RNAs. Specific miRNAs are required for strict tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression. These miRNAs have roles in many human tumor malignancies and their expression is specifically regulated on each stage of oncogenic process. ...
Martin Lynn - - 2009
Low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) is the phenomenon whereby cells exposed to radiation doses of less than approximately 0.5 Gy exhibit increased cell killing relative to that predicted from back-extrapolating high-dose survival data using a linear-quadratic model. While the exact mechanism remains to be elucidated, the involvement of several molecular repair pathways ...
Pachkowski Brian F BF Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, - - 2009
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a base excision repair (BER) protein that binds to DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) and subsequently synthesizes and transfers poly(ADP-ribose) polymers to various nuclear proteins. Numerous biochemical studies have implicated PARP-1 as a modulator of BER; however, the role of PARP-1 in BER in living cells ...
Charest Gabriel - - 2010
Despite significant advances, the radiotherapy and chemotherapy protocols marginally improve the overall survival of patients with glioblastoma. Lipoplatin(TM), and Lipoxal(TM), the liposomal formulations of cisplatin and oxaliplatin respectively, were tested on the F98 glioma cells for their ability to improve the cell uptake and increase the synergic effect when combined ...
Jing Zhao - - 2009
The purpose of our study is to examine the capacity of cetuximab to reverse radiation resistance and investigate molecular mechanisms in human radiation-resistant esophageal carcinoma cell line KYSE-150R. The radioresistant cell line KYSE-150R was established by using fractionated irradiation (FIR). The KYSE-150R cell line was exposed to radiation, treatment with ...
Ishikawa Mayuko - - 2009
Ionizing radiation (IR) influences cell cycle-associated events in tumor cells. We expressed the fusion protein of Azami Green (AG) and the destruction box plus nuclear localization signal of human Geminin, an inhibitor of DNA replication licensing factor, in oral tumor cells. This approach allowed us to visualize G2 arrest in ...
Perumal Venkatachalam - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with drugs, often used as either adjuvant or neoadjuvant or in conjunction with radiation and surgery. Unfortunately, majority of the drugs are toxic to normal tissues, the toxicity being resulting from multidrug protocol used to induce remissions and achieve tumor care. While it ...
Ranger Adrianna - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Surgical resection and adjuvant radiation are mainstays of medulloblastoma (MB) patient management. We utilized a novel 3-dimensional assay to identify how (a) radiation, (b) excision of the primary tumour aggregate, and (c) both treatments combined influence MB cell invasiveness. METHODS: Five MB cell lines (UW228-1, 2 and 3; Daoy, ...
Kalia Vijay K - - 2009
BACKGROUND: 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glycolytic inhibitor, was observed earlier to increase DNA, chromosomal, and cellular damage in tumor cells, by inhibiting energy-dependent repair processes. Lonidamine (LND) selectively inhibits glycolysis in cancer cells. It damages the condensed mitochondria in these cells, impairing thereby the activity of hexokinase (predominantly attached to the ...
Heravi Mitra - - 2009
ZRBA1 is a molecule termed 'combi-molecule' designed to induce DNA-alkylating lesions and to block epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase. Owing to its ability to downregulate the EGFR tyrosine kinase-mediated antiapoptotic signaling and DNA repair proteins, we inferred that it could significantly sensitize cells to ionizing radiation. Using the ...
Sekis Ivana I Division of Small Animal Internal Medicine, Department for Companion Animals and Horses, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna 1210, - - 2009
To establish the radiosensitivity and effect of irradiation on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) expression in the canine mastocytoma cell line C2. Canine mastocytoma cell line C2. C2 cells were irradiated with single doses of 2, 4, 6, and 8 Gy. The 3-(4, 5-di-methyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide ...
Burkhalter Martin D MD Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, United - - 2009
Mammalian cells can choose either nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) for repair of chromosome breaks. Of these two pathways, HR alone requires extensive DNA synthesis and thus abundant synthesis precursors (dNTPs). We address here if this differing requirement for dNTPs helps determine how cells choose a repair ...
Suzuki Keiji - - 2009
Ionizing radiation can induce genomic instability in the progeny of irradiated cells, as was demonstrated in various experimental systems. Most in vitro studies have utilized replicating cells, but it is not clear whether radiation-induced genomic instability persists in quiescent cells. Here we show the induction of X-ray-induced genomic instability in ...
Zhang Ying - - 2009
This work explores several quantitative aspects of radiation-induced bystander mutagenesis in WTK1 human lymphoblast cells. Gamma-irradiation of cells was used to generate conditioned medium containing bystander signals, and that medium was transferred onto naïve recipient cells. Kinetic studies revealed that it required up to 1h to generate sufficient signal to ...
Ochab-Marcinek Anna - - 2009
Ionizing radiation is known to delay the cell cycle progression. In particular after particle exposure significant delays have been observed and it has been shown that the extent of delay affects the expression of damage, such as chromosome aberrations. Thus, to predict how cells respond to ionizing radiation and to ...
Dahle Jostein - - 2009
PURPOSE: To determine whether the low-dose-rate alpha-particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate (227)Th-1,4,7,10-p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-rituximab can be used to inactivate lymphoma cells growing as single cells and small colonies. METHODS AND MATERIALS: CD20-positive lymphoma cell lines were treated with (227)Th-DOTA-rituximab for 1-5 weeks. To simulate the in vivo situation with continuous but decreasing supply ...
McCord Amy M - - 2009
PURPOSE: CD133+ glioblastoma tumor stem-like cells (TSC) have been defined as radioresistant. However, although previously classified relative to CD133- cells, the radiosensitivity of CD133+ TSCs with respect to the standard glioblastoma model, established glioma cell lines, has not been determined. Therefore, to better understand the radioresponse of this cancer stem ...
Iwasa Tsutomu - - 2009
Therapeutic strategies that target the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-1R) hold promise for a wide variety of cancers. We have now investigated the effect of CP-751,871, a fully human monoclonal antibody specific for IGF-IR, on the sensitivity of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines to radiation. The ...
Ping Yehui - - 2010
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of antisense epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nanoparticles on cell survival and radiosensitivity in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line SCCVII. Experiments were performed using the murine head-and-neck tumor cell line, SCCVII. Nanoparticle encapsulated antisense EGFR oligonucleotides ...
Dickey Jennifer S - - 2009
When cells are exposed to ionizing radiation (IR), unexposed cells that share media with damaged cells exhibit similar effects to irradiated cells including increased levels of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Hypothesizing that this effect, known as the radiation-induced bystander effect, may be a specific instance of communication between damaged and ...
Lomonaco Stephanie L - - 2009
Malignant gliomas are characterized by a short median survival which is largely impacted by the resistance of these tumors tochemo- and radiotherapy. Recent studies suggest that a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells, which are highly resistant to gamma-radiation, has the capacity to repopulate the tumors and contribute to their ...
Chen Yun - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Tetrandrine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, has cancer cell cytotoxicity. The effects of combined tetrandrine and radiation, alone or combined, on human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A combination treatment, using either concomitant irradiation at the beginning or end of the tetrandrine treatment (designated as the RT-Tet and ...
Hamilton Julie J Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Oxford, - - 2009
The activity of certain kinases can promote cell survival after DNA damage, but the role of phosphatases in determining cell fate, although documented, is much less well defined. We sought to define a role for phosphatases in radiation survival and identify potential targets for intervention. By using naturally occurring inhibitors ...
Romanenko Alina - - 2009
Urinary bladder urothelium as well as cells in the microenvironment of lamina propria (endothelial elements, fibroblasts and lymphocytes) demonstrate a number of responses to chronic persistent long-term, low-dose ionizing radiation (IR). Thus, oxidative stress occurs, accompanied by up-regulation of at least two signaling pathways (p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear ...
Cao Yan - - 2009
To gain new insight into the biological function of the human augmenter of liver regeneration (hALR) in HCC, we studied its involvement in radiation-induced damage and recovery of HCC cells. We found that hALR expression was up-regulated in both HCC tissues and multiple hepatoma cell lines and correlated significantly with ...
Iliakis George - - 2009
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in cells of higher eukaryotes are predominantly repaired by a pathway of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) utilizing Ku, DNA-PKcs, DNA ligase IV, XRCC4 and XLF/Cernunnos (D-NHEJ) as central components. Work carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere shows that when this ...
Gupta Arun - - 2009
Chromosomes in PTEN deficient cells display both numerical as well as structural alterations including regional amplification. We found that PTEN deficient cells displayed a normal DNA damage response (DDR) as evidenced by the ionizing radiation (IR)-induced phosphorylation of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) as well as its effectors. PTEN deficient cells ...
Chakraborty Asima - - 2009
The bystander effect, whereby cells that are not traversed by ionizing radiation exhibit various responses when in proximity to irradiated cells, is well documented in the field of radiation biology, Here we demonstrate that considerable bystander responses are also observed after photodynamic stress using the membrane-localizing dye deuteroporphyrin (DP). Using ...
Gupta Anjali K AK Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. - - 2009
Human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cancers of the head and neck (H&N) are increasing in frequency and are often treated with radiation. There are conflicting data in the literature regarding the radiation response in the presence of HPV infection, with some data suggesting they may be more sensitive to radiation. There ...
Ahsan Aarif A Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, - - 2009
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are increasingly used in combination with radiotherapy in the treatment of various EGFR-overexpressing cancers. However, little is known about the effects of cell cycle status on EGFR inhibitor-mediated radiosensitization. Using EGFR-overexpressing A431 and UMSCC-1 cells in culture, we found that radiation activated the EGFR ...
Lin Yu-Fen - - 2009
It has been argued that the cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction networks in normal tissues are disrupted by radiation and that this largely controls many of the most important cellular radiation responses. This has led to the broader assertion that individual cells in normal tissue or a 3D normal-tissue-like culture will ...
Frey Mary Anne - - 2009
Dr. Blakely and colleagues have conducted a series of experiments to explain the molecular basis by which space radiation causes cataracts, particularly with regard to elucidating how space radiation alters gene expression profiles in the process of lens cell differentiation. To do this, they "developed an in vitro model of ...
Niyazi Maximilian - - 2009
The detection of molecular targeted agents is a milestone in cancer treatment. Despite the achievements, the efficacy of single targeted agents in combination with radiotherapy is limited by putative treatment resistance. We therefore tested a rationally designed triple therapy consisting of an agonistic antibody against either TRAIL-R1 (mapatumumab/HGS-ETR1) or TRAIL-R2 ...
Brush James M - - 2009
The classical radiobiological paradigm is that DNA is the target for cell damage caused by ionising radiation. However, evidence is accumulating that other constituents, such as the membrane, organelles, and proteins, are also important targets. We have shown that the isolated 26S proteasome is one such target and here we ...
Hui Angela B Y - - 2009
PURPOSE: Seliciclib is a small-molecule cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which has been reported to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in EBV-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines. Because most nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients harbor EBV, we proceeded to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of seliciclib in EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma models. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Cytotoxicity of ...
Moon So Young SY Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Pungnap-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-736, Republic of - - 2009
Targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) active cells in tumors may be an excellent strategy to improve the outcome of radiation therapy. On the basis of the reported role of YC-1 as a HIF-1 inhibitor with anti-cancer activity, we tested the therapeutic efficacy of YC-1 against radioresistance in vitro. The AMC-HN3 cancer ...
Yang Yuh-Cheng - - 2009
Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is a standard treatment of locally advanced cervical carcinoma. The most widely used drug for chemoirradiation is cisplatin. However, its toxicity and drug resistance remain major concerns in clinical practice. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of oxaliplatin, another platinum compound, on enhancing radiosensitivity in cervical ...
Chiu Hui-Wen - - 2009
Malignant gliomas are resistant to many kinds of treatments including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and other adjuvant therapies. Autophagy is a novel response of cancer cells to ionizing radiation (IR) or chemotherapy, but its significance and underlying mechanism remains largely elusive. Induction of autophagy in glioma cells using irradiation and arsenic trioxide ...
Adamsen Birgitte Lid - - 2009
The cellular response to chemoradiotherapy was investigated in cells of the HCT116 (wild-type TP53) and HT29 (mutated TP53) human colorectal cancer cell lines to better understand how the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) acts as a radiosensitizer in vitro and how it contributes to the well-documented greater efficacy of chemoradiotherapy compared ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >